TABLE F-1 Development of Selected Professional Degree Programs






Origins (Date/institution)

In 1765, Drs. John Morgan and William Shippen, Jr., founded the Medical School of the College of Philadelphia, the first medical school in North America

1881 at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania

1936 Gift from Lucius Littauer to create Graduate School of Public Administration at Harvard. Later evolves into John F. Kennedy School of Government in 1970s

1916 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health


Harvard Business School (1908) was first to require a university degree for entry



In the 19th century, the U.S. medical education was nonstandard and frequently inadequate, being administered through 1 of 3 basic systems: an apprenticeship system, proprietary schools, university-based education


Public management program at the University of Maine in 1945




Late 1950s establishment of Maxwell School at Syracuse University


Influential reports

Flexner Report (1910, funded by Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching) addressed the need for standardization and quality in medical education

“Higher Education for Business” by Gordon and Howell (1959, funded by Ford)

Ward Stewart report of 1961

Institute of Medicine report on “The Future of Public Health” from 1988



Donald Stone’s report on “The Response of Higher Education to the Needs of Public Service” in 1971



“The Education of American Businessmen” by Pierson (1959, funded by Carnegie)


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