charge into a series of guiding research questions about academic hiring, institutional resources and climate, and tenure and promotion.
Is gender associated with the probability of individuals applying for S&E positions in Research I institutions?
Given that an individual applies for a position, does a woman have the same probability of being interviewed as a man?
Given that an individual is interviewed for a position, does a woman have the same probability of being offered a position as a man?
Do male and female faculty engage in similar professional activities?
Do male and female faculty receive similar institutional resources?
Are male and female faculty similarly productive in terms of research?
Is the departmental/institutional climate the same for male and female faculty?
Do male and female faculty have similar rates of retention and degrees of job satisfaction?
Are similar male and female faculty equally likely to receive tenure?
Are similar male and female faculty equally likely to receive a promotion?
Do men and women spend similar amounts of time at lower and intermediate ranks?
To answer these questions, the committee relied on multiple sources of information, but especially on information collected through two national surveys of individual faculty and academic departments, described in detail later in this chapter. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 present the results of the statistical analyses of the data collected in the surveys during the course of this study. In a number of cases, findings from the current surveys differ from some of the positions put forth in the literature, as summarized in Chapter 2. Recommendations offered in Chapter 6 are based directly on the committee’s analysis of the survey data.
This study is necessarily limited. Academia in the United States is both broad and varied, and the factors affecting the career tracks of female Ph.D.s in science and engineering are diverse and complex. This report focuses on a small but vital
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1 Introduction ."
Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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As of 2013, the National Science Education Standards have been replaced by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), available as a print book, free PDF download, and online with our OpenBook platform.
The NGSS offer a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school. The standards are based largely on the 2011 National Research Council report A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas.