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Overall, there was no significant difference between male and female faculty in the time spent as an associate professor. Faculty (both male and female) at the higher prestige institutions spent longest in rank as associate professors, while males at the lowest-prestige institutions received promotion earliest. For example, in biology, the probability of promotion after about 8.5 years in rank as associate professor was approximately 80 percent at institutions of highest prestige for both men and women. At institutions of lower prestige, about 80 percent of the men were promoted after 5 years in rank as associate, while 6.8 years elapsed before 80 percent of the women at the lowest prestige institutions received promotion to full professor. Women in universities ranked in the bottom two tertiles spent about the same amount of time in the associate rank. There were no statistically significant differences across disciplines or between public and private institutions. Academic age was positively associated with time in rank.

Figure 5-4 shows the (conditional) probability of promotion to full professor at month t + 1 given that no promotion had occurred until month t. The six curves correspond to prestige of the institution (highest = light gray, middle = dark gray, lowest = black) and to gender (solid = male, dotted = female). Figure 5-4a was drawn for biology at a private institution with 17 percent female faculty, and Figure 5-4b was drawn for electrical engineering.

Figures 5-4 (a-b) show the (conditional) probability of promotion to full professor at month t + 1 given that no promotion had occurred until month t. The six curves correspond to prestige of the institution (highest = light gray, middle = dark gray, lowest = black) and to gender (solid = male, dotted = female).

FIGURE 5-4(a) One minus the probability of promotion to full professor for men (solid curves) and women (dashed curves) in biology. Light gray denotes institutions of highest prestige, dark gray represents institutions of medium prestige and black represents institutions of lower prestige.

FIGURE 5-4(a) One minus the probability of promotion to full professor for men (solid curves) and women (dashed curves) in biology. Light gray denotes institutions of highest prestige, dark gray represents institutions of medium prestige and black represents institutions of lower prestige.



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