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Chapter 4—Professional Activities, Institutional Resources, Climate, and Outcomes

The survey findings with regard to climate and resources demonstrate two critical points. First, discipline matters, as indicated by the difference in the amount of grant funding held by male and female faculty in biology, but not in other disciplines. Second, institutions have been doing well in addressing most of the aspects of climate that they can control, such as start-up packages and reduced teaching loads. Where the challenge may remain is in the climate at the departmental level. Interaction and collegial engagement with one’s colleagues is an important part of scientific discovery and collaboration, and here female faculty were not as connected.

Professional Activities

Finding 4-1: There is little evidence overall that men and women spent different proportions of their time on teaching, research, and service. There is some indication that men spent a larger proportion of their time on research and fundraising than did women (42.1 percent for men compared to 40 percent for women). However, the difference only approaches significance, and the actual percentages of time that male and female faculty reported spending on research were not very different, with the exception of chemistry, for which men spent a significantly greater percentage of their time on research and fundraising (45.7 percent) than did women (39 percent) and mathematics (44.2 percent for men compared to 38.2 percent for women).


Finding 4-2: Male and female faculty appeared to have taught the same amount (41.4 percent for men compared to 42.6 percent for women). There were no gender differences in the number of undergraduate or graduate courses men and women taught: 0.83 undergraduate courses for men compared to 0.82 undergraduate courses for women. The percentages not teaching graduate courses were 50.8 percent for men and 54.9 percent for women.

Institutional Resources

Male and female faculty appeared to have similar access to many kinds of institutional resources, although there were some where male faculty seemed to have an advantage.


Finding 4-3: Men and women seem to have been treated equally when they were hired. The overall size of start-up packages and the specific resources of reduced initial teaching load, travel funds, and summer salary did not differ between male and female faculty.



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