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Science Professionals: Master‘s Education for a Competitive World Appendix F Development of Selected Professional Degree Programs In the development of professional-focused master’s education in business, public administration/policy, public health, and other professional fields, and in the development of medical education as well, several patterns can be observed across fields. A single pioneering institution initiated a master’s program in the field. Philanthropy in the form of early funding consistently played a key role. After the field had matured, a report that took an overall view of the emerging field, made conclusions about how to organize/rationalize the field and its programs in response to the societal needs, and then had a significant impact through its implementation. The field continued to evolve in response to social and economic factors. Philanthropy’s role as a catalyst is of particular note. Philanthropic organizations not only provided early funding to launch programs but also played a role in funding studies whose reports had an impact on the future development of the field. The Flexner Report (1910), which had such a significant impact on medical education, was both initiated and funded by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Similarly, Higher Education for Business (1959)—funded by the Ford Foundation—and the Education of American Businessmen (1959)—funded by Carnegie—also had significant impacts on business education and the master in business administration in particular.
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Science Professionals: Master‘s Education for a Competitive World TABLE F-1 Development of Selected Professional Degree Programs M.D. M.B.A. M.P.A./M.P.P. M.P.H. Origins (Date/institution) In 1765, Drs. John Morgan and William Shippen, Jr., founded the Medical School of the College of Philadelphia, the first medical school in North America 1881 at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania 1936 Gift from Lucius Littauer to create Graduate School of Public Administration at Harvard. Later evolves into John F. Kennedy School of Government in 1970s 1916 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Harvard Business School (1908) was first to require a university degree for entry In the 19th century, the U.S. medical education was nonstandard and frequently inadequate, being administered through 1 of 3 basic systems: an apprenticeship system, proprietary schools, university-based education Public management program at the University of Maine in 1945 Late 1950s establishment of Maxwell School at Syracuse University Influential reports Flexner Report (1910, funded by Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching) addressed the need for standardization and quality in medical education “Higher Education for Business” by Gordon and Howell (1959, funded by Ford) Ward Stewart report of 1961 Institute of Medicine report on “The Future of Public Health” from 1988 Donald Stone’s report on “The Response of Higher Education to the Needs of Public Service” in 1971 “The Education of American Businessmen” by Pierson (1959, funded by Carnegie)
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Science Professionals: Master‘s Education for a Competitive World These reports addressed business schools’ “vocationalism and mediocrity” External trends influencing evolution of degree Scientific break throughs in medicine supported calls for standardization in medicine Scientific management studies throughout the 20th century (e.g., Taylorism; Six Sigma); competition with Japan in the early 1980s The Great Society; professionalization of public service Spread of communicable diseases; disparity in health care outcomes across socioeconomic levels and countries; politicization of health care Role of external stakeholders The AMA sought to eliminate schools that failed to adopt a rigorous brand of systematized, experiential medical education Ford and Carnegie Foundations funded reports in late 1950s; variety of “in-house” corporate programs (e.g., Motor ola U.) Federal recognition through fellowships in 1968 HEA reauthorization; Intergovernmental Personnel Act; Presidential Management Internship Program; Truman Scholarships Duration of program Four years Generally two years Generally two years Generally two years Joint programs Joint programs are commonly available with public health (MPH) or biomedical research (Ph.D.) Joint programs are commonly available with law, public policy, business, and other MA programs Joint programs are commonly available with law and other MA programs Joint programs are commonly available with medicine, law, public policy, business Testing MCAT GMAT GRE GRE; MCAT (for joint MD/MPH programs)
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Science Professionals: Master‘s Education for a Competitive World M.D. M.B.A. M.P.A./M.P.P. M.P.H. Standards State licensing boards require high admissions standards and strict curriculum requirements Specific standards identified for three areas: strategic management; participants (students and faculty); and assurance of learning Under revision for 2009; current standards address nine areas: program eligibility; mission; jurisdiction; curriculum; faculty; student admissions; student services; support services; off-campus and distance education Specialized accreditation Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) Five-year cycle; Application, followed by consultation with appointed mentor, followed by site visit coordinated by Association toAdvance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) Seven-year cycle; Self-study followed by site visit coordinated by National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration (NASPAA) Seven-year cycle; Self-study followed by site visit coordinated by Council on Education for Public Health Disciplinary affiliations Preclinical: Anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, histology, embryology, microbiology, pathology, neuroscience Economics; sociology; accounting; marketing; finance Political science; economics; sociology Health services administration; biostatistics; epidemiology; behavioral sciences/health education; environmental health services
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Science Professionals: Master‘s Education for a Competitive World Clinical: internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, family medicine, obstetrics/ gynecology, neurology, psychology Organizational affiliations American Association of Medical Colleges AACSB (1916-present) Council on Graduate Education for Public Administration (late 1950s-1970); NASPAA (1970-present) Association for Schools of Public Health (1953-present) International variations/ exportability Exported to Europe during the 20th century; INSEAD offered first European MBA in 1957 Influenced establishment of Association of Schools of Public Heath in the European Region (1966) SOURCES: Glazer-Raymo, Professionalizing Graduate Education. Conrad et al., A Silent Success.
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