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TABLE 3-1 Number of Tenured and Tenure-Track Positions with Complete Information About the Gender of Applicants by Discipline

Discipline

Tenured

Tenure-Track

Biology

24 (15)

118 (43)

Chemistry

19 (16)

128 (47)

Civil Engineering

13 (9)

73 (33)

Electrical Engineering

14 (9)

75 (27)

Mathematics

31 (16)

98 (37)

Physics

27 (14)

134 (47)

NOTE: Numbers in parentheses are the numbers of separate departments offering those positions.

SOURCE: Survey of departments carried out by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

the position by intention was offered to only 1 candidate, though the rank at hire was not known. Table 3-1 shows the number of cases with complete applicant information by discipline and type of position (tenured or tenure-track). Note that the number of cases across discipline and type of position combinations is roughly similar, so no discipline contributes an inordinate proportion of the data to the analyses that follow.

Another finding is that for job openings for which only individuals of 1 gender applied, that gender was more likely to be male. For tenure-track positions, there were only 9 openings for which no men applied (only women applied), and 8 of these were cases in which only 1 woman applied. On the other hand, there were no female applicants (only men applied) for 32 tenure-track positions, or about 6 percent of available positions, with only 9 of these positions having a single applicant. Similar findings were seen for tenured positions. For 2 positions, no men applied. These were the 2 cases in which there was only 1 applicant. Conversely, no women applied to 16 tenured jobs, or 16.5 percent of the positions; only 7 of these were single-applicant positions. This finding may lend credence to the anecdotal argument sometimes propounded by chairs or search committees that no women applied for particular advertised positions (Brennan, 1996; see especially p. 9).

Considering the data by discipline, in the instance of tenure-track positions, most of the cases (29 of 32) in which only men applied occurred in physics or the engineering fields. For tenured positions, 10 of the 16 cases occurred in chemistry (6) and physics (4). This may reflect the fact that engineering and physics have a lower percentage of female doctorates or that female engineers and physicists are more likely to prefer employment outside of major research universities.

Finally, how do the percentages of female applicants relate to the percentage of women in the doctoral pool from which departments are drawing? One might expect the proportion of female applicants to be similar to the percentage



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