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Macher, J.T., D.C. Mowery, and D.A. Hodges. 1998. Back to Dominance? U.S. Resurgence in the Global Semiconductor Industry. California Management Review 41(1): 107–136.

McKinsey Global Institute. 2005. The Emerging Global Labor Market. San Francisco, Calif.: McKinsey & Company.

NRC (National Research Council). 2000. Forecasting Demand and Supply of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2001. Building a Workforce for the Information Economy. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

NSF (National Science Foundation). Various years. Science and Engineering Doctorate Awards. Arlington, Va.: NSF Division of Science Resources Statistics.

PriceWaterhouseCoopers. 2004. China’s Impact on the Semiconductor Industry, TC-02-04. San Jose, Calif.: PriceWaterhouseCoopers.

Saxenian, A. 2002. Transnational communities and the evolution of global production networks: the cases of Taiwan, China and India. Industry and Innovation 9(3): 183–202.

Sturgeon, T.J. 2006. Services Offshoring Working Group: Final report. September. MIT Industrial Performance Center, Cambridge, Mass.

Task Force on the Future of American Innovation. 2005. The Knowledge Economy: Is the United States Losing Its Competitive Edge? Available online at as of April 20, 2005.


The following list provides Internet addresses for the online publications cited in our footnotes. In some cases, the original Internet site we used to access the article has been folded into another site. The one listed is the current site. Some of the articles are also archived at third-party sites such as, so it is generally simplest to search for the article title as an exact phrase. Articles older than five years may no longer be available online.



Electronic Business (formerly separate)

Electronic News (formerly separate)

Express Computer (India)

The Register

Silicon Strategies (formerly separate)

Electronic News (formerly separate)

New York Times

Nikkei Electronics Asia

Semiconductor Business News (formerly separate)

Semiconductor International

Taipei Times


Borrus, M. 1988. Competing for Control: America’s Stake in Microelectronics. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing.

Ernst, D. 2004. Internationalisation of Innovation: Why is Chip Design Moving to Asia? Working Paper 64 (rev. March 2004). Honolulu, Hi.: East-West Center.

Flamm, K.S. 1985. Internationalization in the Semiconductor Industry. Pp. 38–136 in The Global Factory: Foreign Assembly in International Trade, J. Grunwald and K.S. Flamm, editors. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Garner, A.C. 2004. Offshoring in the service sector: economic impact and policy issues. Economic Review (Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City), Third Quarter: 5–37.

Groshen, E.L., B. Hobijn, and M.M. McConnell. 2005. U.S. jobs gained and lost through trade: a net measure. Current Issues in Economics and Finance 11 (8): 1–7.

Gupta, D. 2005. Ties That Bind: An Econometric Analysis of the Return Home of Foreign-Born U.S. Ph.D.s. Working Paper 2005-1. Amrita School of Business, Ettimadai, India.

Ham, R.M., G. Linden, and M.M. Appleyard. 1998. The evolving role of semiconductor consortia in the U.S. and Japan. California Management Review 41(1): 137–163.

Hemani, A. 2004. Charting the EDA roadmap. IEEE Circuits & Devices 20(6): 5–10.

Henderson, J.W. 1989. The Globalisation of High Technology Production: Society, Space, and Semiconductors in the Restructuring of the Modern World. New York: Routledge.

Henisz, W.J., and J.T. Macher. 2004. Firm- and country-level trade-offs and contingencies in the evaluation of foreign investment. Organization Science 15(5): 537–554.

Hira, R. 2004. U.S. immigration regulations and India’s information technology industry. Technological Forecasting & Social Change 71: 837–854.

Hira, R. 2005. Impacts and Trends of Offshoring Engineering Tasks and Jobs. The Bridge 35(3): 22–27. Available online at

Howell, T.R., B.L. Bartlett, W.A. Noellert, and R. Howe. 2003. China’s Emerging Semiconductor Industry: The Impact of China’s Preferential Value-Added Tax on Current Investment Trends. San Jose, Calif.: Semiconductor Industry Association.

International Business Strategies. 2002. Analysis of the Relationship between EDA Expenditures and Competitive Positioning of IC Vendors: A Custom Study for EDA Consortium. Available online at Accessed April 15, 2005.

Leachman, R.C., and C.H. Leachman. 2004. Globalization of Semiconductors: Do Real Men Have Fabs, or Virtual Fabs? Pp. 203–231 in Locating Global Advantage: Industry Dynamics in the International Economy, edited by M. Kenney with R. Florida. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Linden, G., C. Brown, and M. Appleyard. 2004. The Net World Order’s Influence on Global Leadership in the Semiconductor Industry. Pp. 232–257 in Locating Global Advantage, edited by M. Kenney with R. Florida. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Linden, G., and D. Somaya. 2003. System-on-a-chip integration in the semiconductor industry: industry structure and firm strategies. Industrial and Corporate Change 12(3): 545–576.

MAEI (Malaysian-American Electronics Industry). 1995. Malaysian-American Electronics Industry: Annual Survey 1994/1995. Mimeo. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: MAEI.

McKendrick, D.G., R.F. Doner, and S. Haggard. 2000. From Silicon Valley to Singapore : Location and Competitive Advantage in the Hard Disk Drive Industry. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press.

Semiconductor Industry Association. 2003. International Technology Roadmap For Semiconductors: Design.” Available online at as of April 19, 2005.

Tilton, J.E. 1991. International Diffusion of Technology: The Case of Semiconductors. Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution.

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