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TABLE 3-4 Percentage of Positions for Which No Women Were Interviewed by Type of Position




Actual Percentage of All-Male Interview Pools

Probability of All-Male Poolsa

Actual Percentage of All-Male Interview Pools

Probability of All-Male Poolsa


25 (20)


22 (111)



50 (18)


22 (123)


Civil Engineering

46 (13)


33 (72)


Electrical Engineering

42 (12)


35 (75)



39 (28)


13 (96)



32 (25)


38 (124)


NOTES: Actual number of cases is given in parentheses. The expected number of positions with no women interviewed given the size and gender composition of the applicant pools (see Table 3-3) is computed as described in the text.

The percentage of positions for which no women were interviewed is based on tenured and tenure-track positions for which complete information about gender of all interviewees was available. The data used to construct these values are the same as those used to calculate the statistics showing those interviewed divided by the total number of positions of each type and in each discipline for which complete gender information for all interviewees was available.

aThese values are the probabilities of an all-male interview pool assuming that five interviewees were selected, the population of applicants was very large, and the frequency of men and women in the applicant pool equaled the percentages from Table 3-3.

SOURCE: Survey of departments carried out by the Committee on Gender Differences in Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty.

example, assuming five candidates were interviewed for each position, using a simple binary calculation and the proportion of females in the applicant pool from Table 3-3, for tenure-track positions we would expect about 50 percent of the interview pools to include no women in physics, 56 percent in electrical engineering, and 42 percent in civil engineering—the three areas with the lowest representation of women among applicants. In biology, we would expect about 24 percent of the tenure-track interview pools to include no women, again assuming five individuals are on average interviewed for each tenure-track position. In chemistry, the expected percentage of interview pools with no women is 37 percent and in mathematics it is 33 percent. In all cases the percentage of male-only interview pools for tenure-track positions in the six disciplines is smaller than the corresponding probability of an all-male pool. There are significant discipline differences. Electrical engineering and mathematics have the largest difference (21 percent and 20 percent, respectively) between their probability of an all-male pool and their actual interview pools of applicants.

This finding suggests that once tenure-track women apply to a position,

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