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Review and Assessment of Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant REVIEW AND ASSESSMENT OF DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES CONCERNING THE METAL PARTS TREATER DESIGN FOR THE BLUE GRASS CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANT Committee to Review and Assess Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Board on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Review and Assessment of Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract No. W911NF-06-C-0184 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number -13: 978-0-309-11515-5 International Standard Book Number -10: 0-309-11515-9 Limited copies of this report are available from: Board on Army Science and Technology National Research Council 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room 940 Washington, DC 20001 (202) 334-3118 Additional copies are available from: The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2008 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Review and Assessment of Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Review and Assessment of Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant COMMITTEE TO REVIEW AND ASSESS DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES CONCERNING THE METAL PARTS TREATER DESIGN FOR THE BLUE GRASS CHEMICAL AGENT DESTRUCTION PILOT PLANT ROBERT A. BEAUDET, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (retired), Chair RICHARD J. AYEN, Waste Management Inc. (retired), Jamestown, Rhode Island JOAN B. BERKOWITZ, Farkas Berkowitz and Company, Washington, D.C. WILLARD C. GEKLER, ABS Consulting Inc., Los Alamitos, California DAVID A. HOECKE, Enercon Systems Inc., Elyria, Ohio JOHN R. HOWELL, University of Texas at Austin NELLINE KOWBEL, Malcolm Pirnie Inc., Emeryville, California JOHN E. MORRAL, Ohio State University, Columbus DERRICK K. ROLLINS, Iowa State University, Ames Staff MARGARET N. NOVACK, Study Director NIA JOHNSON, Senior Program Associate JAMES C. MYSKA, Senior Research Associate
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Review and Assessment of Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY MALCOLM R. O’NEILL, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), Vienna, Virginia, Chair ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, Connecticut, Vice Chair RAJ AGGARWAL, Rockwell Collins, Cedar Rapids, Iowa SETH BONDER, The Bonder Group, Ann Arbor, Michigan JAMES CARAFANO, The Heritage Foundation, Washington, D.C. ROBERT L. CATTOI, Rockwell International Corporation (retired), Dallas, Texas DARRELL W. COLLIER, U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (retired), Leander, Texas JAY C. DAVIS, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (retired), Livermore, California PATRICIA K. FALCONE, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California RONALD P. FUCHS, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington WILLIAM R. GRAHAM, National Security Research Inc. (retired), San Marino, California PETER F. GREEN, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor CARL GUERRERI, Electronic Warfare Associates Inc., Herndon, Virginia M. FREDERICK HAWTHORNE, University of Missouri, Columbia MARY JANE IRWIN, Pennsylvania State University, University Park ELLIOT D. KIEFF, Channing Laboratory, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts LARRY LEHOWICZ, Quantum Research International, Arlington, Virginia EDWARD K. REEDY, Georgia Tech Research Institute (retired), Atlanta DENNIS J. REIMER, DFI International (retired), Arlington, Virginia WALTER D. SINCOSKIE, Telcordia Technologies Inc., Morristown, New Jersey MARK J.T. SMITH, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana MICHAEL A. STROSCIO, University of Illinois, Chicago JUDITH L. SWAIN, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla WILLIAM R. SWARTOUT, Institute for Creative Technologies, Marina del Rey, California EDWIN L. THOMAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ELLEN D. WILLIAMS, University of Maryland, College Park Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate DEANNA P. SPARGER, Program Administrative Coordinator
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Review and Assessment of Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Preface The Committee to Review and Assess Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (Appendix A) was appointed by the National Research Council in response to the following request from the Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives: Statement of Task Review the design and thermal modeling of the metal parts treater (MPT) for BGCAPP; Review testing results that have become available in the course of Technical Risk Reduction Program activity 5c for the metal parts treater; Develop means to address the longer-than-expected heat-up times of munitions casings in the MPT in view of considerations of the effect this has on the throughput capabilities for overall BGCAPP operations; Review the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (PCAPP) Munitions Treatment Unit (MTU) design and test data, compare the MPT and MTU and make any recommendations regarding the MTU’s application to BGCAPP; Produce a report with findings and recommendations concerning first-of-a-kind developmental issues and possible options concerning the MPT design for BGCAPP. The committee is the latest in a series of committees assembled to provide scientific and technical advice to the Army as it seeks alternatives to the existing baseline incineration programs being used at five of the remaining eight chemical weapons stockpile locations. The committee met three times (see Appendix B for the meeting agendas). At the first meeting, the committee visited the Parsons facility in Kennewick, Washington, to be briefed on the full Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives (ACWA) designs, the specifications for the metal parts treater (MPT), and the MPT Technical Risk Reduction Program (TRRP). The committee members also inspected the TRRP MPT used in testing. On September 20, 2007, representatives of the committee visited the Abbott Furnace Company in St. Marys, Pennsylvania, to receive presentations from the munitions treatment unit (MTU) manufacturer and to inspect the MTU being constructed and tested for the Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant (PCAPP). The second full meeting was held on October 16-18, 2007, at the National Academies’ Beckman Conference Center in Irvine, California. The first half-day was devoted to discussions with the Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives and the Bechtel Parsons Blue Grass Team to clarify any remaining questions, and the remainder of the 3-day meeting was devoted to discussions and to writing the report. At the last meeting, on November 6-8, 2007, also at the Beckman Conference Center, the committee focused on refining the report for peer review. This was a very challenging study, in part because of the short time frame allowed the committee and in part because the delivery of sufficiently detailed written information necessary to inform the committee was delayed owing to security vetting. Such vetting, which appears to be an artifact of the September 11, 2001 attacks, continues to have a negative effect on the ability of committees to provide the type of technically detailed advice that is expected of them. The January 2008 date originally requested for delivery of the report required the committee to complete its data gathering before its third meeting, which took place November 6-8, 2007. Unfortunately, the Bechtel Parsons Blue Grass Team’s final report, Technical Risk Reduction Program Metal Parts Treater Final Study Report, Revision B, containing 763 pages of information and describing the testing of the MPT, was not made available to the committee until November 2, 2007, owing to an extensive operational security review. Thus, although the committee did spend considerable time during its final meeting examining this information, it based the majority of its deliberations on the oral presentations of test results and discussions with the Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives and contractor representatives.
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Review and Assessment of Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant As the chair of this committee, I commend the diligent work and the contributions to the preparation of this report by the writing team leaders, Bill Gekler, John Howell, Joan Berkowitz, and Richard Ayen. Their efforts are particularly appreciated. The entire committee, in turn, is grateful to the Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives Kevin Flamm and his staff, particularly Joseph Novad and Darren Dalton, for their considerable efforts to provide the needed information. The committee understands the challenges that these hard-working professionals encountered in assembling and gaining operational security clearances for the information and test results requested. The committee also greatly appreciates the support and assistance of National Research Council staff members Bruce Braun, Margaret Novack, Nia Johnson, and Jim Myska, who ably assisted the committee in its fact-finding activities and in the production of the report. The members of the Board on Army Science and Technology (BAST), listed on page v, were not asked to endorse the committee’s conclusions or recommendations, nor did they review the final draft of this report before its release, although board members with appropriate expertise may be nominated to serve as formal members of study committees or as report reviewers. The BAST was established in 1982 by the National Research Council at the request of the U.S. Army. It brings broad military, industrial, and academic scientific, engineering, and management expertise to bear on Army technical challenges and other issues of importance to senior Army leaders. The BAST also discusses potential studies of interest; develops and frames study tasks; ensures proper project planning; suggests potential committee members and reviewers for reports produced by fully independent, ad hoc study committees; and convenes meetings to examine strategic issues. Robert A. Beaudet, Chair Committee to Review and Assess Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant
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Review and Assessment of Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Martin Gollin, Carmagen Engineering Inc., Gary S. Groenewold, Idaho National Laboratory, Elizabeth A. Holm, Sandia National Laboratories, Peter B. Lederman, New Jersey Institute of Technology (retired), James F. Mathis, NAE, Exxon Corporation (retired), George J. Quarderer, Dow Chemical Company (retired), W. Leigh Short, Principal and Vice President of Woodward-Clyde (retired), and Michael K. Stenstrom, University of California, Los Angeles. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Harold Forsen, NAE. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Review and Assessment of Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Contents SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 7 Background, 7 The BGCAPP Design and the Metal Parts Treater, 8 The PCAPP Design and the Munitions Treatment Unit, 10 Scope and Organization of the Study, 10 2 METAL PARTS TREATER SYSTEM 11 Overview, 11 Metal Parts Treater, 11 System Description, 11 System Operation, 13 Prototype Testing of the Metal Parts Treater Technology, 14 Off-Gas Treatment System, 16 System Description, 16 System Operation, 18 3 ASSESSMENT OF METAL PARTS TREATER TESTING ACTIVITIES 20 Mechanical Issues, 20 New Door Closure Mechanism and Seals, 20 Bearings for the Conveyer Rollers, 21 Heating Zones, 21 Secondary and Closure Waste Treatment, 22 Waste to Be Treated in the MPT, 22 Pyrolysis Testing of Secondary Waste Simulants, 24 Technical Risk Reduction Program Testing of MPT Treatment of Secondary Waste, 24 Alternative Treatment and Disposition of Secondary Waste, 26 4 THERMAL TESTING, MODELING, AND PREDICTED THROUGHPUT OF THE METAL PARTS TREATER 27 Experimental Temperature Measurements, 27 Temperature Prediction by Computational Fluid Dynamics Thermal Modeling, 28 Comparison of Temperature Measurements and Modeling, 30 Ability to Scale Up and Meet Throughput Requirements, 32
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Review and Assessment of Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant 5 APPLICABILITY OF PCAPP MUNITIONS TREATMENT UNIT AT BGCAPP 34 Munitions Treatment Unit Design and Operation at PCAPP, 34 Testing of the Munitions Treatment Unit for PCAPP, 35 Comparison of the Metal Parts Treater and Munitions Treatment Unit for BGCAPP, 35 Treatment of Energetics Batch Hydrolyzers and Secondary and Closure Waste at BGCAPP, 38 6 GENERAL FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 40 REFERENCES 42 APPENDIXES A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS 45 B COMMITTEE MEETINGS AND SITE VISITS 47
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Review and Assessment of Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Tables, Figures, and Box TABLES S-1 Comparison of the Metal Parts Treater and the Munitions Treatment Unit, 5 1-1 Inventory of the Chemical Weapons in the Blue Grass Army Depot Stockpile, 8 1-2 Pueblo Chemical Depot Chemical Weapons Stockpile of HD- or HT-filled Munitions, 8 3-1 Solid Waste Generation and Processing Rate in the Metal Parts Treater, 24 3-2 Summary of Results from Secondary Waste Testing Carried Out in 2005, 24 4-1 Metal Parts Treater Unit’s Material Properties, 30 4-2 Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Boundary Conditions for the Technical Risk Reduction Program, 31 4-3 Computational Fluid Dynamics Model 070806 Boundary Conditions, 32 4-4 Computational Fluid Dynamics Model 070806 Component Masses, 32 4-5 Metal Parts Treater/Metal Parts Treater Cooling System Projectile Throughput Rates, 33 5-1 Comparison of the Metal Parts Treater and the Munitions Treatment Unit, 37 FIGURES 1-1 Process flow diagram for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant, 9 2-1 Simplified flow diagram of the metal parts treater system, 12 2-2 Current design of the off-gas treatment system for the metal parts treater, 12 2-3 First-of-a-kind full-scale metal parts treater system, 13 2-4 Technical Risk Reduction Program metal parts treater system (without staging conveyors, air lock doors, and cooling chamber), 15 2-5 Bulk oxidizer in the off-gas treatment system for the metal parts treater, 17 4-1 Location of thermocouples (X) and computational fluid dynamics model “cold spots” on test rounds and in tray for June 14 testing, 28 4-2 Comparison of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model predictions with experimental results for thermocouples 4 and 6 on projectile 14 with CFD predictions, 29 4-3 Thermocouple installation on the projectile, 30 4-4 Variation of specific heat and emissivity with temperature, 31 5-1 The Abbott Furnace Company munitions treatment unit, 36 BOX 3-1 The Technical Risk Reduction Program (TRRP) 05c Heat Transfer Test, 22
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Review and Assessment of Developmental Issues Concerning the Metal Parts Treater Design for the Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant Abbreviations and Acronyms ACWA Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives BGAD Blue Grass Army Depot BGCAPP Blue Grass Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant BOX bulk oxidizer (flameless thermal oxidizer) BPBGT Bechtel Parsons Blue Grass Team CATOX catalytic oxidizer CFD computational fluid dynamics DOD Department of Defense EBH energetics batch hydrolyzer ENS energetics neutralization system GB nerve agent (sarin) H Levinstein mustard agent HD distilled mustard agent HT distilled mustard mixed with bis(2-chloroethylthioethyl) ether HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning LSS Lab Safety Supply MDB munitions demilitarization building MPT metal parts treater MTU munitions treatment unit MWS munitions washout system NAE National Academy of Engineering NRC National Research Council OTM off-gas treatment for the MPT OTS off-gas treatment system PCAPP Pueblo Chemical Agent Destruction Pilot Plant PCD Pueblo Chemical Depot PMACWA Program Manager for Assembled Chemical Weapons Alternatives PMD projectile mortar disassembly PTFE polytetrafluoroethylene PVC polyvinylchloride SCWO supercritical water oxidation SDU supplemental decontamination unit TRRP Technical Risk Reduction Program VOC volatile organic compound VSL vapor screening level VX nerve agent WCL waste control limit WIC waste incineration container