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Members of the Committee KENNETH S. ABRAM is professor of law at the University of Virginia School of Law, where he teaches courses in torts, insurance, and prod- ucts liability and a seminar in mass torts. He received his J.D. from Yale Law School and is admitted to practice in New Jersey and Maryland. Mr. Abraham has been a member of an advisory committee on medical malpractice of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and insurance reporter for the American Law Institute's project on compensation and liability for product and process injuries. He has published numerous articles in the area of insurance and tort law and is the author of Distributing Risk: Insurance, Legal Theory, and Pubizc Policy. LINDA H. AIKEN is Trustee Professor of Nursing and Professor of Soci- ology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. She is also former vice- president of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. She received a mas- ter's degree in nursing from the University of Florida and a Ph.D. in sociology and demography from the University of Texas. She was a research fellow and a nurse scientist fellow at the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Aiken is on the editorial board of Medical Care and is the author oftwo recent books on nursing and health policy. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, served on the advisory panel on quality of medical care of the U.S. Congress' Office of Technology Assessment, is a fellow and former president ofthe American Academy of Nursing, and is 228

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MEMBERS OF THE COMMI=EE 229 on the board of directors of the Association for Health Services Research and the Foundation for Health Services Research. Lobule R. BR~sTow is a specialist in internal medicine and practices in San Pablo, California. He received an M.D. from New York University and is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine. Dr. Bristow has served as a consultant to the California Department of Health, as chairman of the state's sickle cell committee, as a member of the National Council on Health Care Technology, and as a member ofthe physician discussion group of the Health Care Financing Administra- tion. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Medical Association. ROGER d. BULGER is president of the Association of Academic Health Centers, Washington, D.C. He received an M.D. from Harvard Univer- sity, did postgraduate work at Emmanuel College, Cambridge Univer- sity, and served his internship and residency in internal medicine at the University of Washington Hospital. He has served as president of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. Dr. Bulger taught at the University of Washington, Duke University, George Washington University, and the University of Massachusetts and has served as executive officer ofthe Institute of Medicine. He was a member of the advisory panel on national health insurance of the House Ways and Means Committee and is a member of the board of directors of Georgetown University, a fellow of the American College of Physicians, and a member of the Institute of Medicine. ARTHUR L. HERBST is Joseph Bolivar DeLee Distinguished Service Pro- fessor and chairman of the department of obstetrics and gynecology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago. He received his M.D. from Harvard Medical School and served his internship in surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital and his residency in obstetrics and gynecology at Boston Lying-In Hospital and Free Hospital for Women. Dr. Herbst is a diplomate of the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology and is certified by that board for special competence in gynecologic oncology. He is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and is a member of the American Medical Association and the American Asso- ciation for the Advancement of Science. He is director and cofounder of the registry of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the genital tract in young females, a member of the advisory panel on endocrinology for the U.S.

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230 MEMBERS OF THE COMMI=EE Pha~acopeia, and director of the American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology. ANGELA RODDEY HOLDER is counsel for medicolegal affairs at Yale-New Haven Hospital and Yale Medical School and clinical professor of pedi- atrics and law at Yale Medical School. She holds a J.D. from Tulane University and an LL.M. from Yale University. She is admitted to practice in Louisiana, Connecticut, and South Carolina, where she is of counsel in the law firm of Roddey, Sumwalt & Carpenter. She has written several articles and books, among them Medical Malpractice Law, which is in its second edition. She is a member of the American Bar Association, the South Carolina Bar Association, and the Society of Medical Jurisprudence. She is former president of the American Society of Law and Medicine. REGINA P. LEDERMAN is professor and associate dean for academic af- fairs, University of Texas, Galveston, Texas. Dr. Lederman holds a master's degree in nursing education from Teachers College, Columbia University, and a Ph.D. in behavioral sciences education from the Uni- versity of Michigan, Ann Arbor. She has received the outstanding re- searcher award from the Midwest Nursing Research Society; is a mem- ber ofthe American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the New York Academy of Sciences, the American Nurses' Association, and the Nurses' Association of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists; and is a fellow of the American Academy of Nursing. Dr. Lederman has published extensively in her field, and her text Psycho- social Adaptation in Pregnancy: Assessment of Seven Dimensions of Maternal Development won the 1985 book of the year award from the American Journal of Nursing. DONALD N. MEDEARIS, JR., is Charles Wilder Professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and chief of the children's service at Massa- chusetts General Hospital. He received his M.D. from Harvard Medical School and served his internship in internal medicine at Barnes Hospi- tal, St. Louis, and his residency in pediatrics at the Children's Hospital, Cincinnati. Dr. Medearis is a diplomats of the American Board of Pedi- atrics and is a fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics. He was a member ofthe President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, chairman of the Harvard Medical Center standing committee on graduate medical edu- cation, a member of the task force on graduate medical education of the Association of American Medical Colleges, and a member ofthe General

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MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE 231 Clinical Research Centers advisory committee of the Division of Re- search Resources, National Institutes of Health. SAM A. Nixon is director of the Division of Continuing Education of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston and assistant dean for continuing education at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston. Dr. Nixon received his M.D. from the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston and completed a rotating internship at For~ham Hospital in New York City. He is a diplomats of the American Board of Family Practice. Dr. Nixon is a recipient of the Ashbe! Smith Distinguished Alumnus Award of the University of Texas Medical Branch and has served as president of the Houston Academy of Medi- cine, the Texas Academy of Family Physicians, and the American Acad- emy of Family Physicians. He is a member of the board of regents of the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences and has served as a consultant to the Centers for Disease Control and as a member of the CDC's venereal disease advisory committee. Dr. Nixon is editor of the Texas Health [ester. EDMUND D. PEt~EGR~No is John Carroll Professor of Medicine and Medi- cal Humanities and director of the Kennedy Institute on Ethics at Georgetown University. He holds a D.Sc. and an M.D. from New York University and is a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medi- cine. Dr. Pellegrino has taught at numerous universities, among them the University of Tennessee, where he was vice-president for health affairs of the University of Tennessee system, and Yale University, where he was president of the Yale-New Haven Medical Center. He is editor of the dournaZ of Medicine and Philosophy; a fellow of the Ameri- can College of Physicians and the New York Academy of Medicine; and a member ofthe New York Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the Metaphysical Society of America, the American Medical Associa- tion, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. JAMES R. POSNER is executive vice-president of Voluntary Hospitals of America, Inc., where he is in charge of insurance programs for more than 750 hospitals. Dr. Posner is a graduate of Harvard College and the Sorbonne, was a Fulbright Fellow at the University of Buenos Aires, and holds a Ph.D. from Princeton University. He taught statistics at the Bernard Baruch Graduate School of Business Administration in New York City and was vice-president of the national health care unit of Marsh & McLennan, Inc., where he designed, negotiated, and planned programs in liability insurance, self-insurance, and risk management.

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232 MEMBERS OF THE COMMI=EE ANNE H. SCrr~VSKY is chief of the health economics division of the Palo Alto Medical Research Foundation and teaches at the Institute for Health Policy Studies, School of Medicine, University of California, San Fiancisco. She did postgraduate work at the London School of Economics and received an M.A. in economics from Columbia University. Ms. Scitovsky is a member of the Institute of Medicine's council on health care technology, the American Public Health Association's publications advisory board, and the U.S. General Accounting Off~ce's health advi- sory committee. She served on the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Re- search and on the advisory pane] on life-sustaining technologies and the elderly of the U.S. Congress' Office of Technology Assessment. BARBARA H. STARFIELD is associate professor of pediatrics and professor of health care organization at the Johns Hopkins University. She holds an M.D. from the State University of New York and an M.P.H. from Johns Hopkins, where she also completed her internship and residency. Dr. Starfield is a member of the editorial board of Medical Care Review, Pediatrics, and the International Journal of Health Services. She is a member of the Institute of Medicine, the American Public Health Asso- ciation, and the American Pediatric Society. WALTER J. WADLING~N is dames Madison Professor at the University of Virginia School of Law and professor of legal medicine at the University of Virginia School of Medicine. He received an LL.B. from Plane Uni- versity, where he was editor-in-chiefofthe li'!aneLawReview end was a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Edinburgh. Mr. Wadlington is admitted to the bar in Louisiana and Virginia. He is a senior program consultant for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and director of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation medical malpractice program. He is a member of the board of directors of the American Society of Law and Medicine, chair-elect ofthe American Association of Law Schools section on law and medicine, and a member of the American Law Institute. Mr. Wadlington has taught and written extensively in the areas of children in the legal system, family law, health care regulation, and legal re- sponses to biomedical technology.