. "Appendix 2-1: Review of Literature and Relevant Research." Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010.
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Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty
The highest proportions of women among the tenure-track faculty were found in health sciences.
Among both tenure-track and tenured faculty, women were proportionately more likely to be in medical colleges. About 15 percent of tenured faculty were women in Research I institutions; female tenured faculty were rarer at Research II institutions, but more prevalent at master’s, doctoral, and baccalaureate institutions. The percentage of women among tenured faculty was growing at Research I institutions (see Figure A2-11).
Women were less likely to occupy senior positions in academia than men. Using the SDR, the committee examined rank by comparing the gender of faculty who were assistant, associate, and full professors, by academic discipline separately. Figure A2-12 shows the following results:
Women comprised over 50 percent of all full professors in health sciences, 20 percent in biological sciences, and 10 percent or less in other fields, with engineering having the lowest proportion of female full professors.
The percentage of women among full professors appeared to be rising or remaining level in each field.
Women comprised almost 60 percent of all associate professors in health sciences, approximately 30 percent in biological sciences, and less than 20 percent in other fields, with engineering having the lowest proportion of female associate professors.
The percentage of women among associate professors appeared to be rising or remaining level in many fields, but not in agricultural sciences and not in the health sciences.
Women comprised 65 percent of all assistant professors in health sciences, 39 percent in biological sciences, between 25 to 27 percent in mathematics, computer, and physical sciences, with engineering having the lowest proportion of female assistant professors (less than 20 percent).
The percentage of women among assistant professors appeared to be roughly steady in each field.
This analysis was then repeated, focusing on institution types. Figure A2-13 shows the following results:
Women comprised about 25 percent of full professors at medical colleges and about 12 percent at Research I institutions.