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FIGURE A2-2 Percentage of all doctoral scientists and engineers who were employed full-time by gender, 1995-2003.

FIGURE A2-2 Percentage of all doctoral scientists and engineers who were employed full-time by gender, 1995-2003.

SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, 1995-2003. Tabulated by the NRC.

This finding was consistent with the earlier work of NRC (2001a) and others, who employed different analyses. For example, the NSF (WMPDSE, 2002) noted “women with either an S&E degree or in an S&E occupation are less likely than men to be in the labor force (that is, either employed or seeking employment). Among those in the labor force, women were more likely than men to be unemployed.” The NSF also noted:

A higher percentage of women than men with either an S&E degree or in an S&E occupation are employed part time. Of those who were employed in 1999, 19 percent of women and 6 percent of men were employed part-time. Women who are employed part-time are less likely than men to prefer full-time employment. Also, women who are employed part-time are far more likely than men to cite family responsibilities as the reason for their employment status: 48 percent of the women working part-time and 12 percent of the men cited family



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