interview participants who contributed to this research. Opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsors or Pennsylvania State University.
ABET (Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology). 2000. Engineering criteria 2000, third edition. Baltimore, Md.: ABET Engineering Accreditation Commission.
ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineering). 2004. Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge for the 21st Century: Preparing the Civil Engineer for the Future. Reston, Va.: American Society of Civil Engineers.
ASCE. 2005. Offshoring of engineering services. Washington, D.C.: ASCE. Available online at www.asce.org/pressroom/news/policy_details.cfm?hdlid=507. Accessed August 29, 2006.
BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics). 2006a. The 2006–07 Career Guide to Industries: Architect, Except Landscape and Naval. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor.
BLS. 2006b. The 2006–07 career guide to industries: construction. U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. Available online at www.bls.gov/oco/cg/print/cgs003.htm.
BLS. 2006c. Occupational Outlook Handbook 2006–2007 Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor.
Boykin, D. 2004. Offshore outsourcing stirs national debate. Engineering Times 26(3).
Bryant, P. 2006. Decline of the engineering class: effects of global outsourcing of engineering. Leadership and Management in Engineering 6(59): 59–71.
ENR (Engineering News Record). 2000. What the world spent on construction. Engineering News Record, December 4, 38–45.
ENR. 2006a. The top 225 international contractors: 2006 rankings by 2005 revenue. August 21–28, 2006.
ENR. 2006b. The top 400 contractors: 2006 rankings by 2005 revenue. May 22, 2006.
ENR. 2006c. The top 500 design firms: 2006 rankings by 2005 revenue.
Gereffi, G., and V. Wadhwa. 2005. Appendix: Duke Outsourcing Study: Empirical Comparison of Engineering Graduates in the United State, China and India. December. School of Engineering, Duke University.
Gibson, G.E. Jr., A. Davis-Blake, K.E. Dickson, and B. Mentel. 2003. Workforce demographics among project engineering professionals—crisis ahead? Journal of Management in Engineering 19(4): 173–182.
Grigg, N.S. 2000. Demographics and industry employment of civil engineering workforce. Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice 126(3): 116–124.
Hecker, D. 2005. Occupational employment projections to 2014. Monthly Labor Review Online. Available online at www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2005/11/art5full.pdf.
Hira, R. 2003. Global Outsourcing of Engineering Jobs: Recent Trends and Possible Implications. Testimony of Ronil Hira to The Committee on Small Business United States House of Representatives. Available online at www.ieeeusa.org/policy/policy/2003/061803.html.
Lattuca, L.R., P.T. Terenzini, and J.F. Volkwein. 2006. Engineering Change: A Study of the Impact of EC2000. Baltimore, Md.: ABET Inc.
Messner, J.I., C. Chen, and G. Joseph. 2006a. Implementing Global Virtual Engineering Teams. Research Report 211-11, November 2006 Austin, Tex.: Construction Industry Institute, The University of Texas at Austin.
Messner, J.I., L. Hankins, and A. Krumins. 2006b. Planning a global virtual engineering team: a tool for success. CII Research Summary 211-1, September 2006. Austin, Tex.: Construction Industry Institute, The University of Texas at Austin.
NAE (National Academy of Engineering). 2004. The Engineer of 2020: Visions of Engineering in the New Century. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.
NCES (National Center for Educational Statistics). 2005. Digest of education statistics: 2005. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Available online at http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d05/tables/dt05_282.asp. Accessed August 2006.
Nephew, E., J. Koncz, M. Borga, and M. Mann. 2005. U.S. International Services: Cross-border Trade in 2004 and Sales through Affiliation 2003. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Economic Analysis.
NSF (National Science Foundation). 2004. Science and Engineering Degrees: 1966–2001. NSF 04-311, March 2004. Arlington, Va: NSF.
Rafferty, H.R. 2004. Civil engineering: looking good this year. Diversity/ Careers in Engineering & Information Technology, June/July 2004. Available online at http://www.diversitycareers.com/articles/pro/04-junjul/chgTech_civil.htm#top.
Rubin, D.K., P. Reina, M.B. Powers, and T. Illia. 2004. As cost pressures mount, offshoring is making the work go round. Engineering News Record, August 2, 2004.
Sanvido, V.E., S.A. Khayyal, M.M. Guvenis, K.J. Norton, M.S. Hetrick, M.A. Muallem, E.K. Chung, D.J. Medeiros, S.R.T. Kumara, and I. Ham. 1990. An Integrated Building Process Model. Technical Report No. 1, January 1990. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University, Computer Integrated Construction Research Program.
Trefler, D. 2005. Offshoring: Threats and Opportunities. Brookings Trade Forum 2005: The Offshoring of Services: Issues and Implications, Washington, D.C. Available online at www.brookings.edu/es/commentary/journals/tradeforum/2005btf_trefler.pdf.
Tulacz, G.J. 2005. World construction spending nears $4 trillion for 2004. Engineering News Record, January 3, 2005.
USCB (U.S. Census Bureau). 2002. 2002 Survey of Business Owners. Available online at http://www.census.gov/csd/sbo/index.html. Accessed August 25, 2006.
USCB. 2006a. Construction spending—February 2006. Available online at http://www.census.gov/const/www/c30index.html Accessed April 3, 2006.
USCB. 2006b. Construction spending—June 2006. Available online at http://www.census.gov/const/www/c30index.html, accessed August 29, 2006.
Vonier, T. 2006. The export of professional design services by foreign architecture firms. AIA International eNews. Available online at www.aia.org/nwsltr_intl.cfm?pagename=intl_a_200607_vonier.