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TABLE A2-1 Percentage of Women Among Science And Engineering Doctorates, 1996 and 2005

Field

1996

2005

2005–1996

Science and engineering

31.7

37.7

6.0

Science

37.6

43.4

5.8

Agricultural sciences

27.2

36.2

9.0

Biological sciences

42.2

48.8

6.6

Computer sciences

15.1

19.8

4.7

Earth, atmospheric, and oceanic sciences

21.0

34.1

13.1

Mathematics

20.6

27.1

6.5

Physical sciences

21.9

26.7

4.8

Astronomy

21.4

26.3

4.9

Chemistry

28.2

34.0

5.8

Physics

13.0

15.0

2.0

Psychology

66.7

68.0

1.3

Social sciences

36.5

44.7

8.2

Engineering

12.3

18.3

6.0

Aeronautical/astronautical engineering

8.4

13.2

4.8

Chemical engineering

17.9

24.0

6.1

Civil engineering

11.3

23.2

11.9

Electrical engineering

9.7

13.4

3.7

Industrial/manufacturing engineering

19.7

18.5

–1.2

Materials/metallurgical engineering

14.6

22.2

7.6

Mechanical engineering

7.4

12.3

4.9

Other engineering

16.6

23.8

7.2

SOURCE: Hill (2006). Adapted from Table 3.

4 percent of female S&E doctorates were not working and not seeking work. These were fully trained doctorates who were not working in S&E.5

“Employment status” consisted of four mutually exclusive categories: employed full-time, employed part-time, unemployed but seeking work, and unemployed and not seeking work. Figure A2-2 examines full-time employment and compares the percentages of full-time employed doctoral scientists and engineers6 to the total number of doctoral scientists and engineers. As this figure shows, women were less likely to be employed full-time than men, although the rate for both men and women was dropping slightly over time, and the gap was closing.

5

The committee’s charge did not include a focus on exploring the reasons for gender differences in labor force outcomes outside of academia. Readers should refer to Long (2001) and Xie and Shauman (2003) for a discussion of such factors.

6

These data are for just the natural sciences and engineering.



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