3
Mastering the Future

In the course of our nation’s history, our leadership has made bold moves to equip our people with the skills and knowledge needed for the future. These moves, reflecting the needs of their times, have been critical to the social and economic development of our nation. The Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 provided states with the resources to establish and grow postsecondary educational institutions whose mission would include the development of agriculture and engineering and increasing access to higher education. A second Morrill Act, passed in 1890, required states to show that either race was not a factor in admission to state universities or they had established institutions of higher education that would serve the states’ African-American population. This resulted in new institutions that are now among the nation’s historically black colleges and universities.

Similarly, the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944—commonly known as the GI Bill—provided a range of benefits for World War II (and later Korean War) veterans after they returned from war, including payment of tuition for vocational or college education. This benefit dramatically altered educational opportunities for Americans, with substantial social benefits for those who used this as a stepping-stone to the middle class and with huge gains to the American economy, which benefited from a growing number of educated workers.

In addition to these landmark developments, the federal role continued to grow in key ways. Enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1958 in response to the launch of Sputnik and the emerging threat posed by the



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3 Mastering the Future In the course of our nation’s history, our leadership has made bold moves to equip our people with the skills and knowledge needed for the future. These moves, reflecting the needs of their times, have been critical to the social and economic development of our nation. The Morrill Land Grant Act of 1862 provided states with the resources to establish and grow postsecondary educational institutions whose mission would include the development of agriculture and engineering and increasing access to higher education. A second Morrill Act, passed in 1890, required states to show that either race was not a factor in admission to state universities or they had established institutions of higher education that would serve the states’ African-American population. This resulted in new institu- tions that are now among the nation’s historically black colleges and universities. Similarly, the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act of 1944—commonly known as the GI Bill—provided a range of benefits for World War II (and later Korean War) veterans after they returned from war, including pay- ment of tuition for vocational or college education. This benefit dramati- cally altered educational opportunities for Americans, with substantial social benefits for those who used this as a stepping-stone to the middle class and with huge gains to the American economy, which benefited from a growing number of educated workers. In addition to these landmark developments, the federal role con- tinued to grow in key ways. Enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1958 in response to the launch of Sputnik and the emerging threat posed by the 

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 SCIENCE PROFESSIONALS Soviet Union, the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) provided support for education in critical areas of national need. NDEA provided funding to enhance research facilities; fellowships for thousands of gradu- ate students pursuing degrees in science, mathematics, engineering, and foreign languages; and low-interest loans to undergraduates in these fields. Funding for NDEA (adjusted to 2008 U.S. dollars) was about $500 million to $600 million. By the 1970s, other federal programs had largely superseded NDEA, but those provided an important further expansion of federal support for undergraduate education through student loans, tax policy, and grants.1 There is growing consensus that we are again at one of those moments when we need bold action. Technology has driven American growth and provides opportunities for the future. The competition for talent, both domestically and globally, is challenging U.S. technological leadership, and the nation needs to act. Talent is one of the important keys to innova- tion and competitive success. The master’s-trained segment of the science workforce is pivotal: strengthened master’s education in the natural sci- ences will prepare professionals who bring scientific knowledge and also the ability to anticipate, adapt, learn, and lead where and when needed. The traditional science master’s degree does not meet this need. A reinvigorated master’s degree in the natural sciences provides an oppor- tunity to meet this challenge by training adaptive innovators and service scientists solidly based in science, linked to industry, and possessing communication, business, and teamwork skills. The enhanced master’s programs recommended in the following section will provide students with connections to real-world problems. The graduates will be entrepre- neurial, experienced in teamwork, and focused on problem solving. The programs will produce graduates who have a deep knowledge of science, the ability to work at the intersection of science fields, and practical busi- ness skills that will allow them to make a contribution in the workplace from day one. The time is now right to accelerate and spread nationally the devel- opment of this new concept—that is, professional science master’s (PSM) education that is interdisciplinary in character, strongly emphasizes effec- tive communication and problem solving, and provides an understanding of entrepreneurial skills and technical innovation. Successful programs that have responded to this challenge have engaged collaboratively a broad set of stakeholders—employers, prospective students, faculty, gov- ernment agencies, and other funders—in designing curricula, defining 1 See Box 7-2. The National Defense Education Act. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, Rising Aboe the Gathering Storm, 169.

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 MASTERING THE FUTURE education projects and internships, and advocating this new educational opportunity. These programs do not displace traditional master’s programs. Rather, faculty develop them to serve the needs of students who require a different graduate experience for the workplace: banks, insurance and financial companies, and large firms who hire graduates of PSM programs in financial and industrial mathematics; a maturing biotechnology indus- try with a growing need for middle managers who have both scientific knowledge and broader business skills; services corporations like IBM that require employees with depth in science and breadth in business and customer skills; and government employers (particularly in the military, intelligence, and homeland security agencies) that have an increasing need for science- and technology-savvy staff, particularly those with an interdisciplinary background. FINDINgS After extensive information gathering and deliberation, we recom- mend concerted action to accelerate the development nationally of profes- sional science master’s education. This recommendation is based on the following findings: 1. In the natural sciences, the master’s degree is as varied in its pur- pose as it is in any broad field. Master’s degrees in fields such as physics, chemistry, the biological sciences, and mathematics have typically signi- fied either a “stepping-stone” en route to the doctorate or a “consolation prize” for those who were not admitted to candidacy or dropped out. Master’s degrees in computer science and the geosciences, by contrast, have typically prepared graduates for the workplace. In the early part of the 20th century, professional and graduate education took divergent paths and physics, chemistry, and biology are exemplars of classical grad- uate education. Professional degrees, by contrast, served as credentials for practice. During the last 50 years, tremendous growth in master’s degrees awarded in fields such as education and business administration, however, has indicated the professionalization of master’s education. This trend has recently touched natural sciences such as the biological sci- ences and mathematics where traditional master’s programs continue—as they should—alongside the recent development of professional science master’s programs. 2. Higher education institutions are responding to the increased need for professionals who bring both scientific knowledge and professional skills to the workplace by developing PSM programs in the natural sci- ences that provide:

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 SCIENCE PROFESSIONALS • Advanced education in the sciences; • Opportunities for more interdisciplinary training, often in infor- matics, computation, or engineering, than a typical science degree; • Hands-on experiential learning through internships and team projects; • Professional skills and experience in communication, teamwork, project management, business administration, innovation and commer- cialization, legal and regulatory issues, ethics, and/or the international environment; and • Strong links with employers in industry, government, and nonprofits through external advisory boards, curriculum development, internships/ co-ops, mentoring, sponsored team projects, and employment. Examples of PSM programs that were presented to the committee showed that professional master’s education in the sciences can provide tailored, cost-effective, and attractive education and training to meet stu- dent and employer needs. 3. Professional master’s programs can and do attract students who want to work in nonacademic sectors, interdisciplinary careers, team- oriented environments, managerial or other professional-level positions, or emerging areas of science and scientific discovery. They appeal to students who typically do not pursue doctoral education, but seek career advancement, look to gain a competitive edge, or want to refine profes- sional and technical skills in order to reenter the workforce. 4. Salary and placement data for PSM and MBS graduates indicates strong and growing current demand for master’s-level science profession- als. Testimony to the committee provided specific examples of the demand for these graduates from biotechnology companies, banks and financial corporations, information technology firms, and government agencies. There is, moreover, broad support for expanding PSM education, voiced by the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, the National Science Board, the National Governors Association, the Council on Competitiveness, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the Association of American Universities, and the Council of Graduate Schools. We cannot, of course, precisely project future demand as many factors influence labor markets at any particular point in time. Our experience as employers and educators, however, leads us to believe that the current strong demand will continue to grow in the long run and that the nation will benefit from the development of a cadre of science-educated professionals. The gradu- ates of PSM and MBS programs will become process managers, service scientists, investment analysts, patent examiners, science and technology acquisition managers, forensic scientists, or other types of professional scientists. From among these, in the judgment of this committee, some

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 MASTERING THE FUTURE number will also emerge as leaders, executives, and in industry, govern- ment, and non-profit organizations. 5. Our review of the evolution of professional programs in other fields revealed the important role of foundations in shaping both the content and growth of programs in medicine, business, public health, and other areas. Foundation support—from the William M. Keck Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation—has been critical as well in the develop- ment of professional master’s programs in the sciences. In the committee’s judgment, future funding and support for professional master’s programs should be a responsibility shared by the federal government, state gov- ernments, philanthropic organizations, employers, and higher education institutions. RECOMMENDATIONS In August 2007, Congress passed the America COMPETES Act, which authorizes the National Science Foundation (NSF) to develop and imple- ment a program of grants to higher education institutions that may use them to develop or expand PSM degree programs. We see this as a step along the road toward growing a large cadre of science-trained profes- sionals in the United States who will address our nation’s workforce needs, and by extension our competitiveness, health, and security. yet stakeholders—notably the federal government, state governments, phil- anthropic institutions, national associations, higher education institutions, employers, and students—must undertake additional steps in order to secure the long-run success of our nation’s efforts to address this impor- tant workforce need. Federal government 1. To achieve specific national goals as well as meet general demand for science-trained professionals, we recommend the federal government expand the PSM program authorized in the COMPETES Act so that it is the responsibility of the NSF and all other major federal science agencies2 as well. We recommend that each agency program include two components: (1) a program of institutional PSM grants competitively awarded to four-year higher education institu- 2 The major federal science agencies are those that have the largest shares of federal research and development spending and together comprise more than 90 percent of such spending. These include, in addition to the NSF, the Departments of Defense, Energy, Health and Human Services (National Institutes of Health), Commerce (National Institute of Stan- dards and Technology and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Agriculture, Interior, and Homeland Security, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

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8 SCIENCE PROFESSIONALS tions for the establishment and start-up operations of PSM programs and (2) a program of National Innovation Scholarships that provides need-based scholarships for u.S. citizens who will use them to pay for tuition and expenses when they enroll in PSM programs. It is critical that Congress appropriate funds for this multi-agency pro- gram beginning in fiscal year 2009 and at an appropriate level. If this program flourishes and demand for PSM graduates increases as much as the committee expects it will, then program funding will need to be considerably larger than the levels that Congress has so far authorized. The federal government should create and fund a new program whose goal is to develop and expand professional master’s education in the natural sciences that meets local, regional, or national needs. We expect that, to meet those needs, many of these new master’s programs will be interdisciplinary in nature and that they, like the Sloan- and Keck- supported programs, will provide opportunities for students to acquire skills in communication, teamwork, project management, or other areas of business, ethics, or law. The America COMPETES Act authorizes the NSF director to develop a program that will award grants to four-year institu- tions to create or improve PSM degree programs in high-need fields. We support the creation of this NSF program and recommend that Congress also authorize other agencies across the federal government to develop such programs to address particular needs associated with the fields of science important to their missions. Given the national need for, and the return to the nation of, educat- ing science-trained professionals at the master’s level, we recommend that the federal government provide substantial funding for this national program. The America COMPETES Act authorizes the NSF to provide up to 200 institutional grants to create or expand PSM programs in four- year institutions in high-need fields that have an emphasis on practical training and preparation for the workforce. To fund these institutional programs the act authorizes funding for NSF to implement Section 7034 for up to $10 million in Fy 2008, $12 million in Fy 2009, and $15 million in Fy 2010. As noted above, these annual authorization levels for federal funding will be inadequate if this program flourishes and demand for PSM graduates increases as we believe it will. It is our hope, moreover, that overall funding and support for institutional PSM programs will be a shared responsibility of the federal government, state governments, private philanthropy, employers, and universities. To meet the goals of this effort, it is critical that federal funds support institutional programs that will produce graduates who meet employer needs—local, regional, or national. We expect that in their applications for

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 MASTERING THE FUTURE federal program support, institutions will demonstrate that they have a substantial and productive partnership both with employers and with the professional practice community. These partnerships should involve par- ticipation of employers and practitioners on an external advisory board and financial and/or in-kind support for the program. In-kind support may include mentoring, internship opportunities, support for hands-on team projects, and other program interaction. To help promote productive institution-employer relationships, we also recommend research on best practice in fostering interaction between employers and higher education programs in order to facilitate communication about employer needs and the development of curricula about those needs. Funding for this research could be provided by the federal government or private foundations. Either way, it would benefit PSM programs and also communication about other degree programs. We recommend that institutional grants provide funding for at least five years and perhaps up to ten. Experience with PSM degree programs has shown that five years is the minimum amount of time needed to obtain a return on the initial investment establishing a program. Institu- tional programs funded by the Sloan foundation were, initially, provided grants for a three-year period. Almost all of the institutions receiving those grants requested no-cost extensions that typically extended the grant period to about five years. To become permanently established, sus- tainable, and able to reach full capacity, programs will likely need support for up to ten years, with funding past year five linked to demonstrable progress. The America COMPETES Act establishes that the NSF director will carry out program evaluations and report the results of such evaluations to Congress. More specifically, the act mandates that the NSF director shall “complete an annual evaluation of each program assisted by grants under this section, requiring that any program that fails to satisfy the performance benchmarks developed under subparagraph (A) shall not be eligible for further funding.” While we agree with the provisions to report outcomes, and that NSF should coordinate this function across agencies, we believe that meaningful reporting will only be available after the program has been in place for five years. The America COMPETES Act mandates that the NSF director shall establish a clearinghouse—in collaboration with four-year institutions of higher education (including applicable graduate schools and academic departments) and industries and federal agencies that employ science- trained personnel—to share program elements used in successful PSM degree programs and other advanced degree programs related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Further, according to the act, the NSF director shall make the clearinghouse available to institu-

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0 SCIENCE PROFESSIONALS tions of higher education that are developing PSM degree programs. With support from the Sloan Foundation, Sciencemasters.com has provided a clearinghouse of information on PSM programs. This site was originally maintained by Sheila Tobias from 1997 to 2006 and has since been main- tained by the Council of Graduate Schools. A new association of PSM directors, the National PSM Association (NPSMA), was formed in 2007. This association, which also has Sloan Foundation support, will also serve as a clearinghouse of information about PSM programs. Lastly, financial support for students is critical to the overall success of our nation in developing a cadre of science-trained professionals in the United States. The participation of students from all backgrounds, includ- ing those from economically disadvantaged families, is essential to this effort. While some students will be able to pay tuition and living expenses to obtain a master’s education through their own funds or by taking on a minimal amount of debt, others from more disadvantaged backgrounds generally cannot afford to pay for two years of such costs. Significant debt from undergraduate programs prevents them from financing master’s- level education through new loans. As an integral component of the PSM program, we recommend, therefore, the creation of a substantial federal program—the National Innovation Scholarship (NIS) program—to pro- vide needs-based financial assistance to U.S. citizens who will use them to pay for tuition and expenses when they enroll in PSM programs. The typi- cal federal grant to support tuition and expenses for graduate students is currently $40,000 and we recommend similar support for PSM students. Enrollment in PSM programs should, of course, be open to students from everywhere in the world and we welcome all PSM graduates to remain in this country and contribute to our economy and society. Furthermore, institutions should provide financial subsidies from their own funds to either U.S. or non-U.S. citizens as appropriate. We recommend that the taxpayer-supported NIS program be focused on U.S. citizens as this repre- sents an ideal opportunity to both help domestic students who might not otherwise have the financial wherewithal to attend to graduate school and simultaneously bolster our science workforce by attracting more domestic students to graduate study in the sciences. State governments 2. State governments, which have a long history of efforts in economic development, should regard PSM degree programs as critical to producing a cadre of science professionals who can play an important role in managing and growing science- and technology-based industries in their states. Along with the federal government, states should provide funding for the creation and

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 MASTERING THE FUTURE expansion of these programs to target particular state and regional needs. State governments have a long history of working to spur economic development. Recently, many states have focused on the role of science, technology, and innovation in growing businesses and industries and the way higher education and workforce development can contribute to broadening the economic base. Some states, moreover, have begun to focus even more specifically on the health and growth of their STEM workforce. We recommend that state governments invest in and regard PSM degree programs as critical to producing a cadre of science profession- als who can play an important role in managing and growing science- and technology-based industries in their states. California, for example, now has master’s programs in the biosciences and biotechnology that serve its growing biotechnology sector. The California State University system is rolling out a system-wide plan that will provide new PSM programs in 16 fields on 12 campuses. A similar system-wide effort is under way in North Carolina and other states are now planning the same. Coordination of efforts among state governments, state university systems, and employers will help maximize the potential of these efforts to contribute to long-term state economic growth. Philanthropic Organizations 3. Philanthropic institutions should continue to play a role in creating and sustaining PSM degree programs and otherwise spur- ring innovation in master’s education. Foundations can provide matching funds for federal grants, funding to assist students with financial aid, and the seed money for the establishment of a base of new programs in a specific field or in support of a specific industry. The role of the William M. Keck Foundation in establishing the Keck Graduate Institute and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation in providing seed money for more than 120 PSM program tracks at 50 institutions has been critical to establishing the need for and usefulness of master’s-level professional programs in the sciences to meet the needs of science-based employers. The efforts by and impacts of these private foundations mirror those of others that have pioneered new programs in fields outside of the natural sciences. Two noteworthy examples are the Whittaker Founda- tion, which focused on developing biomedical engineering as a discipline, and the Franklin W. Olin Foundation, which has played a role in pioneer- ing a new approach to engineering education.

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 SCIENCE PROFESSIONALS We encourage philanthropic institutions to continue to play a role in creating and sustaining PSM degree programs, and even endowing new institutions as warranted. Foundations can provide matching funds for federal grants, funding to assist students with financial aid, and the seed money for the establishment of a base of new programs in a specific field or in support of a specific industry. Professional Societies and Industry Associations 4. Each professional society in the natural sciences and industry association in high-technology or science-based industries should develop an overall strategy for addressing higher education in its field that includes the PSM and specific actions to help create and sustain PSM programs and other innovations. In advancing U.S. competitiveness, professional societies are in a position to contribute by bridging professional practice and academia. Professional societies should support the creation of PSM programs in their fields or in interdisciplinary fields to which their discipline contrib- utes. We recommend that each professional society in the natural sciences develop an overall strategy for addressing higher education in its field. This strategy should include the PSM and specific actions to help create and sustain such PSM programs as: • Creating a society-wide committee on master’s education in the field, parallel to those that focus on doctoral and postdoctoral education • Highlighting or facilitating PSM programs through conference ses- sions and presentations • Providing a field-specific clearinghouse of information on PSM programs and job opportunities for PSM graduates • Recognizing the professional contributions of faculty who lead or participate in successful PSM programs Industry associations may similarly play a critical role in identify- ing workforce needs and providing a catalyst for the development and nurturing of PSM programs. We recommend that associations in high- technology or science-based industries develop an overall strategy for higher education. This strategy should include the PSM and specific actions to help create and sustain such PSM programs as: • Creating an association committee on higher education in the field that includes PSM education

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 MASTERING THE FUTURE • Highlighting or facilitating PSM programs through conference ses- sions and presentations • Providing an industry-specific clearinghouse of information on PSM programs and job opportunities for PSM graduates • Providing outreach to employers that could work with local higher education institutions to develop and sustain PSM programs In addition, we encourage the further development of the NPSMA and the engagement of other associations with it. This new organization supports PSM programs, engages businesses, industries, nonprofit orga- nizations, and government agencies, and promotes the PSM as a graduate degree of choice for students in science, mathematics, and technology. The NPSMA has a unique opportunity to strengthen the national PSM move- ment by engaging all its constituents in a synergistic collaboration. Higher Education Institutions: Program Development 5. Higher education institutions should continue to innovate in and support the development of master’s degree programs in the natural sciences to meet the needs of students seeking science- based careers and of the employers who hire them. PSM programs will provide students with deeper, often interdisciplinary, scientific knowledge and must include opportunities for the development of professional skills and practice through courses, summer intern- ships, and business- or government-sponsored projects that provide an invaluable workplace experience. Providing incentives to and support for faculty to participate in these efforts, including program design and implementation, is critical. Across higher education institutions with a wide array of missions and student populations, new programs have proven that master’s edu- cation in the natural sciences focused on professional practice can benefit both students and employers. The further development of programs such as these is a major opportunity for both comprehensive and research insti- tutions to contribute to national innovation and competitiveness. Higher education institutions should continue to innovate in and support the development of master’s degree programs in the natural sciences to meet the needs of students seeking science-based careers and of the local, regional, and national employers who hire them. Institu- tions should provide support from their own resources for these new, innovative programs. This support may be financial or in-kind in nature and should be coordinated with support from other sources, including

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 SCIENCE PROFESSIONALS the federal government, state governments, philanthropic organizations, and employers. It will typically be necessary to develop new courses and curricula specific to each master’s program and courses in professional practice that may be used by one or more programs. Institutions can be particularly effective by providing faculty with appropriate rewards and incentives for initiating and sustaining new industry-oriented master’s programs. Finding a strong and respected “champion” within the faculty for a PSM program can add significantly to the establishment, develop- ment, and sustainability of a program. PSM programs will provide students with deeper, more advanced scientific knowledge than is typically obtained in a four-year undergradu- ate program. This knowledge may focus on a specific field but may also be interdisciplinary in nature. Programs may be able to fuse scientific knowledge from one field with another, such as computer or informa- tion sciences, or integrate that knowledge with training in management, law, or public policy. In general, these programs should typically require two years to complete as a full-time student and must not be confused with master’s degrees that are awarded along the student’s successful or unsuccessful road to the Ph.D. These programs must include courses or course elements focused on professional skills and practice in such areas as: • Communication, interpersonal, and project management skills • Teamwork, innovation, leadership, and entrepreneurship • Business or public policy (economics, finance, management, orga- nizational behavior) • Legal climate • Professional ethics • Computation • Culture/languages Master’s education in the sciences that consists solely of science courses provides only limited preparation for a career in business, gov- ernment, or nonprofit organizations. Graduates benefit substantially from entrepreneurial and professional practice enhancements—a valu- able addition that can help the graduate rapidly become a contributing employee. Hands-on experience, very useful for students, is a key requirement of a PSM program. This may be provided through summer internships between the two program years. We also recommend business- or gov- ernment-sponsored projects that provide an invaluable workplace experi- ence—one that reinforces for the student the realities of the work world, the need for teamwork and communication, and how the science they are

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 MASTERING THE FUTURE learning is relevant. Graduates who present a portfolio of completed work sponsored by a business, government, or nonprofit organization and who have the business awareness and personal development that come from participating in these kinds of programs will find that their resumes stand out to employers. Published educational and degree program standards and expecta- tions play an important role in guiding higher education institutions to an appropriate balance of educational effort among bachelor’s, master’s, professional, and doctoral programs. For professional academic programs (like the PSM, as for those in medicine, engineering, law, etc.), universities and accrediting agencies should be attentive to the means by which such programs optimize their responsiveness to the needs of the professions for which they prepare graduates. The committee suggests that examina- tion of reward and evaluation processes would promote awareness of the importance of PSM programs both to faculty work and to the nation's economic well-being. Higher Education Institutions: Outreach 6. Higher education institutions should reach out to and work as partners with employers to create and sustain programs. The use of external employer advisory councils will provide substan- tive, real-time input for framing of new science master’s programs and practical assistance with curriculum development, mentoring, marketing, employer-sponsored projects, internships, hiring for graduates, and financial support. Institutions should also provide outreach to students, informing undergraduate students and poten- tial graduate students of the PSM degree opportunity. Higher education institutions should reach out to and work as part- ners with employers to create and sustain programs. The creation and use of external employer advisory councils will provide critical input for framing of new science master’s programs. Areas of interaction can include: • Initial conception and scope of the degree program • Curriculum development • Mentoring • Adjunct faculty • Employer-sponsored projects • Internships • Employment • Financial support

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 SCIENCE PROFESSIONALS An innovative master’s program that develops graduates for careers in business and industry will succeed only if a broad range of employers know about and value the program. This can be achieved to some extent by involving employers in the development and implementation of the masters program, but it also requires an effort by the university to market the program and make it known widely. Universities may be unaccus- tomed to this challenge or may find it difficult to market the program; they would likely benefit from guidance and support. A well-designed Internet site that relates the program to the interests of employers is one effective program-marketing tool. An ongoing effort to attend relevant business/industrial gatherings and talk about a program and its virtues is also important. Institutions should provide outreach to students and recent alumni, informing undergraduate students and potential graduate students of the PSM degree opportunity. As a relatively new degree program and career track, many students have not been exposed to information about these programs and are unaware of the professional opportunities to continue in science that they afford. Faculty should be encouraged to recommend to advisees interested in non-research careers to consider PSM programs—even their best students whom they typically push in the direction of Ph.D. programs. Programs and institutions should also reach out to recent alumni, whose work experiences after graduation may addi- tionally prepare them for PSM programs and the careers they lead to. Employers 7. Employers in the for-profit, nonprofit, and government sec- tors should partner with higher education institutions to create and sustain PSM programs. They should participate on employer advisory councils through which they can assist with and benefit from program conception, curriculum development, mentoring, employer-sponsored projects, internships, employment, and finan- cial support. They should invite representatives of PSM programs to speak at local or regional business gatherings that provide a forum for communication about the existence and attributes of PSM programs and their graduates. We encourage employers to broaden their recruiting beyond traditional sources to hire graduates from new programs. This includes not only federal agencies that require Ph.D.s for their world-class research centers, but also procurement officers, acquisition officials, project and program managers, and senior executives who, in their investment decision-making roles, must understand the latest in technology while simultaneously ensuring competitive business management outcomes. The PSM

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 MASTERING THE FUTURE provides an outstanding model for educating the individuals who can fill these important federal careers positions. We encourage employers in the for-profit, nonprofit, and government sectors to partner with higher education institutions to create and sustain PSM programs. Employers may participate on program industry advisory councils. Through these and other channels, they can further assist with and benefit from: • Initial conception and scope of the degree program • Curriculum development • Mentoring • Adjunct faculty • Employer-sponsored projects • Internships • Employment • Financial support for programs or students Master’s education that is focused on preparing students for careers offers universities and business/industry a valuable opportunity to enrich and extend their existing relationships. This should be a particular con- cern for public universities, whose contributions to economic and work- force development are—appropriately—under close scrutiny. Working together to make master’s programs relevant, current, and valuable pro- vides universities and business/industry advisors with a powerful chance to learn from one another to the benefit of both. Employer input and participation are essential to creating master’s programs whose graduates will be sought after by employers. They also provide an opportunity for employers with an opportunity to interact with a pool of well-trained, highly qualified master’s-level professionals for future hires through internships and employer-sponsored projects and they have the oppor- tunity to help shape their education and training through curriculum development. The agency or organization providing the clearinghouse function should also provide outreach to current and potential employers. Many employers could benefit from hiring the graduates of a professional mas- ter’s program, but they are not aware of the opportunities available to them. We also recommend that employers invite representatives of PSM programs to speak at local or regional business gatherings that provide a forum for communication about the existence and attributes of PSM programs and their graduates. Lastly, we encourage employers to broaden their traditional recruit- ing to hire graduates from new programs. Many human resources (HR)

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8 SCIENCE PROFESSIONALS offices advertise and recruit based on existing—and sometimes out-of- date—job categories. These categories—or the notions of what creden- tials and skills these categories implicitly or explicitly contain—may not provide HR specialists with an awareness of PSM graduates and the distinctive backgrounds they bring. Hiring managers who become aware of PSM programs and graduates should communicate with HR offices in their firms, agencies, or organizations to ensure that recruitment efforts will include PSM graduates where appropriate. Entrepreneurship within the American enterprise is not solely the domain of American industry. One must consider, as well, entrepreneur- ship within government. One needs only to look at the billions of dollars spent each year in the federal government on research and development and acquisition of material and complex devices. Several large mission agencies (Defense most notably, but also Energy, Commerce, Homeland Security, Health and Human Services, and NASA) make substantial investment decisions in material and sophisticated systems every day. These agencies are also technology performers in the national network of federal mission laboratories. While the government certainly requires its share of deeply trained Ph.D.s in the natural sciences to populate its world-class research centers, so too does it require procurement officers, acquisition officials, project managers, program managers, and senior executives who, in their investment decision-making roles, must under- stand the latest in the technology realm while simultaneously ensuring competitive business management outcomes. The PSM model fits per- fectly with this extensive national need. Students 8. Students in PSM degree programs should take full advantage of internships and industry-sponsored team projects. We encour- age alumni to provide the professional programs from which they graduated with links to and resources from their current employers who can assist with mentoring, internship opportunities, and infor- mation about employment. Students in PSM degree programs should take advantage of intern- ships and industry-sponsored team projects. They provide opportunities to experience the application of what they are learning, reinforcing its relevance and deepening its meaning to the student. These activities also provide opportunities for the student to learn more about them- selves, prospective employers, and the application of science. Finally, they may also involve international travel and work, which we believe to be extremely valuable in today’s global work environment.

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 MASTERING THE FUTURE We encourage alumni to provide the professional programs from which they graduated links to and resources from their current employ- ers, including mentoring, internship opportunities, and information about employment.

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