Appendix F
Development of Selected Professional Degree Programs

In the development of professional-focused master’s education in business, public administration/policy, public health, and other professional fields, and in the development of medical education as well, several patterns can be observed across fields.

  • A single pioneering institution initiated a master’s program in the field.

  • Philanthropy in the form of early funding consistently played a key role.

  • After the field had matured, a report that took an overall view of the emerging field, made conclusions about how to organize/rationalize the field and its programs in response to the societal needs, and then had a significant impact through its implementation.

  • The field continued to evolve in response to social and economic factors.

Philanthropy’s role as a catalyst is of particular note. Philanthropic organizations not only provided early funding to launch programs but also played a role in funding studies whose reports had an impact on the future development of the field. The Flexner Report (1910), which had such a significant impact on medical education, was both initiated and funded by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Similarly, Higher Education for Business (1959)—funded by the Ford Foundation—and the Education of American Businessmen (1959)—funded by Carnegie—also had significant impacts on business education and the master in business administration in particular.



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Appendix F Development of Selected Professional Degree Programs In the development of professional-focused master’s education in business, public administration/policy, public health, and other profes- sional fields, and in the development of medical education as well, several patterns can be observed across fields. • A single pioneering institution initiated a master’s program in the field. • Philanthropy in the form of early funding consistently played a key role. • After the field had matured, a report that took an overall view of the emerging field, made conclusions about how to organize/rationalize the field and its programs in response to the societal needs, and then had a significant impact through its implementation. • The field continued to evolve in response to social and economic factors. Philanthropy’s role as a catalyst is of particular note. Philanthropic organizations not only provided early funding to launch programs but also played a role in funding studies whose reports had an impact on the future development of the field. The Flexner Report (1910), which had such a significant impact on medical education, was both initiated and funded by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Similarly, Higher Education for Business (1959)—funded by the Ford Foundation—and the Education of American Businessmen (1959)— funded by Carnegie—also had significant impacts on business education and the master in business administration in particular. 

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TABLE F-1 Development of Selected Professional Degree Programs 8 M.D. M.B.A. M.P.A./M.P.P. M.P.H. Origins In 1765, Drs. John 1881 at the Wharton 1936 Gift from Lucius 1916 Johns Hopkins (Date/institution) Morgan and William School at the University Littauer to create Bloomberg School of Shippen, Jr., founded of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Public Health the Medical School Public Administration of the College of Harvard Business at Harvard. Later Philadelphia, the first School (1908) was first evolves into John F. medical school in North to require a university Kennedy School of America degree for entry Government in 1970s In the 19th century, Public management the U.S. medical program at the education was non- University of Maine in standard and frequently 1945 inadequate, being administered through Late 1950s 1 of 3 basic systems: an establishment of apprenticeship system, Maxwell School at proprietary schools, Syracuse University university-based education Influential reports Flexner Report (1910, “Higher Education for Ward Stewart report of Institute of Medicine funded by Carnegie Business” by Gordon 1961 report on “The Future of Foundation for the and Howell (1959, Public Health” from 1988 Advancement of funded by Ford) Donald Stone’s report Teaching) addressed on “The Response of the need for “The Education of Higher Education to standardization and American Businessmen” the Needs of Public quality in medical by Pierson (1959, Service” in 1971 education funded by Carnegie)

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These reports addressed business schools’ “vocationalism and mediocrity” External trends Scientific breakthroughs Scientific management The Great Society; Spread of communicable influencing in medicine supported studies throughout professionalization of diseases; disparity in evolution of degree calls for standardization the 20th century (e.g., public service health care outcomes in medicine Taylorism; Six Sigma); across socioeconomic competition with Japan levels and countries; in the early 1980s politicization of health care Role of external The AMA sought to Ford and Carnegie Federal recognition stakeholders eliminate schools Foundations funded through fellowships that failed to adopt reports in late 1950s; in 1968 HEA a rigorous brand variety of “in-house” reauthorization; of systematized, corporate programs Intergovernmental experiential medical (e.g., Motorola U.) Personnel Act; education Presidential Management Internship Program; Truman Scholarships Duration of program Four years Generally two years Generally two years Generally two years Joint programs Joint programs are Joint programs are Joint programs are Joint programs are commonly available commonly available commonly available commonly available with with public health with law, public policy, with law and other MA medicine, law, public (MPH) or biomedical business, and other MA programs policy, business research (Ph.D.) programs Testing MCAT GMAT GRE GRE; MCAT (for joint MD/MPH programs)  continued

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TABLE F-1 Continued 00 M.D. M.B.A. M.P.A./M.P.P. M.P.H. Standards State licensing Specific standards Under revision for boards require high identified for three 2009; current standards admissions standards areas: strategic address nine areas: and strict curriculum management; program eligibility; requirements participants (students mission; jurisdiction; and faculty); and curriculum; faculty; assurance of learning student admissions; student services; support services; off- campus and distance education Specialized Liaison Committee Five-year cycle; Seven-year cycle; Self- Seven-year cycle; Self- accreditation on Medical Education Application, followed study followed by site study followed by site visit (LCME) by consultation with visit coordinated by coordinated by Council appointed mentor, National Association on Education for Public followed by site of Schools of Health visit coordinated by Public Affairs and Association to Advance Administration Collegiate Schools of (NASPAA) Business (AACSB) Disciplinary Preclinical: Anatomy, Economics; sociology; Political science; Health services affiliations biochemistry, accounting; marketing; economics; sociology administration; physiology, finance biostatistics; epidemiology; pharmacology, behavioral sciences/health histology, embryology, education; environmental microbiology, health services pathology, neuroscience

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Clinical: internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, family medicine, obstetrics/ gynecology, neurology, psychology Organizational American Association AACSB Council on Graduate Association for Schools of affiliations of Medical Colleges (1916-present) Education for Public Public Health Administration (late (1953-present) 1950s-1970); NASPAA (1970-present) International Exported to Europe Influenced establishment variations/ during the 20th of Association of Schools exportability century; INSEAD of Public Heath in the offered first European European Region (1966) MBA in 1957 SOURCES: Glazer-Raymo, Professionalizing Graduate Education. Conrad et al., A Silent Success. 0

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