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Index

A

Academic hiring.

See also Applications;

Interviews;

Offers;

Recruitment

data on, 42-43, 44-48, 50-54

equity in, 4, 27-28, 36, 63, 68, 274

faculty perspective, 61

key findings, 5-8, 64-69, 154-158

process, 5, 40-43, 275

productivity and, 88

selection process, 41, 42, 50-56

recommendations, 164-165

of spouses, 274, 279

statistical analyses, 43, 48-50, 54-56, 57-59

survey questionnaire, 193-196

target-of-opportunity positions, 44, 46, 64

trends, 16, 148-149, 154

women’s involvement in, 5, 50, 55, 154, 157, 279

Academics. See Assistant professors;

Associate professors;

Faculty;

Full professors

ADVANCE program, 16, 18

Age factors, 36, 270-271, 326

Agricultural sciences, 2, 6, 20, 25 n.14, 32, 35, 37 n.19, 60, 155, 249, 254, 255, 262

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 32, 103

American Association of University Professors, 32, 36 n.16, 37, 103, 269

American Chemical Society, 32, 269, 277, 280, 281

American Institute of Physics, 28, 32, 181, 182, 280

American Mathematical Society, 32

American Society for Engineering Education, 32

Antidiscrimination laws, 17-18

Applications for faculty positions

climate perceptions and, 277-278, 282

decision to apply, 41

descriptive data, 44-48

discipline and, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49-50, 65, 66, 68, 154, 156, 277, 284-286

doctoral pool relative to, 21, 23, 28, 46-48, 61, 65, 66, 68, 154, 156, 164, 277-278

faculty composition and, 278-279

family-friendly policies and, 49, 50, 62, 63, 66, 279, 282

geographic mobility constraints, 21, 271, 280-281

by institution type, 47, 49, 50, 66, 279, 284, 285, 286

institutional policies for increasing diversity, 8, 61-64, 66, 274

key findings, 65-66, 154-156

male-only pools, 65, 66, 154, 284

pool of female applicants, 5, 7, 8, 23, 28, 44, 154, 156



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Index American Chemical Society, 32, 269, 277, 280, A 281 Academic hiring. See also Applications; American Institute of Physics, 28, 32, 181, 182, Interviews; Offers; Recruitment 280 data on, 42-43, 44-48, 50-54 American Mathematical Society, 32 equity in, 4, 27-28, 36, 63, 68, 274 American Society for Engineering Education, faculty perspective, 61 32 key findings, 5-8, 64-69, 154-158 Antidiscrimination laws, 17-18 process, 5, 40-43, 275 Applications for faculty positions productivity and, 88 climate perceptions and, 277-278, 282 selection process, 41, 42, 50-56 decision to apply, 41 recommendations, 164-165 descriptive data, 44-48 of spouses, 274, 279 discipline and, 43, 46, 47, 48, 49-50, 65, 66, statistical analyses, 43, 48-50, 54-56, 57-59 68, 154, 156, 277, 284-286 survey questionnaire, 193-196 doctoral pool relative to, 21, 23, 28, 46-48, target-of-opportunity positions, 44, 46, 64 61, 65, 66, 68, 154, 156, 164, 277-278 trends, 16, 148-149, 154 faculty composition and, 278-279 women’s involvement in, 5, 50, 55, 154, family-friendly policies and, 49, 50, 62, 63, 157, 279 66, 279, 282 Academics. See Assistant professors; Associate geographic mobility constraints, 21, 271, professors; Faculty; Full professors 280-281 ADVANCE program, 16, 18 by institution type, 47, 49, 50, 66, 279, 284, Age factors, 36, 270-271, 326 285, 286 Agricultural sciences, 2, 6, 20, 25 n.14, 32, 35, institutional policies for increasing diversity, 37 n.19, 60, 155, 249, 254, 255, 262 8, 61-64, 66, 274 American Association for the Advancement of key findings, 65-66, 154-156 Science, 32, 103 male-only pools, 65, 66, 154, 284 American Association of University Professors, pool of female applicants, 5, 7, 8, 23, 28, 32, 36 n.16, 37, 103, 269 44, 154, 156 

OCR for page 353
 INDEX prestige of institution and, 49, 50, 66, 281- knowledge of tenure and promotion 283, 285, 286 policies, 322-323 review of research results on, 275-283 mentors, 113, 317, 322 search committee composition and, 50, 64, promotion and tenure, 11, 123, 127, 128, 66, 279, 284, 285, 286 129, 133-134, 137-138, 139, 140, 141, statistical analysis, 43, 48-50, 284-286 145, 146-148, 149, 150, 151, 162-163 by tenured or tenure-track position, 44-46, research productivity, 92, 93, 97 47, 48, 49, 65-66, 284, 285, 286 resource packages for, 111 Architectural engineering, 25 n.14, 181-182, salary, 10, 104, 105, 106, 161 230, 231 stopping the tenure clock, 12, 163 Arizona State University, 216, 221, 227, 232, survey sample, 183, 185-188 237, 243 time from receipt of Ph.D., 140 Assistant professors time in rank, 123, 137-138, 141, 146-148, academic hiring, 11, 39, 40, 48 150, 163, 326 attrition/retention, 4, 10-11, 28 trends in employment, 1, 33, 275 by discipline, 6, 11, 35, 125, 139, 146, 148, Association for Women in Science, 16, 63 155, 183, 262, 264 Attrition/retention, 4, 10-11, 21, 23-24, 26, 28, doctoral pool, 48 38, 106-107, 109-110, 116, 148, 168 family issues, 273 full-time vs. part-time appointments, 152, B 153 grant funding, 113, 160, 316, 317 Bement, Arden L., Jr., 17-18 by institution type, 265, 266 Big 10+ Chemical Engineering Chairs Survey, knowledge of tenure and promotion 77-78 policies, 322-323 Biochemistry, 36, 181, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, mentoring for, 10, 113, 160, 165, 316, 317, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227 322 Biology outside offers, 107 academic employment, 6, 11, 32, 33, 35, 37, promotion and tenure, 11, 118, 119, 125, 258, 259, 261 129, 130, 131, 136-137, 138-139, 145, academic hiring, 7, 8, 28, 46, 47, 48, 49-50, 148, 151, 161, 163 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 65, 66, 68, research productivity, 92, 93, 97 155, 156, 157, 284-288 resource packages for, 10, 78, 81, 96, 111 climate for professional development, 87, salary, 10, 104, 105, 106, 113, 161 314 stopping the tenure clock, 12, 144-145, 152, defined, 25 n.14 163 department description, 181, 216-221 survey sample, 183, 185-188 doctoral pool, 7, 48, 251, 276, 289-290 time in rank, 12, 117, 136-138, 139-146, employment trends, 32, 33, 35, 37, 254, 150, 151, 152, 155, 163, 164 255, 275 time from receipt of Ph.D. to hire (academic generally, 2, 20, 25 age), 36, 144, 151, 164 grant funding, 113, 160, 316, 317 trends in employment, 1, 15-16, 33, 35, 148, institutional resources, 8, 78, 81, 82, 83, 84, 275 85, 306-312, 314 Associate professors institutions surveyed, 216-221 academic hiring, 48 job satisfaction, 321 career age, 326 outside offers, 106, 114, 320 by discipline, 6, 35, 127, 128, 142, 262, 264 professional activities, 74, 75, 76, 77, 122, doctoral pool, 48 296, 298, 299, 300-304, 314 grant funding, 113, 317 by institution type, 263, 266

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 INDEX promotion and tenure, 11, 119, 120, 122, salary, 306-307, 318 125, 126, 127, 128, 139, 140, 141, sample characteristics and response rates, 148, 150, 151, 161, 162-163, 261, 324, 182, 183, 185-188, 328-329 328-329 teaching load, 296, 298, 299 rank of female faculty, 6, 11, 155, 262, 264 Civil engineering research productivity, 10, 91, 92, 93, 95, academic hiring, 7, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 160, 315 53, 54, 56, 58, 65, 66, 68, 156, 284-288 salary, 305-306, 318 climate for professional development, 87, sample characteristics and response rates, 314 182, 183, 185-188, 328-329 department description, 181-182, 227-232 teaching load, 296, 298, 299 doctoral pool, 7, 48, 249, 251, 276, 289-290 Boston University, 216, 221, 227, 232, 237, 243 employment trends, 35 Brown University, 216, 221, 227, 232, 238, 243 grant funding, 316, 317 institutional resources, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 306-312, 314 C institutions surveyed, 227-232 job satisfaction, 321 California Institute of Technology, 70, 216, 221, mentoring, 316, 317 227, 232, 238, 243 outside offers, 106, 114, 320 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of professional activities, 74, 75, 122, 297, Teaching, 20 n.12, 24, 130, 258 n.9 298, 299, 300-304, 314 Carnegie-Mellon University, 216, 221, 227, promotion and tenure, 119, 120, 122, 125, 232, 238, 243 126, 127, 128, 138, 139, 140, 141, 146, Case Western Reserve University, 80, 216, 221, 150, 163, 324, 328-329 227, 232, 238, 243 rationale for inclusion in this study, 25 n.14 Caucus for Women in Statistics, 16, 63 research productivity, 10, 91, 92, 93, 94, Chemistry 95-96, 160, 315 academic hiring, 7, 28, 46, 47, 48, 49-50, salary, 104, 306-307, 318 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 58, 65, 66, 68, 155, sample characteristics and response rates, 156, 284-288 182, 183, 185-188, 328-329 climate for professional development, 87, teaching load, 297, 298, 299 314 Civil Rights Act of 1964, 18 department description, 181, 221-227 Clerical support, 9, 71, 83-84, 85, 111, 159, 312 doctoral pool, 7, 251, 276, 289-290 Climate for professional development employment trends, 32, 33 n.11, 35, 36 and career decisions, 12-13, 62, 277-278, family issues of applicants, 280, 281 282 grant funding, 113, 316, 317 collaborative research, 9, 86, 112, 159 institutional resources, 10, 78-79, 82, 83, committee participation, 9, 88, 112, 159, 279 84, 85, 306-312, 314 discipline and, 85, 86, 87, 88, 158, 277 institutions surveyed, 221-227 interaction and engagement with colleagues, job satisfaction, 321 9, 21, 62, 71, 86-87, 108, 112, 158, 159, mentoring, 316, 317 165, 277, 278 outside offers, 106, 114, 161, 320 and job satisfaction, 107-109 professional activities, 74, 75, 110-111, 122, key findings, 9, 112, 159 158, 296, 300-304, 314 mentoring, 9, 10, 12, 71, 85-86, 87, 92, 93, promotion and tenure, 11, 118, 119, 120, 95, 96, 97, 99, 112, 159, 313 122, 125, 126, 127, 128, 137, 139, 140, perceptions of S&E applicants, 277-278 141, 142, 143, 146, 147, 148, 150, 151, prestige of institution, 62 161, 163, 324, 328-329 variables analyzed, 71, 84-85 rank of female faculty, 155 Colorado State University, 216, 221, 227, 232, research productivity, 10, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 238, 243 160, 315

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 INDEX Columbia University, 42 n.1, 216, 221, 227, by institution type, 289-290 232, 238, 243 pool of, 7, 23, 249-250, 276-278 Committee on the Status of Women in Physics, preferences for employment, 277 16 trends, 1, 249-250, 251, 276, 289 Committee service by women Duke University, 137, 216, 222, 227, 233, 238, and academic hiring, 50, 64, 66, 279, 284, 243 285, 286 chair, 8, 9, 27, 49, 50, 66, 67, 88, 112, 121, E 122, 157, 159, 165, 279, 284-288, 292, 301 Earth sciences, 2, 20, 32, 34, 249, 251 curriculum, 78 Education Amendments of 1972, 18 discipline and, 88, 300-304 Electrical engineering executive, 78 academic hiring, 7, 8, 46, 47, 48, 50, 52, number of committees, 77, 304 53, 54, 56, 58, 65, 66, 67-68, 156, 157, and promotion and tenure, 129 284-288 search committees, 8, 49, 50, 55, 61, 63, 64, climate for professional development, 85, 66, 67, 78, 85, 157, 165, 279, 284-288, 87, 88, 314 292 department description, 182, 232-237 tenure and promotion committees, 78, 85, doctoral pool, 7, 251, 276, 289-290 112, 119, 121, 122 grant funding, 316, 317 by tenure and tenure-track faculty, 303-304 institutional resources, 82, 83, 85, 306-312, thesis or honors committees, 77, 88, 300, 314 301, 302 institutions surveyed, 232-237 time spent on, 77-78, 129 job satisfaction, 109, 114, 321 Computer engineering, 182, 232-237 mentoring, 316, 317 Computer sciences, 2, 20, 25 n.14, 34, 35, 37 outside offers, 106, 114, 161, 320 n.19, 38 n.22, 48, 73 n.4, 75, 76, 77, professional activities, 74, 75, 88, 122, 297, 104-105, 137, 182, 232-238, 251, 254, 298, 299, 300-304, 314 259, 261, 262, 264, 276 n.2, 277, 326, promotion and tenure, 119, 120, 122, 125, 327 126, 127, 128, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, Computing Research Association, 32 143, 144, 146, 147, 148, 150, 151, 163, Construction engineering, 181, 228 324, 328-329 Cornell Higher Education Research Institute, rank of female faculty, 6 78, 272 research productivity, 10, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, Cornell University, 216, 221, 227, 233, 238, 160, 315 243 salary, 104, 306-307, 318 Council of Colleges of Arts & Sciences, 77 sample characteristics and response rates, 182, 183, 185-188, 328-329 teaching load, 297, 298, 299 D Emory University, 216, 222, 227, 233, 238, 243 Doctorate recipients Employment in S&E academic faculty, 15, 257-266 by discipline, 154, 254, 255, 258, 259, 275 applicant pool relative to, 21, 23, 28, 46-48, full-time academic workforce, 5, 154, 255- 61, 65, 66, 68, 154, 156, 277-278 256, 257-266, 275; see also Faculty by discipline, 7, 33, 48, 249, 251, 276, full-time S&E workforce, 5, 154, 250-256 289-290 part-time, 252-253, 280 employment discipline, 254, 258, 259 by sector, 254-257 employment sector, 5, 254-257 Engineering. See also Civil engineering; employment status and trends, 3, 5, 15-16, Electrical engineering 250-253, 258, 261-262, 263, 275, 277 degree statistics, 25 n.14, 46, 251

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 INDEX employment trends, 5, 254, 255 and tenure and promotion, 272-273 faculty statistics, 25 n.14, 33, 34, 35, 48, workload relief policies, 279 155, 258, 259, 262 Florida State University, 216, 222, 228, 233, institutional resources, 78 238, 243 Environmental engineering, 25 n.14, 181, Full professors 227-232 career age, 36, 327 Equal Pay Act of 1963, 18 data limitations on, 3, 24 by discipline, 6, 34, 35, 127, 128, 129, 262, 264, 266 F doctoral pool, 48 by institution type, 262, 265, 266 Faculty representation. See also Assistant knowledge of tenure and promotion professors; Associate professors; Full policies, 322-323 professors promotion and tenure, 11, 123, 127, 128, age factors and, 270-271 129, 133-134, 137-138, 139, 141, 149- applicant pool relative and, 278-279 150, 162-163, 322-323 by department, 278-279 research productivity, 92, 93, 97 by discipline or field, 5, 6, 33, 34, 35, 36, resource packages for, 111 154, 155, 257, 258, 259, 261, 262, 264 salary, 10, 36-37, 104, 105, 106, 161 doctoral pool relative to, 21, 23, 28, 33 n.11, survey sample, 183 48, 61, 271 trends in employment, 1, 33, 34, 35, employment trends, 1, 15, 26, 257-266 275 by institution type, 33, 35, 37, 130, 258, 260, 262, 263 part-time, temporary, and off-track G academic positions, 16, 21, 35, 37, 152, 153, 168, 250, 251, 252, 253 Geographic mobility, 21, 271, 280-281 population in this study, 25 Georgetown University, 216, 222, 228, 233, and promotion or tenure awards, 130 238, 243 by rank, 6, 15-16, 33, 34, 35, 36, 155, 262, Georgia Institute of Technology, 216, 222, 228, 264-266, 275 233, 238, 243 as role models, 18 Government Accountability Office, 18, 19 n.10 by tenure status, 258, 261-262, 263, 324 Grant funding Faculty Survey of Student Engagement, 18 and acceptance of offers, 62 Family issues discipline and, 8, 9-10, 94, 95-96, 97, 99, in acceptance or rejection of offers, 61, 62, 112, 113, 158, 160, 316, 317 63, 68, 157, 282 and employment offers, 41 child care, 3, 21, 63, 129, 274, 279 honor/award nominations and, 102, 161, discussions with colleagues, 87 319 dual career couples, 3, 21, 63, 273, 279, institution type and, 94, 96, 113 280 lab space relative to, 80, 101, 111 family-friendly policies, 49, 50, 62, 63, 66, mentor status and, 10, 95, 96, 97, 99, 113, 129, 157, 279, 282 160, 165, 316, 317 geographic mobility, 21, 271, 280-281 and outcomes for faculty, 41, 72, 80, 89, 90, and job satisfaction, 108 93-100, 101, 105, 107, 111, 114, 159, leave for family or personal reasons, 63, 160 141, 274, 279 and outside offers, 114 and part-time employment, 252-253, 280 prestige of institution and, 94, 96, 97, 99, and productivity, 271, 272 112-113, 160 research recommendations, 165 and promotion and tenure, 129 and salary, 272 publications and, 94-95, 96-97, 99, 113

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 INDEX rank of faculty and, 94, 95-96, 97, 99, 112, rank of faculty and, 78, 80, 111 113, 160, 316, 317 reduced teaching loads, 9, 79, 111, 158, 299 and research productivity, 72, 89, 90, research assistants and postdocs, 4, 9, 25, 93-100 28, 37, 71, 72, 77, 78, 80, 83-84, 111, resources, 30, 80 159, 311, 314 and retention/attrition, 107 start-up package, 4, 9, 28, 29, 62, 71, 72, and salary, 105, 113-114 77-78, 80, 81, 106, 111, 158, 295 size of awards, 94, 95, 96-97, 98-99 summer salary, 9, 37, 71, 77, 78-79, 80, time spent on research and, 95, 96, 113 111, 158, 306 types of grants, 94, 160 travel funds, 9, 37, 71, 77, 79, 111, 158, 307 variables analyzed, 71 Institution type (public or private) H and academic hiring, 47, 49, 50, 56, 59, 66, 279, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288 Hart-Rudman Commission on National Security and access to institutional resources, 78, 99, to 2025, 17 101 Harvard University, 216, 222, 228, 233, 238, doctorate recipients by, 289-290 243 female faculty by, 33, 35, 37, 130, 258, 260, Health sciences, 5, 6, 20 n.11, 25 n.14, 37 n.19, 262, 263 80, 154, 155, 249 n.3, 254, 255, 258, and grant funding, 94, 96, 113 259, 261, 262, 264 and outcomes for faculty, 92, 94, 96, 99, Hiring. See Academic hiring 101, 102, 105 Hogan, Alice, 18 rank of female faculty by, 262, 263, 265, Honor or award nominations, 3, 10, 71, 102- 266 103, 161, 319 research activities of faculty, 92, 94, 96, 99 Hopkins, Nancy, 70, 121 n.5 and tenure and promotion, 11, 35, 125, 127, Howard University, 216, 222, 228, 233, 238, 130, 131, 134, 140, 146, 147, 148, 324 243 Interviews departmental selection behavior, 50-56 descriptive data, 50-54 I by discipline, 8, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 61, 67-68, 156, 157, 287-288 Indiana University at Bloomington, 217, 222, equity in, 63, 68, 154 228, 233, 238, 243 institution type and, 56, 287, 288 Industrial manufacturing engineering, 249 factors associated with, 41, 54 Institutional resources, access to hires relative to, 60 and acceptance of offers, 62 key findings, 5, 7-8, 67-68, 157 clerical support, 9, 71, 83, 85, 111, 159, male-only pools, 51, 53, 54, 55, 67-68, 157 312 offers relative to, 57, 58, 59 discipline and, 8, 78-79, 81-85, 111, 158, percentage of applicant pool, 52, 54, 55-56, 306-312 67, 156, 157 equipment/instruments, 9, 29-30, 37, 71, 77, preliminary, 41 78, 80, 81, 82-83, 111, 159, 310 prestige of institution and, 56, 287, 288 equity, 4, 8-9, 28, 36-37, 72 search committee composition and, 55, 287, institution type and, 78 288 key findings, 8-9, 111, 158-159 statistical analysis, 54-56, 287-288 laboratory space, 2, 4, 9, 19, 28, 29-30, 37, by tenure or tenure-track position, 50-51, 62, 71, 72, 77, 78, 79-82, 83, 89, 90, 52, 53-54, 55, 60, 67-68, 287, 288 111, 159, 308-309 Iowa State University, 217, 222, 228, 233, 238, and outcomes, 72, 83, 89, 90, 99-102, 111 243 prestige of institution and, 111

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 INDEX J M Job location, 62 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1, 15, Job offers. See Offers 17, 37, 70, 79, 84, 121, 129, 137, 178, Job satisfaction 217, 223, 233, 239, 244, 267, 271 climate and, 107-109, 114 Mathematics data, 3, 107-109 academic hiring, 7, 46, 47, 48, 49-50, 51, decision to leave or retire and, 38, 109-110, 52, 53, 54, 56, 58, 65, 66, 67-68, 155, 114, 321 156, 284-288 discipline and, 109, 321 climate for professional development, 86, disparities in, 38, 71, 107-109 87, 314 expectations, 21 department description, 182, 237-242 measure of, 89 doctoral pool, 7, 251, 276, 289-290 nomination for honors and awards and, employment trends, 32, 33, 34, 35, 37 n.19, 102 254, 255, 259, 261, 264 and productivity, 107 grant funding, 316, 317 research literature, 268 institutional resources, 79, 81 n.19, 83, 85, salary and benefits and, 108, 109 306-312, 314 Johns Hopkins University, 217, 222, 228, 233, institutions surveyed, 237-242 238, 243 job satisfaction, 321 mentoring, 316, 317 outside offers, 106, 114, 161, 320 L professional activities, 74, 75, 76, 77, 122, 158, 297, 298, 299, 300-304, 314 Laboratory space promotion and tenure, 118, 119, 120, 122, academic age and, 101 125, 126, 127, 128, 134, 137, 139, 140, access to, 2, 4, 9, 19, 28, 29-30, 37, 71, 77, 141, 145, 146, 150, 151, 163, 324, 78, 79-82, 111, 159 328-329 amount allocated, 81, 82, 100, 308 rank of faculty, 6, 155 changes in, 82, 309 research productivity, 10, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, discipline and, 80, 82, 99, 101, 111, 159, 95-96, 97, 99, 111, 160, 315 308, 309 salary, 104, 306-307, 318 experimental vs. theoretical research, 81, sample characteristics and response rates, 101, 111 182, 183, 185-188, 328-329 grant funding and, 99, 101, 111 teaching load, 297, 298, 299 institution type and, 99, 101 Mechanical engineering, 182, 251 outcomes for faculty, 72, 83, 89, 90, 99-102, Mentors and mentoring 111 access to, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99, 112, 165, prestige of institution and, 99, 101 313 publications and, 99, 101, 102 and grant funding, 10, 95, 96, 97, 99, 113, rank and, 80, 99, 101-102, 111, 159 160, 165, 316, 317 research productivity and, 99-102 and knowledge of tenure and promotion satisfaction with, 80-81 n.17, 83 policies, 322-323 Lane, Neal, 17 and outcomes for faculty, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, Lecturers, instructors, and off-track positions, 3, 99, 107, 112, 113, 130 25, 36 n.16, 37, 183, 273 perceptions of, 278 Life sciences, 25 n.13, 33, 34, 48, 216 and research productivity, 92, 93, 95, 96, Louisiana State University, 217, 223, 228, 233, 97, 99 238, 244 resources on, 85 n.21 Michigan State University, 217, 223, 228, 233, 239, 244

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0 INDEX Outcomes for faculty N academic age and, 101, 105, 113 National Academies’ reports, current report discipline and, 9-10, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, compared to, 3-4 96, 97, 99, 101, 104, 105, 106, 107, 110, National Center for Education Statistics, 2, 29, 112, 113, 114, 159-160, 318-321 31, 32, 117, 269 n.4 geographic mobility constraints and, 280, National Institutes of Health, 94 281 National Research Council, 36, 250 honor or award nominations, 3, 10, 71, 89, National Science Foundation, 1-2, 16, 17, 31, 102-103, 161, 319 94, 117, 268 institution type and, 92, 94, 96, 99, 101, National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty, 29, 102, 105 31-32, 37, 42, 72, 73, 75, 76, 77, 83, 89- job satisfaction, 3, 107-110, 321 91, 92, 83-94, 103, 104, 107, 108, 109, key findings, 4, 9-10, 112-115, 159-161 117, 123, 137, 138, 139, 268, 269-270, measures of 89-90, 92 272, 326, 327 mentoring and, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99, 107, National Survey of Student Engagement, 18 112, 113, 160 New Hires Survey, 77-78 outside offers, 89, 106-107, 114-115, 161, New Mexico State University, 79 n.12, 217, 320 223, 228, 233, 239, 244 prestige of institution and, 92, 93, 94, 96, New York University, 217, 223, 228, 233, 239, 97, 99, 101, 102, 105, 107, 112-113, 244 114 North Carolina State University, 217, 223, 228, rank of faculty and, 92, 93, 94, 95-96, 97, 233, 239, 244 99, 101, 104, 105, 106, 107, 112, 113 Northwestern University, 217, 223, 228, 234, research productivity, 10, 30, 71, 89-102, 239, 244 105, 107, 112, 113, 114, 160, 278 salary, 10, 88, 89, 103-106, 318 time spent on activities and, 92, 93, 112 O variables analyzed, 71-72, 89-90 Oceanograph, 2, 20, 32, 34, 249, 251 Offers made to women P dean approval and, 57, 59 discipline and, 8, 56-57, 58, 61, 68, 156, Part-time and temporary academic positions, 157, 320 16, 21, 35, 152, 153, 168, 250, 251, 252, factors associated with, 41, 57, 68 253, 280 hires, 59-60, 154, 157 Pennsylvania State University, 134, 135, 136, institution type and, 59 217, 223, 228, 234, 239, 244 interview pool of women and, 57, 58, 59, Ph.D.s. See Doctorate recipients 68, 157 Physical sciences, 2, 20, 26, 32, 34, 35, 37 n.19, key findings, 8, 68-69, 157 48, 73 n.4, 75, 76, 77, 104-105, 137, outside offers, 106-107, 114-115, 161 251, 254, 255, 259, 261, 262, 264, 326, percentage of, 56-57, 58, 154, 156, 157 327. See also Chemistry; Physics and prestige of institution and, 59 astronomy reasons for accepting or rejecting, 41-42, Physics 60, 61, 62, 68, 157, 295 academic hiring, 7, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, statistical analysis, 57-59 53, 54, 56, 58, 65, 66, 68, 156, 284-288 by tenured or tenure-track position, 56, 58, climate for professional development, 85, 68 87, 314 Ohio State University, 217, 223, 228, 234, 239, department description, 182, 243-248 244 doctoral pool, 7, 48, 251, 276, 289-290 Oregon State University, 217, 223, 228, 234, employment trends, 33 n.10, 35 239, 244

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 INDEX family issues of applicants, 280, 281 publication of research, 9-10, 18, 30, 71, 83, grant funding, 316, 317 89, 90-93, 94-95, 96-97, 99, 101, 102- institutional resources, 78, 81, 82, 83, 85, 103, 105, 113, 123-124, 127, 129, 272, 306-312, 314 278, 282-283, 315 institutions surveyed, 243-248 rank and, 92, 93, 97 job satisfaction, 321 research, 10, 18, 30, 38, 41, 71, 83-84, 89- mentoring, 316, 317 102, 105, 107, 111, 112, 113, 114, 272, outside offers, 106, 114, 161, 320 278, 315 professional activities, 74, 75, 76, 77, 122, and salary, 38, 88, 89, 105, 113 297, 298, 299, 300-304, 314 and tenure and promotion, 38, 88, 123-124, promotion and tenure, 119, 120, 122, 125, 127, 129-130 126, 127, 128, 139, 140, 141, 146, 150, Professional activities. See also Committee 151, 163, 324, 328-329 service; Research; Service; Teaching rank of faculty, 6 key findings, 110-111, 158 research productivity, 10, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, research literature, 268 160, 315 variables analyzed, 71 salary, 104, 306-307, 318 Professional societies. See also individual sample characteristics and response rates, societies 182, 183, 185-188, 328-329 recommendations for, 166 teaching load, 297, 298, 299 Programs to support women, 16-17, 26-27 POWRE award, 271 Publication of research, 9-10, 18, 30, 71, 83, Prestige of institution 89, 90-93, 94-95, 96-97, 99, 101, 102- and academic hiring, 49, 50, 59, 56, 66, 103, 105, 113, 123-124, 127, 129, 272, 281-283, 285, 286, 287, 288 278, 282-283, 315 and access to institutional resources, 99, Purdue University, 80-81, 217, 223, 229, 234, 101, 111 239, 244 and climate for professional development, 62 R and outcomes for faculty, 92, 93, 94, 96, 97, 99, 101, 102, 105, 107, 112-113, 114 RAND Corporation, 19 n.10, 94 and research activities of faculty, 92, 93, 94, Recommendations 96, 97, 99 for institutions, 12-13, 164-166 and tenure and promotion, 12, 130, 131, for professional societies, 12-13, 166 140, 141, 142, 143-144, 146, 147, 150, questions for future research, 13, 21, 151, 281, 324 166-167 Princeton University, 78, 81, 217, 223, 228, Recruitment. See also Interviews 234, 239, 244 advertising the position, 40-41, 63, 64, 66, Productivity 156, 164 and academic hiring, 88 campus visit, 41 discipline and, 10, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95-96, institutional policies to promote diversity, 97, 99, 111, 315 61-64, 66, 154, 156 factors affecting, 83-84 key findings, 66-67, 156-157 family issues and, 271, 272 recommendations, 12 grant funding and, 72, 89, 90, 93-100 search committees and procedures, 8, 40, job satisfaction and, 107 61, 63, 64, 66, 67, 157, 165 and laboratory space, 99-102 survey questionnaire, 193-196 mentoring and, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99 tenured vs. tenure-track positions, 41 and outcomes, 10, 30, 71, 89-102, 105, 107, word of mouth, 40 112, 113, 114, 278

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 INDEX Research activities of faculty. See also Grant institutional studies, historical, 1, 15, 16-17, funding; Laboratory space 29, 32, 37, 70-71, 72, 79, 84, 121, 267, collaborative, 62, 86, 87, 89, 112 271 discipline and, 8, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95-96, institutions in this study, 24-25, 178 97, 99, 110-111, 158 limitations, 25-26, 57, 71-72, 101, 269-270 discoveries and patents, 89 National Academies’ reports published equipment access, 9, 29-30, 37, 71, 77, 78, earlier, 3-4, 26-28 80, 81, 82-83, 111, 159, 310 scope of this study, 22-26 family issues and, 272 suggestions for, 13, 48, 102, 115 institution type and, 92, 94, 96, 99 types, 267-270 mentoring and, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 99 Resources. See Institutional resources; specific and outside offers, 107 resources prestige of institution and, 92, 93, 94, 96, Rockefeller University, 181, 217, 223, 229, 234, 97, 99 239, 244 productivity, 10, 18, 30, 38, 41, 71, 83-84, Rutgers, 218, 223, 229, 234, 239, 244 89-102, 105, 107, 111, 112, 113, 114, 272, 278, 315 S publications, 9-10, 18, 30, 71, 83, 89, 90-93, 94-95, 96-97, 99, 101, 102-103, 105, Salary 113, 123-124, 127, 129, 272, 278, 282- academic age and, 101, 113-114 283, 315 and acceptance of offers, 62 rank of faculty and, 92, 93, 94, 95-96, 97, data sources, 268, 269, 318 99 discipline and, 104, 105, 113, 305, 306, 318 support staff, 4, 9, 25, 28, 37, 71, 72, 77, 78, discussions with colleagues, 87 83-84, 111, 159, 314 equity, 10, 36, 38, 71, 103-106, 305 time spent on, 9, 37-38, 73-74, 92, 93, 95, family issues, 272 96, 110, 112-113, 158, 272 institution type and, 105 Research assistants and postdocs, supervision key findings, 10, 113-114 of, 4, 9, 25, 28, 37, 71, 72, 77, 78, 83- multivariate analysis, 103-104 84, 111, 159, 311, 314 prestige of institution and, 105, 113 Research I institutions. See also individual productivity and, 38, 88, 89, 105, 113 institutions professorial rank and, 11, 36, 104, 105, 106, defined, 20 n.12, 258 113, 161, 305 listed for this study, 24-25, 178 summer, 9, 37, 71, 77, 78-79, 80, 111, 158, Ph.D.s awarded by, 25 n.13 306 Research II institutions, 5, 13, 24, 154, 168, Science and engineering (S&E), defined, 20, 258, 260, 262, 263, 265, 266 32 n.7 Research on gender differences. See also Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Surveys for this study Act of 1980, 18 approach of this committee, 2-3, 19-22 Service. See also Committee service career factors examined, 23-24 time spent on, 9, 37, 73, 76-77 characteristics explored, 270-274 Society of Women Engineers, 16, 63 charge to this committee, 2, 19 Stanford University, 79-80, 218, 223, 229, 234, cross-sectional data sources, 101, 269-270 239, 244 discipline focus of this study, 25-26 Start-up package, 4, 9, 28, 29, 62, 71, 72, 77- importance of, 16-19 78, 80, 81, 106, 111, 158, 295 by individual researchers, 29, 32, 72, State University of New York at Buffalo, 218, 268-269 223, 229, 234, 239, 244 information sources for this study, 28-29 State University of New York at Stony Brook, 218, 224, 229, 234, 239, 245

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 INDEX Status of women in S&E. See also Employment Temple University, 218, 224, 229, 234, 239, in S&E 245 degrees earned, 32-33 Tenure and promotion doctoral pool, 249-250 academic age and, 140, 141, 144, 147, 151, faculty representation, 33-36 326, 327 professional activities and climate, 36-38 academic hiring by tenured or tenure-track Stereotypes of scientists and engineers, 89, 283 position, 44-46, 47, 48, 49, 65-66, 284, Summit on Women in Engineering, 17 285, 286 Survey of Doctoral Recipients, 26, 29, 31, 32, and attrition, 38, 125, 148 42, 117, 121, 123, 124, 249, 250, 258, committee composition, 78, 85, 112, 119, 268, 269-270, 273, 275 n.1 121, 122 Survey of Earned Doctorates, 20 n.11, 26, 249 department size and, 11, 129, 132, 133, 140, n.2 148, 149, 162 Surveys for this study departmental culture and, 130 of department chairs, 2, 25-26, 28, 42-43, descriptive data, 117, 118, 124-127 78, 181-182, 184, 189-196, 216-248 discipline and, 11, 118, 119, 120, 125, 126, design and implementation, 28-29, 181-188 127, 128, 131, 132, 134, 137, 138, 139, discipline-specific details, 181-183, 185-188 140, 141, 142, 144, 146, 147, 148, 149, of faculty, 2-3, 25-26, 29, 59, 60, 61, 78, 150, 161-163, 261, 276, 324, 328-329 138, 181, 182-184, 185-188, 197-215 equity in decisions, 4, 27-28, 36, 116, 121, framework for development, 267-270 123-124, 162 institutions surveyed, 24-25, 178, 216-248 factors influencing decisions, 38, 127-130, instruments, 181, 182, 184, 189-215 283 least-squares means of responses, 292-293 family issues, 125, 129, 131, 141, 144-145, limitations, 2-3, 43, 47, 138 272-273, 274, 280 population, 3, 183 hires, 59-60 rank-specific details, 183, 184, 185-188 institution type and, 11, 35, 125, 127, 130, response rates, 182, 186-188, 328-329 131, 134, 140, 146, 147, 148, 324 sample sizes, 3, 138, 182, 183, 185-188 key findings, 4, 148-152, 161-163 scope, 2-3 knowledge of procedures, 12, 130, 149, 162, transformation of response variables, 165-166, 322-323 291-292 multivariate analysis, 116, 118, 130-134 variance of a nonlinear function of nonresponse patterns, 328-329 parameters, 293-294 opportunities for, 62 weighting, 43 n.5 pool of female candidates, 11, 125, 131- Swedish Medical Research Council, 282 132, 133, 149, 150, 162-163, 325 postdoctoral experience and, 12, 138, 150, 151 T prestige of institution and, 12, 130, 131, 140, 141, 142, 143-144, 146, 147, 150, Teaching and advising 151, 281, 324 by discipline, 75, 76, 296-298 processes, 117, 118-121, 190-191 effectiveness of women, 18 productivity and, 38, 88, 123-124, 127, evaluation of performance, 88-89, 124, 129 129-130 graduate courses, 75-76, 111, 158, 298 rank and, 125, 127, 129, 130, 137-138, 139, interaction with colleagues, 87 142, 142-143, 144, 145, 150, 162 number of graduate students, 314 rates, 11, 116, 125-126, 127, 135, 148-149, reduced loads, 9, 79, 299 161-162 thesis or honor thesis committees, 76 research literature, 121, 123-124, 268 time spent on, 9, 37, 73, 75, 111, 158 status of women, 36, 258, 261-262, 263, undergraduate courses, 75, 111, 158, 296-297 324

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 INDEX stereotypes of scientists and engineers and, University of Florida, 219, 225, 230, 235, 240, 283 246 stopping-the-clock policies, 10-11, 12, 13, University of Georgia, 219, 225, 230, 235, 241, 21, 63, 118, 129-130, 131, 132, 144- 246 145, 146, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 161, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 219, 225, 230, 162, 163, 164, 165-166, 167-168, 274, 235, 241, 246 324 University of Illinois at Chicago, 219, 225, 230, survey questionnaire, 190-192 235, 241, 246 teaching evaluations and, 124, 129 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, time from Ph.D. receipt, 123, 124, 137, 138- 219, 225, 230, 235, 241, 246 139, 140, 146, 150, 151-152, 164 University of Iowa, 219, 225, 230, 235, 241, time in rank and, 10-11, 12, 28, 36, 116, 246 118, 120, 123, 134, 136, 137-148, 150- University of Kansas, 219, 225, 230, 236, 241, 151, 152, 163, 325-327 246 transparency of policies, 130, 165 University of Kentucky, 219, 225, 230, 236, “up or out” policy, 119 241, 246 Texas A&M University, 218, 224, 229, 234, University of Maryland at College Park, 219, 239, 245 225, 230, 236, 241, 246 Travel funds, 9, 37, 71, 77, 79, 111, 158, 307 University of Massachusetts at Amherst, 219, Tufts University, 218, 224, 229, 234, 240, 245 225, 230, 236, 241, 246 Tulane University, 218, 224, 229, 234, 240, 245 University of Miami, 220, 225, 231, 236, 241, 246 University of Michigan, 85, 219, 225, 231, 236, u 241, 246 University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, 219, 225, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 218, 231, 236, 241, 246 224, 229, 234, 240, 245 University of Missouri, Columbia, 219, 225, University of Arizona, 218, 224, 229, 234, 240, 231, 236, 241, 246 245 University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 219, 226, 231, University of California, Berkeley, 84, 137, 236, 241, 246 218, 224, 229, 235, 240, 245 University of New Mexico, 219, 226, 231, 236, University of California, Davis, 218, 224, 229, 241, 247 235, 240, 245, 277, 281 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of California, Irvine, 218, 224, 229, 219, 226, 231, 236, 241, 247 235, 240, 245 University of Oregon, 282 University of California, Los Angeles, 109, 218, University of Pennsylvania, 42 n.1, 73, 80, 94, 224, 229, 235, 240, 245 220, 226, 231, 236, 241, 247 University of California, San Diego, 218, 224, University of Pittsburgh, 220, 226, 231, 236, 230, 235, 240, 245 242, 247 University of California, San Francisco, 219, University of Rochester, 220, 226, 231, 236, 224, 230, 235, 240, 245 242, 247 University of California, Santa Barbara, 219, University of Southern California, 220, 226, 224, 230, 235, 240, 245 231, 236, 242, 247 University of Chicago, 219, 224, 230, 235, 240, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 220, 226, 245 231, 236, 242, 247 University of Cincinnati, 219, 224, 230, 235, University of Texas at Austin, 220, 226, 231, 240, 246 237, 242, 247 University of Colorado at Boulder, 77, 219, University of Utah, 220, 226, 231, 237, 242, 225, 230, 235, 240, 246 247 University of Connecticut, 219, 225, 230, 235, University of Virginia, 220, 226, 231, 237, 242, 240, 246 247

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 INDEX University of Washington, 220, 226, 231, 237, W 242, 247 Washington University, 221, 227, 232, 237, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 220, 226, 242, 247 231, 237, 242, 247, 274 n.7 Wayne State University, 221, 227, 232, 237, Utah State University, 220, 226, 231, 237, 242, 242, 248 247 West Virginia University, 221, 227, 232, 237, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 94 242, 248 U.S. Department of Education, 29, 31, 36, 37, Wilson, Robin, 34-35 72, 73 n.4, 117 Workweek, 73 Wyden, Ron, 1, 17, 19 V Vanderbilt University, 220, 226, 232, 237, 242, y 247 Yale University, 221, 227, 232, 237, 242, 248 Virginia Commonwealth University, 221, 226, Yeshiva University, 221, 227, 232, 237, 242, 232, 237, 242, 247 248 Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, 221, 227, 232, 237, 242, 247

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