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onstrates that there is variability by discipline hidden by Table 3-5. However, the general pattern remains. Once again—similar to the case for interviews compared to applicants—women receive a greater percentage of first offers than interviews for all fields in the case of tenure-track positions. This finding also holds for tenured positions, except—interestingly—for biology.

Factors Associated with a Higher Probability that a Woman Will Be Offered a Position

The department typically decides who will receive an offer. Thus, the statistical analysis of offers made focused on departmental and institutional variables. Most of the factors included in the applicant and interview models are also used here: discipline; departmental climate, as measured by female faculty, female faculty on the search committee and family-friendly policies; public versus private universities; prestige; and intervention by a dean in the selection process. For availability, the model for offers uses the percentage of interviewees who were women—the dependent variable from the last model. It is assumed that there is a positive relationship between the percentage of interviews of women and the likelihood a woman will be offered the position.

Statistical Analysis

The response variable of interest was binary: a woman was first offered the position or the position was offered to a man. We considered all the institutional and position-level variables described earlier, with the following modifications. Instead of the percentage of female applicants, we now included the percentage of women in the interview pool, and instead of an indicator of whether the candidate pool is reviewed by a dean or an external committee, we included an indicator of whether a dean approves the hiring recommendation made by the committee. Since the probability that a woman will be offered the position when none was interviewed is clearly zero, we restricted these analyses to those positions for which interview pools included at least one woman. Similarly, we also deleted from these analyses those positions for which all interviewees were women. Thus, results presented here are conditional on having at least one woman and at least one man in the interview pool.

The only two factors that appear to be associated with the probability that a woman will be offered the position first are the percentage of women in the interview pool (p < 0.001) and whether the dean approved an offer (weak association with p = 0.06). When the dean reviews offers, the probability that a woman will be offered a position is 0.38, with a confidence interval of 0.26 to 0.50. This value is significantly larger than the 0.06 (95 percent confidence interval of 0.00 to 0.51) obtained in cases in which the dean has no role in reviewing offers. (The uncertainty around this latter value is high because of a very small sample size.



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