. "4 Professional Activities, Institutional Resources, Climate, and Outcomes." Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010.
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Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty
faculty with more refereed publications were more likely to be nominated for a prize or award than faculty with fewer, but this difference was not substantial.
It is fair to say that salary is an obligatory factor in every study that explores whether there are differences across gender in academic careers. Faculty salaries have been the subject of numerous university salary equity investigations, occasional lawsuits, and broader national studies. (See, for example, selected works by Barbezat, Becker, Bellas, Benjamin, Farber, Ferber, Ginther, Johnson, Perna, and Toutkoushian in the bibliography.) In general, studies suggest that women’s salaries tend to lag behind men’s. This, for example, is the conclusion that one would draw from the salary data that were collected by the American Association of University Professors (see Chapter 1). Data collected by the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s salary and job survey (Holden, 2001, 2004) also support that claim. The gap, however, appears to be shrinking and our data, discussed below, confirm this tendency. Furthermore, while at first glance salary would appear to be a well-defined quantity that can be easily compared across gender, many factors appear to affect salaries in a complex way. Therefore, it is important to account for the potentially confounding effects of factors such as discipline, rank, productivity and others before attributing possible salary discrepancies to the effect of gender.
Here we examine salary information collected as part of our survey, as well as the salary data included in the NSOPF:04.
The faculty survey asked respondents to report their base salaries. We consider only the 1,404 full-time faculty who responded to the survey and who were assistant, associate, and full professors. There were 1,179 faculty for whom the salary information was not missing.25Appendix 4-21 shows the number of missing salary observations in each discipline and by gender. As is clear from the table, the proportion of faculty who did not respond to this question is similar across gender and across disciplines. The four observations correspond to two men and two women, and all exceeded $600,000 for a 9-month salary. The next-highest salaries reported were all below $250,000 for 9 months. One of the four outliers that were removed corresponded to a reported salary of almost $1.8 million, which is clearly unrealistic. About 20 percent of all respondents reported salaries below $100 for 9 months of work. Since these are likely to be values reported as thousands, we decided to multiply those reported salaries by 1,000 rather than lose the information. Two other salaries were removed from consideration and corresponded to two faculty members who, even after rescaling, ended up with 9-month salaries below $10,000 (the next lowest salary was $45,000). The wisdom of deleting the four highest salaries from the data set might be debatable, but from
Out of the 1,179 respondents, 4 responses were considered to be outliers and were removed.