an associate’s degree in computer programming (with honors) from the National Center for Computer Studies in Togo, Africa.

April Higgins is a graduate of the University of Memphis, where she studied political science with a minor in philosophy. She joined the staff of the National Academies in July 2006 as senior program assistant for the adolescent health care study. Prior to that time, she worked at the Close-Up Foundation as Capitol Hill Program Coordinator. She has worked with many nonprofit and government organizations, including Girls Inc., YWCA, Habitat for Humanity, and St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital.

Rosemary Chalk is director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, a collaboration of the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine. She is a policy analyst who has served as a study director for the National Academies since 1987. She has directed or served as a senior staff member for more than a dozen studies within the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, including studies on vaccine finance, the public health infrastructure for immunization, family violence, child abuse and neglect, research ethics and misconduct in science, and education finance. Ms. Chalk has also conducted research projects or policy studies for Child Trends in Washington, DC, and the Congressional Research Service at the Library of Congress. She was program head for the Committee on Scientific Freedom and Responsibility of the American Association for the Advancement of Science from 1976 to 1986. Ms. Chalk holds a BA in foreign affairs from the University of Cincinnati.

Wendy E. Keenan is program associate for the Board on Children, Youth, and Families. She provides administrative and research support for the Board and its various program committees. She also helps organize planning meetings and workshops that cover current issues related to children, youth, and families. Ms. Keenan has been on the National Academies’ staff for more than eight years and worked on studies for both the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine. As senior program assistant, she worked with the National Research Council’s Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences. Prior to joining the National Academies, Ms. Keenan taught English as a second language for Washington, DC, public schools. She received a BA in sociology from The Pennsylvania State University and took graduate courses in liberal studies from Georgetown University.

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