C
Committee and Staff Biographies

Albert Carnesale, Chair, is chancellor emeritus and professor at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). He served as chancellor from July 1, 1997, to June 30, 2006. As chief executive officer, he led an institution of more than 38,000 students and 27,000 faculty and staff; was responsible for all aspects of the university’s mission of education, research, and service; managed an enterprise with an annual budget of $3.5 billion; and served as principal spokesperson for the university community. Dr. Carnesale holds professorial appointments in UCLA’s School of Public Affairs and Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science. His research currently focuses on issues in international affairs and security and in higher education. Prior to assuming the chancellorship of UCLA in 1997, Dr. Carnesale was at Harvard University for 23 years, serving as provost of the university from 1994 to 1997. He held the Lucius N. Littauer Professorship of Public Policy and Administration at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, where he served as academic dean (1981-1991) and dean (1991-1995). His earlier career included positions in the private sector and in government. Dr. Carnesale has represented the U.S. government in high-level negotiations on defense and energy issues (including the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, SALT I), and has consulted regularly for several government agencies and companies. He holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering and a Ph.D. in nuclear engineering, has been awarded three honorary doctorate degrees, and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.


Paul J. Bracken is professor of management and political science at the Yale University School of Management, where his research interests include strategy,



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C Committee and Staff Biographies Albert Carnesale, Chair, is chancellor emeritus and professor at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). He served as chancellor from July 1, 1997, to June 30, 2006. As chief executive officer, he led an institution of more than 38,000 students and 27,000 faculty and staff; was responsible for all aspects of the university’s mission of education, research, and service; managed an enterprise with an annual budget of $3.5 billion; and served as principal spokesperson for the university community. Dr. Carnesale holds professorial appointments in UCLA’s School of Public Affairs and Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science. His research currently focuses on issues in international affairs and security and in higher education. Prior to assuming the chancellorship of UCLA in 1997, Dr. Carnesale was at Harvard University for 23 years, serving as provost of the university from 1994 to 1997. He held the Lucius N. Littauer Professorship of Public Policy and Administration at Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Gov- ernment, where he served as academic dean (1981-1991) and dean (1991-1995). His earlier career included positions in the private sector and in government. Dr. Carnesale has represented the U.S. government in high-level negotiations on defense and energy issues (including the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, SALT I), and has consulted regularly for several government agencies and companies. He holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering and a Ph.D. in nuclear engineering, has been awarded three honorary doctorate degrees, and is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Paul j. Bracken is professor of management and political science at the Yale University School of Management, where his research interests include strategy, 175

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176 U.S. CONVENTIONAL PROMPT GLOBAL STRIKE technology, and war, as well as business, government, and globalization. Prior to joining Yale, Professor Bracken was a member of the senior staff at the Hudson Institute for 10 years, where he directed the management consulting arm of the institute. He has also taught in corporate education programs internationally, for Gazprom, Lukoil, and other energy companies dealing with a new risk map; for the Israeli Defense Force; and for many U.S. corporations. Dr. Bracken has authored several books, including Fire in the East: The Rise of Asian Military Power and the Second Nuclear Age (1999). He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and currently serves on the Chief of Naval Operations Execu- tive Panel. Paul K. Davis is a principal researcher in the RAND Corporation and a professor of policy analysis in the Pardee RAND Graduate School. He previously served a 5-year tour as RAND’s corporate research manager for defense and technology planning. His recent monographs discuss capabilities-based planning, strategic planning for counterterrorism, the implications of modern decision science for the support of policy makers, and the use of portfolio-management methods for the analysis of acquisition options. Prior to joining RAND, Dr. Davis was a senior executive in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Program Analysis and Evaluation. Before that, he had worked on strategic arms control (SALT II) at the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and on strategic technology at the Institute for Defense Analyses. Dr. Davis has served on numerous committees of the National Research Council (NRC) and the Defense Science Board. He is a former member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. Steve Fetter is dean of the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland, where he has been a professor since 1988. He has been a visiting fellow of the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University, the Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University, the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. He has also served as a special assistant to the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy and was a Coun- cil on Foreign Relations Fellow in the State Department. Dr. Fetter’s research interests span a wide range of fields, including nuclear weapons, arms control, and nonproliferation policy; nuclear power and the health effects of radiation; and climate change and energy supply. Dr. Fetter has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the Department of Energy’s Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS)/ National Academies’ Committee on International Security and Arms Control, and the NRC Committee on the Effects of Nuclear Earth-Penetrator and Other Weapons.

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177 APPENDIX C john S. Foster, jr. (NAE), is an independent consultant whose current clients include Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, NineSigma, and Defense Group, Inc. Dr. Foster retired from TRW, Inc., as vice president for science and technology in 1988 and continued to serve on the board of directors of TRW until 1994. From 1965 to 1973, he served as director of defense research and engineering for the Department of Defense. Prior to this, he served as director of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and asso- ciate director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Dr. Foster began his career at the Radio Research Laboratory of Harvard University and spent 2 years as an adviser to the 15th Air Force on radar and radar countermeasures in the Mediterranean theater of operations. A member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), Dr. Foster has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the NRC Committee on Department of Defense Basic Research. Eugene Fox, Major General, USA, retired in 1989 after 33 years of service in the U.S. Army. His last active-duty position was as deputy director of the Strate- gic Defense Initiative Office. During his Army career, General Fox commanded field artillery and air defense units from platoon to brigade level, instructed in a Service school, and served in various capacities in the acquisition of Department of Defense weapons systems, including several years as program manager. Since his military retirement, General Fox has served as a defense consultant for various companies and government agencies. Although he has no prior National Research Council experience, he did serve as a reviewer on the 2001 NRC report entitled Naval Forces’ Capability for Theater Missile Defense. Alec D. Gallimore is professor of aerospace engineering and associate dean of the Horace H. Rackham Graduate School at the University of Michigan, where his research interests include electric propulsion, plasma diagnostics, space plasma simulation, electrode physics, and hypersonic aerodynamics and plasma interac- tion. He has extensive design and testing experience with a number of electric propulsion devices, including Hall thrusters, ion engines, arcjets, 100-kW-class steady magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, and multimegawatt pulsed coaxial plasma accelerators. Professor Gallimore has implemented a variety of probe, microwave, and optical/laser plasma diagnostics, and he has graduated 15 Ph.D. students and 11 M.S. students in the field of electric propulsion. He has written more than 170 archival journal articles and conference papers and 2 book chap- ters on electric propulsion. He is also the director of the NASA-funded Michigan Space Grant Consortium and is a member of the U.S. Air Force Scientific Advi- sory Board. Professor Gallimore has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the NRC Committee on Future Air Force Needs for Survivability.

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178 U.S. CONVENTIONAL PROMPT GLOBAL STRIKE Richard L. Garwin (NAS, NAE, IOM) is an emeritus fellow at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. A member of the NAS, NAE, and Institute of Medicine (IOM), his expertise is in experimental and computational physics and includes contributions to nuclear weapons design, instruments and electronics for nuclear and low-temperature physics, computer elements and systems, superconducting devices, communications systems, the behavior of solid helium, and the detection of gravitational radiation. Dr. Garwin has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the President’s Science Advisory Committee (1962-1965); the 1998 Rumsfeld Commission—the Commission to Assess the Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States; and the NRC Committee on the Effects of Nuclear Earth-Penetrator and Other Weapons. In addition, he has been an active member of the NAS/National Academies’ Committee on International Security and Arms Control since 1980. He currently consults for the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories and is an active member of the JASONs. He has written extensively on nuclear-weapons-related issues over the course of several decades, particularly on the question of maintaining the nuclear stockpile under a comprehensive test ban regime. Until August 2001, he chaired the Department of State’s Arms Control and Nonproliferation Advisory Board. He is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Acad- emy of Arts and Sciences and a member of the American Philosophical Society. Eugene E. Habiger, General, USAF, retired in 1998 as commander-in-chief, United States Strategic Command, where he was responsible for all U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy strategic nuclear forces supporting the national security strategy of strategic deterrence. In this position, he established military-to-mili- tary relationships with his Russian counterparts, fostering confidence-building and openness. After his retirement, General Habiger was appointed the U.S. Department of Energy’s director of security and emergency operations. He also served as a distinguished fellow and policy adviser with the University of Georgia Center for International Trade and Security, where he assisted with the center’s international programs aimed at preventing weapons proliferation and reducing nuclear dangers. He has served as the president and chief executive officer of the San Antonio Water System and has served on the Nuclear Threat Initiative’s board of directors. David V. Kalbaugh is an independent consultant, having retired in 2005 as assistant director for programs at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), where he was responsible for the oversight and coor- dination of all laboratory technical programs. During his career at JHU/APL, Dr. Kalbaugh was head of the Power Projection Systems Department, where he was responsible for programs in strike warfare, defense communications, and information operations. His background is in tactical missile and precision strike systems. He joined JHU/APL in 1969 and was involved in the development of the

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17 APPENDIX C Tomahawk cruise-missile system at its inception. In addition to his supervisory and management duties, Dr. Kalbaugh has taught for more than a decade in JHU’s Whiting School of Engineering. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including participation in tasks for the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and for the Program Executive Officer for Theater Air Defense. In addition, Dr. Kalbaugh served as co-chair of the NRC Committee on C4ISR for Future Naval Strike Groups. He is a former member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. L. David Montague (NAE), an independent consultant, is retired president of the Missile Systems Division at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space. A member of the NAE, he has a background in military weapons systems, particularly in regard to the guidance and control of submarine-launched weaponry. His experi- ence has focused on both tactical and strategic strike systems, as well as on the requirements for, development of, and policy issues related to defense systems to protect against weapons of mass destruction. Mr. Montague is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including task forces for both the U.S. Army and and the Defense Science Board, and the NRC Committee on Distrib- uted Remote Sensing for Naval Undersea Warfare. He is a current member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. Robert B. Oakley is Distinguished Visiting Fellow at the Institute for National Strategic Studies at the National Defense University (NDU). Prior to joining NDU, he served in various assignments in the U.S. Foreign Service, beginning in 1958; he first served in Khartoum, Sudan, and then in the Office of the United Nations Political Affairs in the Department of State. His subsequent posts included Abidjan, Ivory Coast; Saigon, Vietnam; Paris, France; the U.S. Mission to the United Nations; and Beirut, Lebanon. Ambassador Oakley became deputy to the Assistant Secretary of State for East Asia and Pacific Affairs and was then posted to Zaire, and later to Somalia, as the U.S. Ambassador. He was appointed direc- tor of the State Department Office of Combating Terrorism. Prior to joining the National Security Council staff as Assistant to the President for the Middle East and South Asia, Ambassador Oakley became a fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. After his retirement as Ambassador to Pakistan in Septem- ber 1991, he became associated with the U.S. Institute of Peace as a coordinator of the Special Program in the Middle East Peacekeeping and Conflict Resolution. Ambassador Oakley has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory com- mittees, including the NRC Committee for an Assessment of Non-Lethal Weapons Science and Technology. Walter B. Slocombe is a partner at the law firm of Caplin & Drysdale, where he specializes in civil litigation, defense trade, and exempt organizations. He

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180 U.S. CONVENTIONAL PROMPT GLOBAL STRIKE has served in numerous government positions throughout his career, including as under secretary of defense for policy (1994 to 2001) and director of the DOD Task Force on Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) (1977-1981). He has also served as senior adviser for national defense in the Coalition Provisional Author- ity for Iraq. In 2004, Mr. Slocombe was appointed by the President of the United States to the Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction. Mr. Slocombe serves on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the International Advisory Board of the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces and the NRC Committee on the Policy Consequences and Legal/Ethical Implications of Offensive Information Warfare. He is also a former member of the Strategic Air Command Technical Advisory Committee. William D. Smith, Admiral, USN, retired in 1993 after 38 years of service in the U.S. Navy. Now a senior fellow at both the National Defense University and the Center for Naval Analyses, Admiral Smith has a background in Navy plan- ning, programming, budgeting and in operational issues principally within the submarine force. His last assignment was as U.S. military representative to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Military Committee in Brussels, Belgium. In addition, he served in a number of high-ranking capacities for the Chief of Naval Operations, such as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Logistics and Navy Program Planning (1987-1991) and as director, Fiscal Management Divi- sion/Comptroller of the Navy (1985-1987). His decorations include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal, the Distinguished Service Medal with Gold Star, the Legion of Merit with Three Gold Stars, the Meritorious Service Medal with Gold Star, and the Navy Commendation Medal. Admiral Smith has served on numer- ous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as chair of the Naval Space Panel Review for the Under Secretary of the Navy and co-chair of the NRC Committee on the Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities. He is a former member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. john P. Stenbit (NAE) is an independent consultant whose expertise includes system architectures for complex military and communications systems and systems engineering of information systems. Mr. Stenbit formerly served as Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks and Information Integration and as chief information officer of the DOD. Prior to serving in the DOD, he served as executive vice president at TRW, Inc. A member of the NAE, Mr. Stenbit has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as a member of the NRC Committee on C4ISR for Future Naval Strike Groups and as a current member of the NRC Committee on the “1,000-Ship Navy”—A Distributed and Global Maritime Network. He is a current member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board.

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181 APPENDIX C David M. Van Wie is director of the Precision Engagement Transformation Center at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, where his principal research interests are in the field of aerospace vehicle design and devel- opment, with emphasis on propulsion systems and advanced aerodynamics for supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles. Dr. Van Wie also holds appointments as research professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the Johns Hopkins University and as lecturer in the Department of Aerospace Engineer- ing at the University of Maryland. He received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in aerospace engineering from the University of Maryland and an M.S. in electrical engineering with emphasis on radar and communications systems from the Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Van Wie has has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the NRC Committee on Future Air Force Needs for Survivability. Robert H. Wertheim (NAE), Rear Admiral, USN, retired in 1980 after 35 years of service in the U.S. Navy. During his naval career, Admiral Wertheim served as director of Navy Strategic Systems Programs, where he was responsible for the research, development, production, and operational support of the Navy’s submarine-launched ballistic-missile systems—Polaris, Poseidon, and Trident. After retiring from the Navy, he spent 7 years as senior vice president of science and engineering at Lockheed Corporation, and since then has been an independent consultant. A member of the NAE, Admiral Wertheim has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including as a member of the NAS/ National Academies’ Committee on International Security and Arms Control (1989-1997) and the NRC Committee on the Effects of Nuclear Earth-Penetrator and Other Weapons. He has also served as a member of the Joint Department of Defense/Department of Energy Advisory Committee on Nuclear Weapons Surety and on the National Security Panel of the University of California President’s Council. Ellen D. Williams (NAS) is a professor in the Department of Physics at the Uni- versity of Maryland, as well as director of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center at the university. A member of the NAS, she is also a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and in 2001 she was the recipient of the American Physical Society’s David Adler Lectureship Award. Dr. Williams serves on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the National Security Panel of the University of California President’s Council, the editorial board of Nano Letters of the American Chemical Society, and the NRC Committee on Nanotechnology for the Intelligence Community. She also cur- rently serves as a member of the NRC Board on Army Science and Technology.

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182 U.S. CONVENTIONAL PROMPT GLOBAL STRIKE Staff Charles F. Draper is director of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. Before joining the NRC in 1997, he was the lead mechanical engineer at S.T. Research Corpora- tion, where he provided technical and program management support for satellite Earth station and small satellite design. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engi- neering from Vanderbilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he used an atomic-force micro- scope to measure the nanomechanical properties of thin-film materials. In paral- lel with his graduate student duties, Dr. Draper was a mechanical engineer with Geo-Centers, Inc., working on-site at NRL on the development of an underwater x-ray backscattering tomography system used for the nondestructive evaluation of U.S. Navy sonar domes on surface ships.