Appendix C
Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff

Robert S. Lawrence, MD (Chair), is the Center for a Livable Future Professor and Professor of Environmental Health Sciences, Health Policy, and International Health at The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Lawrence is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School, and trained in internal medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. He served for 3 years as an epidemic intelligence service officer at the Centers for Disease Control, U.S. Public Health Service. Dr. Lawrence is a Master of the American College of Physicians and a Fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine, and a member of the Institute of Medicine, the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine, the American Public Health Association, and Physicians for Human Rights. From 1970 to 1974, he was a member of the faculty of medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he helped develop a primary health care system funded by the Office of Economic Opportunity. In 1974, he was appointed as the first director of the Division of Primary Care at Harvard Medical School, where he subsequently served as Charles S. Davidson Associate Professor of Medicine and Chief of Medicine at the Cambridge Hospital until 1991. From 1991 to 1995, he was director of Health Sciences at the Rockefeller Foundation. From 1984 to 1989, Dr. Lawrence chaired the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force of the Department of Health and Human Services; he served on the successor Preventive Services Task Force from 1990 to 1995. He currently serves as a consultant to the Task Force on Community Preventive Services at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Dr. Lawrence has participated in human rights investigations on behalf of Physicians for Human Rights



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Appendix C Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff Robert S. Lawrence, MD (Chair), is the Center for a Livable Future Pro- fessor and Professor of Environmental Health Sciences, Health Policy, and International Health at The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Lawrence is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School, and trained in internal medicine at the Massachusetts Gen- eral Hospital in Boston. He served for 3 years as an epidemic intelligence service officer at the Centers for Disease Control, U.S. Public Health Ser- vice. Dr. Lawrence is a Master of the American College of Physicians and a Fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine, and a member of the Institute of Medicine, the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medi- cine, the American Public Health Association, and Physicians for Human Rights. From 1970 to 1974, he was a member of the faculty of medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he helped develop a primary health care system funded by the Office of Economic Opportunity. In 1974, he was appointed as the first director of the Division of Primary Care at Harvard Medical School, where he subsequently served as Charles S. Davidson Associate Professor of Medicine and Chief of Medicine at the Cambridge Hospital until 1991. From 1991 to 1995, he was director of Health Sciences at the Rockefeller Foundation. From 1984 to 1989, Dr. Lawrence chaired the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force of the Depart- ment of Health and Human Services; he served on the successor Preventive Services Task Force from 1990 to 1995. He currently serves as a consul- tant to the Task Force on Community Preventive Services at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Dr. Lawrence has participated in human rights investigations on behalf of Physicians for Human Rights 7

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 ADOLESCENT HEALTH SERVICES (PHR) and other human rights groups in Chile, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, El Salvador, Guatemala, Kosovo, the Philippines, and South Africa. In 1996 Dr. Lawrence became founding director of the Center for a Livable Future at the Bloomberg School of Public Health,―an interdisciplinary group of faculty and staff that examines the relationships among diet, food produc- tion systems, the environment, and human health. Linda H. Bearinger, PhD, RN, FAAN, is professor in the University of Min- nesota’s School of Nursing and director of the Center of Adolescent Nurs- ing, with joint appointments in the Schools of Medicine and Public Health. She has worked in adolescent health for more than 30 years, in schools, clinics, and public health settings. In her work with vulnerable youth, she has provided services ranging from home visiting and school health to pro- gram development in numerous community settings. Her research focuses on strategies for protecting vulnerable youth from potentially lifelong prob- lems associated with risky behaviors. Dr. Bearinger lectures and consults nationally and internationally on youth development and the translation of research to practice and policy. She has served on adolescent health expert panels for the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the National Institutes of Health, and the federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau of the Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Department of Health and Hu- man Services. Based on her leadership in the field of adolescent health, Dr. Bearinger was named 2004 Adele Hoffman Visiting Research Professor in Adolescent Medicine and Health—the first nurse ever to receive this award from the Society for Adolescent Medicine. She has authored more than 40 peer-reviewed publications, all of which focus on youth issues, as well as articles on the training of health professionals for work with adolescents. She received a BSN in nursing from St. Olaf College, an MS in community health nursing from the University of Colorado, and a PhD in educational psychology from the University of Minnesota. Shay Bilchik, JD, serves as research professor and director of Georgetown University’s Center for Juvenile Justice Reform. Housed in the Georgetown Public Policy Institute, the Center is supporting juvenile justice reform through a multisystems approach. The primary activity of the Center is the engagement of public agency leaders in short, intensive periods of study focused on the key elements of a strong reform agenda. Prior to his current position, Mr. Bilchik was president and CEO of the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA). In that position, he was instrumental in for- mulating CWLA’s child welfare financing reform initiative; began a series of program initiatives and collaborations to strengthen supports for Na- tive American children and families; was an outspoken critic of the death penalty for juveniles; and spearheaded CWLA’s support for gay, lesbian,

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 APPENDIX C bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth, and the adoption of children by gay parents. In 2001, 2004, 2005, and 2006, he was named among The NonProfit Times Power and Influence Top 50 for making his mark in the public policy arena and championing child welfare issues. At the request of the governor of Maryland, Mr. Bilchik served for three years as chair of the State Advisory Board to the Department of Juvenile Justice. Cardinal Theodore McCarrick also appointed him to chair the Child Protection Advisory Board of the Archdiocese of Washington, DC. From March 2003 through February 2007, he chaired the National Collaboration for Youth, a coalition of more than 40 national youth-serving organizations. He has also served on the Ad Council’s Children’s Campaign Advisory Board since April 2003. Prior to his position at CWLA, he served as Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Administrator from 1994 to 2000; was an Associate Deputy Attorney General within the U.S. Department of Justice; and held varied positions in the Miami, Florida State Attorney’s Office from 1977 to 1993. Mr. Bilchik earned his BS and JD degrees from the University of Florida. Sarah S. Brown, MPH, is co-founder and CEO of the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. Previously she was a senior study director at the Institute of Medicine, where she led numerous stud- ies in the broad field of maternal and child health. Her last major report at the IOM resulted in the landmark volume, The Best Intentions: Unin- tended Pregnancy and the Well-being of Children and Families. She has served on the boards of many influential national organizations including the Guttmacher Institute, the Population Advisory Board of the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the DC Mayor’s Committee on Reducing Teenage Pregnan- cies and Out-of Wedlock Births, and Teen People magazine. She speaks frequently on issues of teen sex and unplanned pregnancy, and regularly appears in the television, radio, and print media. Ms. Brown has received numerous awards, including the Institute of Medicine’s Cecil Award for Excellence in Research; the John MacQueen Award for Excellence in Maternal and Child Health from the Association of Maternal and Child Health Programs; and the Martha May Elliot Award of the American Pub- lic Health Association. She holds an undergraduate degree from Stanford University and a Masters in Public Health degree from the University of North Carolina. Laurie Chassin, PhD, is Regents Professor of Psychology at the Prevention Research Center of Arizona State University. Her research interests include understanding the development of substance abuse/dependence in adoles- cence and adulthood (cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and illegal drug use).

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20 ADOLESCENT HEALTH SERVICES Dr. Chassin conducts longitudinal studies of children and families at risk for substance abuse/dependence and associated mental health disorders. She received her PhD from Columbia University. Thomas G. DeWitt, MD (Board on Children, Youth, and Families liaison), is Carl Weihl Professor of Pediatrics, director of the Division of General and Community Pediatrics, and associate chair for education in the Depart- ment of Pediatrics at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. He is a peer reviewer for many medical journals, including Pediatrics, the New England Journal of Medicine, and the American Journal of Public Health. Having served as president of the Academic Pediatric Association and chair of the Steering Committee of the American Academy of Pediatrics’ Pediatric Research in Office Settings (PROS) network and the Committee on Pediatric Education, he recently completed service on the National Academy of Sciences’ Board on Children, Youth, and Families’ Committee on Adolescent Health and currently is a member of the United States Preventative Services Task Force and the ACGME Pediatric Residency Review Committee. With over 70 published articles and chapters, he is known nationally and internationally for his work in the areas of faculty development and community-based education and research. He has a BA from Amherst College, an MD de- gree from University of Rochester, and completed a pediatric residency and Robert Wood Johnson fellowship at Yale. Nancy Dubler, LLB, is Bioethics Consultant at Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx NY and Professor Emerita, the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Professor Dubler works primarily in Clinical Ethics Consultation and in Bioethics Mediation. She lectures extensively and is the author of numer- ous articles and books on termination of care, home and long-term care, geriatrics, adolescent rights and interests, prison and jail health care, and AIDS. She founded the Montefiore Medical Center Division of Bioethics the Clinical Ethics Consultation Service. She also founded the Certificate Program in Bioethics and Medical Humanities, Her most recent books are The Ethics and Regulation of Research with Human Subjects (Coleman, Menikoff, Goldner and Dubler, Lexis/Nexis, 2005); Bioethics Mediation: A Guide to Shaping Shared Solution (co-authored with Carol Lieberman) United Hospital Fund, New York, New York, 2004); and Ethics for Health Care Organizations: Theory, Case Studies, and Tools (with Jeffery Bluestein and Linda Farber Post, 2002). She consults frequently with federal agencies, national working groups, and bioethics centers. Burton L. Edelstein, DDS, MPH, is a board-certified pediatric dentist and professor in the College of Dental Medicine and the Mailman School of

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2 APPENDIX C Public Health at Columbia University in New York City. At the dental school, he is chairman of the Section on Social and Behavioral Sciences. He is founding director of the Children’s Dental Health Project, a nonprofit policy organization in Washington, DC, that advances children’s oral health and access to dental care. Dr. Edelstein practiced pediatric dentistry in Con- necticut and taught at Harvard University for 21 years before committing to full-time health policy practice. He has served as a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow in the U.S. Senate, worked with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services on its oral health initiatives, chaired the U.S. Surgeon General’s Workshop on Children and Oral Health, and authored the child section of the U.S. Surgeon General’s report on oral health in America. Dr. Edelstein is a graduate of the State University of New York, Buffalo, School of Dentistry; Harvard School of Public Health; and the Boston Children’s Hospital pediatric dentistry residency program. Harriette B. Fox, MSS, is CEO of Incenter Strategies, the National Alliance to Advance Adolescent Health, whose mission is to achieve fundamental improvements in the way that adolescent health care is financed and deliv- ered. She formerly was co-director of the Maternal and Child Health Policy Center and president of Fox Health Policy Consultants. Ms. Fox has more than 30 years of experience in child and adolescent health policy research and analysis, strategic planning, and state technical assistance. Her work currently focuses on the development of sustainable models of integrated physical and behavioral health care for adolescents and improvements in training for providers who serve them. A widely published author, Ms. Fox has directed numerous studies of health care access by low-income youth and youth with complex physical and mental health problems, focusing on Medicaid and SCHIP policies, private health insurance coverage, and man- aged care, and design of public programs serving children and adolescents. Ms. Fox holds a master of social services degree from the Bryn Mawr Graduate School of Social Work and Social Research. Charles E. Irwin, Jr., MD, is professor and vice chairman of Pediatrics and Director of the Division of Adolescent Medicine at the University of Cali- fornia, San Francisco (UCSF) School of Medicine. He is a faculty member of the Institute for Health Policy Studies at UCSF and directs both the Public Policy Analysis and Education Center for Middle Childhood, Adolescent and Young Adult Health and the National Adolescent Health Information Center. His research has focused on risky behaviors during adolescence and on methods of identifying adolescents who are prone to initiate health-dam- aging behaviors during the second decade of life. Most recently his work has expanded to include interventions for improving the delivery of clinical preventive services for adolescents and young adults and improving health

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22 ADOLESCENT HEALTH SERVICES outcomes. Dr. Irwin is the author of more than 100 publications and the editor of several texts focusing on pediatric and adolescent health. He has been recognized by the American Academy of Pediatrics with the Adele Hofmann Lifetime Achievement Award in Adolescent Health (1998), the Society for Adolescent Medicine’s Outstanding Achievement Award (1999) and the Swedish Society of Medicine (1997). Dr. Irwin served as the first chair of the American Board of Pediatrics’ Sub-board of Adolescent Medi- cine (1991–1998) and the president of the Society for Adolescent Medicine (2002–2003). In 2004, he assumed the position of editor-in-chief of the Journal of Adolescent Health. Dr. Irwin received a BS degree in biology from Hobart College, a BMS degree from Dartmouth Medical School, and an MD degree from the University of California, San Francisco. Kelly Kelleher, MD, MPH, is professor of pediatrics, psychiatry, and pub- lic health in the Division of Behavioral and Developmental Pediatrics in the Colleges of Medicine and Public Health at The Ohio State University. He is Director of the Center for Innovation in Pediatric Practice at the Nationwide Children’s Hospital. He earned his MD from The Ohio State University, completed his pediatric residency at Northwestern University, and obtained an MPH in epidemiology from The Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Kelleher’s research interests focus on accessibility, effectiveness, and quality of health care services for children and their families, especially those affected by mental disorders, substance abuse, or violence. He has a long-standing interest in formal outcomes research for mental health and substance abuse services. He is currently a study section member at the Na- tional Institute of Drug Abuse and on the Steering Committee of the Mental Health Services Task Force for the American Academy of Pediatrics. Genevieve Kenney, PhD, is a principal research associate and health econo- mist in the Health Policy Center at The Urban Institute in Washington, DC. She is a nationally renowned expert on The State Children’s Health Insur- ance Program (SCHIP), Medicaid, and the broader coverage and health issues facing low-income children and families. She has published on a range of issues related to these topics, including the impacts of SCHIP and Medicaid on insurance coverage, crowd out, and access to care; take up and barriers to enrollment; managed care impacts; access and use patterns related to socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, and language; effects of pre- mium increases; and how parents’ health and coverage status affects their children. Dr. Kenney is regularly called upon by Medicaid and SCHIP of- ficials from around the country and by congressional staff to provide input on policy issues related to insurance coverage for children. She was a lead researcher on two major evaluations of the SCHIP: a congressionally man- dated evaluation for the United States Department of Health and Human

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2 APPENDIX C Services and an evaluation supported by a number of private foundations. Dr. Kenney is a graduate of Smith College and received a PhD in economics and an MA in statistics from the University of Michigan. Julia Graham Lear, PhD, is research professor in the Department of Pre- vention and Community Health and director of the department’s Center for Health and Health Care in Schools at The George Washington Uni- versity School of Public Health and Health Services. Her research interests center on the organization and delivery of health and prevention services for children, particularly in schools. Dr. Lear has assessed best practice in implementing school-based health centers and approaches to integrating traditional school health programs into schools and communities, and is currently working on web-based surveys, cultural competence, and oral health. She received her PhD in law and diplomacy from Tufts University. Dr. Lear chairs the District of Columbia School Health Advisory Committee and serves on advisory boards for a number of organizations, including the National Education Association Health Information Network and the Na- tional Coordinating Council for School Health. Dr. Lear’s work in school health has been recognized with the Achievement Award from the National Assembly on School-Based Health Care, the Integrity Award from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and the Martin C. Ushkow Community Service Award from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Eduardo Ochoa, Jr., MD, is associate professor of pediatrics at the Depart- ment of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, and the assistant dean for minority affairs of the College of Public Health, at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences. He is a general pediatrician and an expert in reaching out to the Latino community. Dr. Ochoa previously was Chief Resident in Pediatrics at Arkansas Children’s Hospital. He is a board member of Just Communities of Central Arkansas, La Casa Health Network and Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families, and is the President of the Arkansas Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Dr. Ochoa received his bachelor’s degree from Princeton University and his MD from Texas Tech University, and completed his pediatric residency at Arkansas Children’s Hospital. He has worked on studies involving racial and ethnic health dis- parities, disease prevention, health promotion, and health education among emerging Hispanic communities in Arkansas. He, along with a colleague, conducted a legislatively enabled, comprehensive descriptive analysis of health disparities in Arkansas. Frederick P. Rivara, MD, MPH, currently holds The Children’s Hospital Guild Association Endowed Chair in Pediatrics and is professor of pediat- rics at the University of Washington School of Medicine; Adjunct Professor

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2 ADOLESCENT HEALTH SERVICES of Epidemiology in the University of Washington School of Public Health; and vice-chair of the Department of Pediatrics and head of the Division of General Pediatrics at the University of Washington School of Medicine. He is editor of the Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. Dr. Rivara’s current research interests include preventing intimate partner vio- lence, reducing alcohol-related trauma, determining the long-term outcomes of children with traumatic brain injuries, and studying the effectiveness of trauma systems in the care of pediatric and adult trauma patients. He served as founding director of the Harborview Injury and Research Center in Seattle for 13 years and founding president of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention. His contributions to the field have spanned 30 years. Dr. Rivara has received numerous honors, includ- ing the Charles C. Shepard Science Award from CDC, the American Public Health Association’s Injury Control and Emergency Health Services Section Distinguished Career Award, and the American Academy of Pediatrics’ Sec- tion on Injury and Poison Prevention Physician Achievement Award. He is a member of the Institute of Medicine Section 09 for public health, biosta- tistics, and epidemiology. Dr. Rivara received his MD from the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Vinod K. Sahney, PhD, is currently senior vice president and chief strategy officer for Corporate Strategy, Planning, and Business Development at Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts. He was a leader in the founding of the Massachusetts-based Institute for HealthCare Improvement (IHI) and cur- rently serves on its Board of Directors. Dr. Sahney has also served as visiting professor at the Harvard University School of Public Health for the past 31 years. He was previously at Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, where he was Senior Vice President for Planning and Strategic Development. He is an elected member of both the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Engineering. Dr. Sahney has published more than 50 articles in peer-reviewed journals and authored two books and ten chapters in books on health care administration. He holds a PhD from the University of Wis- consin, Madison; a master’s degree from Purdue; and a bachelor’s degree from the Birla Institute of Technology in Ranchi, India. Mark A. Schuster, MD, PhD, is chief of general pediatrics and vice chair for health policy research in the Department of Medicine at Children’s Hospital Boston and Professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School. He previously served in similar positions at UCLA and was Director of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention at RAND, where he held the RAND Distinguished Chair in Health Promotion. He also founded and led the UCLA/RAND Center for Adolescent Health Promotion, a community-

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25 APPENDIX C based participatory research center funded by the CDC. Dr. Schuster con- ducts research primarily on child, adolescent, and family issues. Currently, he is leading studies to develop and evaluate a worksite-based parenting program for parents of adolescents to foster healthy sexual development and sexual risk prevention; partner with a school district to prevent obesity; examine the impact of government-mandated paid family leave insurance on families of children with chronic illness; and understand the experi- ences of children with HIV-infected parents. He leads the Los Angeles site of “Healthy Passages,” a longitudinal study of factors that influence sub- stance use, violence, injuries, physical activity, nutrition, sexual behavior, and mental/physical health among ~5,000 youth. He has also conducted research on quality of health care. Dr. Schuster is co-author of Everything You Never Wanted Your Kids to Know About Sex (But Were Afraid They’d Ask): The Secrets to Surviving Your Child’s Sexual Development from Birth to the Teens (Crown; 2003) and co-editor of Child Rearing in America: Challenges Facing Parents of Young Children (Cambridge University Press; 2002). He received his BA from Yale, his MD from Harvard Medical School, his MPP from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard, and his PhD from RAND Graduate School. He did his pediatrics residency at Children’s Hospital Boston and his fellowship with the Robert Wood John- son Clinical Scholars Program at UCLA. Lonnie Sherrod, PhD, received his PhD from Yale University in 1978. He is currently executive director of the Society for Research in Child Develop- ment (SRCD). He has been professor of psychology in Fordham University’s Applied Developmental Psychology Program, executive vice president of the William T. Grant Foundation, a private independent foundation that funds research on child and youth development, and has served on the staff of the Social Science Research Council, which builds areas of new interdisciplinary research. He edits The Social Policy Reports. He has been on the Board of the Federation of Cognitive, Behavioral and Psychological Sciences; has been chair and a member of the Committee on Child Devel- opment, Public Policy and Public Information of the Society for Research in Child Development; has been on the Executive Council of Division 7 of the American Psychological Association; has served as liaison to the Committee on Children, Youth and Families; and has been on the Program Committee for the Administration on Children, Youth and Families bien- nial Conference on Head Start Research. He frequently serves as reviewer for the National Science Foundation, the William T. Grant Foundation, and other funders. He is on the editorial boards of the International Journal of Behavioral Development, NHSA Dialogue, and Children’s Services: Social Policy, Research and Practice.

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2 ADOLESCENT HEALTH SERVICES Matthew Stagner, PhD, is executive director of Chapin Hall at the Univer- sity of Chicago, a multidisciplinary policy research center with a staff of more than 100. His areas of research interest include youth risk behaviors and youth development, child welfare services, family formation policy, and the systematic review of evidence for policy making. Until September 2006, Dr. Stagner was director of the Center on Labor, Human Services, and Population at the Urban Institute in Washington, DC. He previously directed the Division of Children and Youth Policy, in the Office of the As- sistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. He holds a PhD from the Irving B. Harris School of Public Policy Studies at the University of Chicago and an MPP from Har- vard University’s John F. Kennedy School of Government. Leslie R. Walker, MD, FAAP, is associate professor and chief of the Adoles- cent Medicine Section in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Seattle Children’s Hospital. Until February 2007, she was associate professor and chief of adolescent medicine in the Depart- ment of Pediatrics at Georgetown University Medical Center. Dr. Walker is an adolescent medicine specialist with interest in mental health and substance abuse services for teenagers and support services for their par- ents. She is an expert in adolescent development, adolescent psychosocial issues, mental health, and substance abuse treatment. Dr. Walker’s research has been in transitional health care, pregnancy prevention, and substance abuse. She received her BA from Stanford University and her MD from the University of Illinois in 1990. She received her pediatric training at the University of Chicago and completed her adolescent medicine fellowship at the University of California, San Francisco, in 1996. She currently serves on the Board of Directors for the Society for Adolescent Medicine and the Board of Directors for the Youth Suicide Prevention Program. STAFF Jennifer Appleton Gootman is a senior program officer at the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences, the National Academies, where she is currently study director for the study on adolescent health care. She recently completed a study on Contributions from the Behavioral and Social Sciences to the Reduction and Prevention of Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Teen Drivers. Prior to that she directed a study for the Food and Nutrition Board—Food Marketing to Children and Youth: Threat or Opportunity?—that examines the influence of food and beverage marketing on the diets and health of children and youth. Just before directing this study, she took leave from the National Academies to participate in the Ian Axford Fellowship in Public Policy, working in New

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27 APPENDIX C zealand to examine and publish a report on New zealand’s national youth development strategy and related child and youth policies. Prior to this fellowship, she directed and disseminated two studies—Community Pro- grams to Promote Youth Development and Working Families and Growing Kids—for the Board on Children, Youth, and Families. She was previously a social science analyst for the Office of Planning and Evaluation in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Her work focused on child and family policy for low-income families, including welfare reform, child care, child health, youth development, and teen pregnancy prevention issues. She has directed a number of community youth programs in Los Angeles and New York City, involving young people in leadership development, job preparedness, and community service. She received her BA in education and fine arts from the University of Southern California and her MA in public policy from the New School for Social Research. Leslie J. Sim is a program officer for the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, working on studies on adolescent health care and parental de- pression. Ms. Sim has worked with the Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and the Institute of Medicine since 2001. During that time, she has progressed through several positions and multiple stud- ies. Her most recent achievements include her role in directing a workshop study and report titled Influence of Pregnancy Weight on Maternal and Child Health: Workshop Report (2006), as well as her involvement in the above-mentioned study on adolescent health care. In 2003, Ms. Sim received recognition as a recipient of an Institute of Medicine inspirational staff award. In her earlier work with the Institute of Medicine’s Food and Nutrition Board, she provided web support for all Board activities for more than four years and participated in multiple studies on military nutrition and food marketing to children and youth. She previously worked both as a research assistant in the Food Science Department and laboratory assistant for an undergraduate Food Science Laboratory class at North Carolina State University. She received her BS degree in biology with an emphasis on food science from Virginia Tech, and has taken classes in food science and public health from North Carolina State University and A.T. Still University. Reine Homawoo is senior project assistant for the parental depression study of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families. Ms. Homawoo joined the Board’s staff in August 2007 following the completion of several studies within the Institute of Medicine’s Board on Military and Veterans’ Health. She is currently pursuing a BS in information system management at the University of Maryland University College. Ms. Homawoo has com- pleted courses at Northern Virginia Community College and also received

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2 ADOLESCENT HEALTH SERVICES an associate’s degree in computer programming (with honors) from the National Center for Computer Studies in Togo, Africa. April Higgins is a graduate of the University of Memphis, where she stud- ied political science with a minor in philosophy. She joined the staff of the National Academies in July 2006 as senior program assistant for the adolescent health care study. Prior to that time, she worked at the Close- Up Foundation as Capitol Hill Program Coordinator. She has worked with many nonprofit and government organizations, including Girls Inc., YWCA, Habitat for Humanity, and St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital. Rosemary Chalk is director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Fami- lies, a collaboration of the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine. She is a policy analyst who has served as a study director for the National Academies since 1987. She has directed or served as a senior staff member for more than a dozen studies within the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, including studies on vaccine finance, the public health infrastructure for immunization, family violence, child abuse and neglect, research ethics and misconduct in science, and education finance. Ms. Chalk has also conducted research projects or policy studies for Child Trends in Washington, DC, and the Congressional Research Ser- vice at the Library of Congress. She was program head for the Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility of the American Association for the Advancement of Science from 1976 to 1986. Ms. Chalk holds a BA in foreign affairs from the University of Cincinnati. Wendy E. Keenan is program associate for the Board on Children, Youth, and Families. She provides administrative and research support for the Board and its various program committees. She also helps organize plan- ning meetings and workshops that cover current issues related to children, youth, and families. Ms. Keenan has been on the National Academies’ staff for more than eight years and worked on studies for both the National Re- search Council and the Institute of Medicine. As senior program assistant, she worked with the National Research Council’s Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences. Prior to joining the National Academies, Ms. Keenan taught English as a second language for Washington, DC, public schools. She received a BA in sociology from The Pennsylvania State University and took graduate courses in liberal studies from Georgetown University.