In 2003, the National Science Foundation (NSF) identified 492,440 doctoral scientists and engineers (or 685,300 if the social sciences and psychology are included) (NSF, 2006). Most of these doctoral scientists and engineers worked full-time. However, women were slightly less likely to be employed full-time.
In a previous analysis of SDR data, the National Research Council (NRC) (2001a:64) found “after completion of the doctorate, a greater proportion of women than men do not attain full-time careers in science and engineering.” For example, in 1973, 91 percent of male scientists and engineers were working full-time, compared to 71 percent of females. By 1995, this 20 percent gap had been reduced to around 10 percent—partly because the percentage of men working full-time dropped.4 For all years surveyed, women were more likely than men to be not working and not seeking work, or working part-time. For most years examined, women were more likely than men to be not working, but seeking work. About
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Appendix 2-1: Review of Literature and Relevant Research ."
Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
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