other parts of the basin, including Upper Klamath Lake; the Williamson, Sprague, and Wood rivers; the Link River and Link River Dam; and Keno Dam. Groups of committee and staff members visited Dr. Thomas Hardy in Logan, Utah, on October 1, 2006 and the USBR office in Denver, Colorado, on November 20, 2006, to discuss the respective reports with their authors in detail.

Relationship of This Report to Previous NRC Reports

This is the third NRC report on the Klamath River basin and its fishes. The first (NRC 2002) focused narrowly on the scientific bases for the biological opinions of the USFWS and the NMFS and the biological assessments of the USBR. The second (NRC 2004a) took a broad look at the Klamath basin and considered options for reversing the declines of the listed species of fishes. The present report was requested after two significant documents were made public (USBR 2005, Hardy et al. 2006a), and it addresses the documents in some detail. However, this report also addresses the implications of the two reports for the anadromous fishes in the Klamath River and the broader context in which science is conducted in the basin. New developments have occurred since the previous reports were published, and this report is not a revisiting of the issues covered by the earlier NRC reports. Indeed, this committee endorses the recommendations of the earlier reports for reversing the declines of the listed species, and this report should be considered as building on the previous ones and continuing where they left off.


Chapter 2 provides a description of the Klamath basin, along with descriptions of its hydrology and biota. There is a description of the life histories of three anadromous species of greatest interest: coho salmon, Chinook salmon, and steelhead. Chapter 3 provides an analysis of the use and development of models, as well as their capabilities and shortcomings. The considerable detail of this chapter is important because models are central to the two documents this committee reviewed; therefore, the appropriate context is required for evaluating them. Chapters 4 and 5 provide descriptions, analyses, and evaluations of the Natural Flow Study and the Instream Flow Study Phases I and II, respectively. Chapter 6 presents a discussion of systematic approaches to the use of science in decision making and their relevance to the scientific activities that have been and are being conducted in the Klamath River basin. Chapter 7 presents the committee’s conclusions and recommendations.

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