6. See, for example, S.J. Dick and J.E. Strick, The Living Universe: NASA and the Development of Astrobiology, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 2004, pp. 204-205.

  

7. J.E. Strick, “Creating a Cosmic Discipline: The Crystallization and Consolidation of Exobiology, 1957-1973,” Journal of the History of Biology 37: 131-180, 2004.

  

8. V.V. Levin and P.A. Straat, “Recent Results from the Viking Labeled Release Experiment on Mars,” Journal of Geophysical Research 82: 4663-4667, 1977.

  

9. N.H. Horowitz, G.L. Hobby, and J.S. Hubbard, “Viking on Mars: The Carbon Assimilation Experiments,” Journal of Geophysical Research 82: 4659-4662, 1977.

  

10. V.I. Oyama and B.J. Berdahl, “The Viking Gas Exchange Experiment Results from Chryse and Utopia Surface Samples,” Journal of Geophysical Research 82: 4669-4676, 1977.

  

11. K. Biemann, J. Oro, P. Toulmin III, L.E. Orgel, A.O. Nier, D.M. Anderson, D. Flory, A.V. Diaz, D.R. Rushneck, and P.G. Simmonds, “The Search for Organic Substances and Inorganic Volatile Compounds in the Surface of Mars,” Journal of Geophysical Research 82: 4641-4662, 1977.

  

12. N.H. Horowitz, To Utopia and Back: The Search for Life in the Solar System, Freeman, New York, New York, 1986, pp. 134-136 and 137-138.

  

13. See, for example, S.J. Dick and J.E. Strick, The Living Universe: NASA and the Development of Astrobiology, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 2004.

  

14. See, for example, S.J. Dick and J.E. Strick, The Living Universe: NASA and the Development of Astrobiology, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 2004, pp. 204-205.

  

15. D.S. McKay, E.K. Gibson, Jr., K.L. Thomas-Keprt, H. Vali, C.S. Romanek, S.J. Clemett, X.D.F. Chillier, C.R. Maechling, and R.N. Zare, “Search for Past Life on Mars: Possible Relic Biogenic Activity in Martian Meteorite ALH 84001,” Science 273: 924-930, 1996.

  

16. See, for example, D.H. Smith, “Astrobiology in the United States: A Policy Perspective,” in Astrobiology: Future Perspectives, P. Ehrenfreund et al. (eds.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2004.

  

17. Letter from J.H. Gibbons, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology, to D.S. Goldin, Administrator, NASA, September 25, 1996.

  

18. C.R. Canizares, A.I. Sargent, et al., The Search for Origins: Findings of a Space Science Workshop, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1996.

  

19. For more information concerning the Astrobiology Roadmap see http://nai.arc.nasa.gov/roadmap/.

  

20. For more information about the NAI Director see http://nai.arc.nasa.gov/about/about_nai.cfm#director.

  

21. For more information about NAI Central see http://nai.nasa.gov/team/index_nai.cfm.

  

22. For more information about cooperative agreements see http://nai.nasa.gov/tools/handbook/3.cfm#CAN.

  

23. For more information about the NAI Handbook see http://nai.nasa.gov/tools/handbook/.

  

24. For more information about the Executive Council see http://nai.nasa.gov/ec/index.cfm.

  

25. For more information about the Director’s Seminar Series see http://nai.nasa.gov/seminars/index.cfm#1.

  

26. For more information about the focus groups see http://nai.nasa.gov/about/focus_groups.cfm.

  

27. For more information about the annual report see http://nai.arc.nasa.gov/team/execsumms.cfm.

  

28. For more information about the Research Archive see http://nai.nasa.gov/news_stories/news_archive.cfm?member.

  

29. For more information about the NAI Newsletter see http://nai.nasa.gov/newsletter/index.cfm.

  

30. For more information about the Astrobiology Roadmap see http://nai.nasa.gov/funding/PostDocList.cfm.

  

31. For more information about the Lewis and Clark Fund see http://nai.nasa.gov/funding/index.cfm#lc.

  

32. For more information about the Strategic Impact Workshop see http://nai.nasa.gov/ec/siw.cfm.

  

33. For more information about the Director’s Discretionary Fund see http://nai.arc.nasa.gov/ddf_2007/index.cfm.

  

34. National Research Council, Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and International Programs in Astrobiology, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2003, p. 7.

  

35. National Research Council, Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and International Programs in Astrobiology, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2003, p. 1.

  

36. National Research Council, Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and International Programs in Astrobiology, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2003, p. 1.

  

37. National Research Council, Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 2001.

  

38. National Research Council, New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2003.

  

39. G.W. Bush, “A Renewed Spirit of Discovery: The President’s Vision for U.S. Space Exploration,” in The Vision for Space Exploration, NP-2004-01-334-HQ, NASA, Washington, D.C., 2004.

  

40. See, for example, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Plan For NASA’s Science Mission Directorate 2006-2016, NP-2007-03-461-HQ, NASA, Washington, D.C., 2007, pp. 31-32.

  

41. National Research Council, An Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2006.

  

42. National Research Council, An Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2003, p. 20.



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