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37. D.M. Hudgins and L.J. Allamandola, “Interstellar PAH Emission in the 11-14 Micron Region: New Insights from Laboratory Data and a Tracer of Ionized PAHs,” Astrophysical Journal 516: L41-L44, 1999.


38. M.J. Mumma et al., “Parent Volatiles in Comet 9P/Tempel-1: Before and After Impact,” Science 310: 270-274, 2005.


39. M.G. Trainer, A.A. Pavlov, H.L. DeWitt, J.L. Jimenez, C.P. McKay, and M.A. Tolbert, “Organic Haze on Titan and the Early Earth,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103: 18035-18042, 2006.


40. S.A. Sandford et al., “Organics Captured from Comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust Spacecraft,” Science 314: 1720, 2006.


41. D. Brownlee et al., “Comet 81P/Wild 2 Under a Microscope,” Science 314: 1711, 2006.


42. J.E. Elsila, J.P. Dworkin, M.P. Bernstein, M.P. Martin, and S.A. Sandford, “Mechanisms of Amino Acid Formation in Interstellar Ice Analog,” Astrophysical Journal 660: 911-918, 2007.


43. See, for example, R.P. Butler et al., “Catalog of Nearby Exoplanets,” Astrophysical Journal 646: 505-522, 2006.


44. G. Tinetti, A. Vidal-Madjar, M.-C. Liang, J.-P. Beaulieu, et al., “Water Vapour in the Atmosphere of a Transiting Extrasolar Planet,” Nature 448: 169-171, 2007.


45. A. Segura, J.F. Kasting, V. Meadows, M. Cohen, J. Scalo, D. Crisp, R.A.H. Butler, and G. Tinetti, “Biosignatures from Earth-like Planets Around M Dwarfs,” Astrobiology 5: 706-725, 2005.


46. S.N. Raymond, T. Quinn, and J.I. Lunine, “High-resolution Simulations of the Final Assembly of Earth-Like Planets. 2. Water Delivery and Planetary Habitability,” Astrobiology 7: 66-84, 2007.


47. A.M. Mandell, S.N. Raymond, and S. Sigurdsson, “Formation of Earth-like Planets During and After Giant Planet Migration,” Astrophysical Journal 660: 823-844, 2007.


48. N.Y. Kiang, A. Segura, G. Tinetti, Govindjee, R.E. Blankenship, M. Cohen, J. Siefert, D. Crisp, and V.S. Meadows, “Spectral Signatures of Photosynthesis. II. Coevolution with Other Stars and the Atmosphere on Extrasolar Worlds,” Astrobiology 7: 252-274, 2007.


49. For more information see and


50. For more information see and


51. For more information see and


52. For more information see


53. For more information see and


54. For more information see and


55. For more information see


56. For more information see


57. Information from the NAI’s disciplinary database is courtesy of Shige Abe, NASA Astrobiology Institute.


58. For more information see, for example,


59. For additional information see, for example, National Research Council, The New Science of Metagenomics: Revealing the Secrets of Our Microbial Planet, The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., 2007.

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