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FIGURE A2-1 Number of doctorates awarded annually in science and engineering by gender, 1996-2005.

FIGURE A2-1 Number of doctorates awarded annually in science and engineering by gender, 1996-2005.

NOTE: These data are for all science and engineering fields, including the social and behavioral sciences.

SOURCE: Hill (2006). Adapted from Tables 2 and 3.

EMPLOYMENT STATUS

In 2003, the National Science Foundation (NSF) identified 492,440 doctoral scientists and engineers (or 685,300 if the social sciences and psychology are included) (NSF, 2006). Most of these doctoral scientists and engineers worked full-time. However, women were slightly less likely to be employed full-time.

In a previous analysis of SDR data, the National Research Council (NRC) (2001a:64) found “after completion of the doctorate, a greater proportion of women than men do not attain full-time careers in science and engineering.” For example, in 1973, 91 percent of male scientists and engineers were working full-time, compared to 71 percent of females. By 1995, this 20 percent gap had been reduced to around 10 percent—partly because the percentage of men working full-time dropped.4 For all years surveyed, women were more likely than men to be not working and not seeking work, or working part-time. For most years examined, women were more likely than men to be not working, but seeking work. About

4

Recall that Long’s definition of S&E includes the social and behavioral sciences and is thus broader than the definition employed here.



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