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Index A Adzuki beans, 254, 263 Agricultural Credit Act of 1987, 92 Agricultural productivity balancing stewardship and, 16 comparison of regional advantages in, 12, 199-202, 210-211 and costs per unit of output, 8, 12, 199-204; see also Production costs irrigation and, 52 measures of, 199-204 natural factors limiting, 5, 200, 202, 207 and off-farm inputs, 15, 37; see also Fertilizers; Pesticides soil erosion and, 98, 115-117, 119 trends in, 6, 32, 33, 37, 85 Agricultural trade balance, 27-28, 30, 93 conflicts in policy, 68 economic conditions and, 6, 27, 30 export trends, 6, 27-32, 71, 75, 90, 92, 93, 95-96, 130 and federal farm programs, 27-30, 69, 71, 75, 236 imports, 32, 94, 96-97 surplus, 32, 89, 93 value of exports, 29, 30-32, 94, 96 volume of exports, 30-31, 94, 95 see also Farm policy; Trade policy Agriculture Adjustment Act of 1938, 69 427 Alfalfa feed value of, 281 integrated pest management in, 49, 178, 210, 211, 220 irrigation of, 412 Nitro cultivar, 149 nitrogen fixation by, 147, 149 pesticide use on, 44, 49, 211 pests, 179, 220, 260 potassium absorption by, 154 resistant cultivars, 179 rotations with, 140, 149, 153, 231, 277 saponins in, 167 seed crops, 210 yields, 231 Alternative agriculture, definition of, 3- 5, 27 Animal disease in alternative systems, 5, 167-175, 224-228, 276, 284, 389, 392-394 and confinement rearing, 50, 168, 171, 225, 302 costs of, 224-225 health systems, 167-175 immunization for, 172-173 low-intensity management, 4-5, 170- 171 mastitis, 169, 173, 225 neonatal scours, 221 parasites, 173 research needs on, 17, 20, 21, 165, 173, 174-175, 225

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428 respiratory infections, 225 stress and, 174, 393-394 uterine infections, 172 see also Disease control Animal feeds almond hulls, 84 antibiotics in, 49-50 bioavailability of lignocellulose in, 165- 166, 189 chemical treatment of, 166 citrus pulp, 84 from commodity by-products, 84, 166, 254 corn stalks, 166 gleaning of corn fields, 274 green, 281 hay and forage, 54, 165-167, 215, 230, 389 nutrient values of, 166, 280, 281 pesticides in, 84 roughage, 281 shelled corn for poultry feed, 254 small-grain straw, 166 soybean screenings, 254, 265 tomato pomace, 84 turnips, 274, 281 see also Feed grains; Forage crops Animal production systems alternative systems, 5, 135, 169, 171, 226-228, 266-268, 287-288, 301- 302, 308-309, 321-323, 389, 392-394 antibiotic use in, 49-50, 85, 90, 168, 170-171' 226, 301 confinement rearing in, 9, 50, 54-55, 76, 85, 135, 168, 171, 173, 174, 225- 228, 302 disease prevention in, 5, 167-175, 224- 225, 276, 284, 389, 392-394 economics of, 224-230 and fat content of meat and dairy products, 12, 13, 83, 84, 167 and federal grading standards, 13 feedlot finishing, 50, 54-55, 77, 105, 109, 127 health maintenance in, 5, 10, 22, 50, 167-175, 224-228, 276, 284, 389, 392-394 hormonal therapy, 167, 171-172 pasture and hutch system, 171, 227, 266-268, 287-288, 301-302, 308- 309, 321-323, 389, 392-394 profitability of, 94, 226-Z8 research needs on, 4-5, 15, 21, 164- 165, 167 specialization and, 54, 85 structural changes in, 54-57, 76, 77, 85 ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURE tax policy and, 76, 77, 226-227 ventilation in, 168, 302 waste management, 5, 105, 127, 171; see also Manures see also Beef cattle; Case studies; Crop- livestock systems; Poultry; Sheep; &_ . ~wme Animals and animal products foreign producer subsidy equivalents for, 97 value of exports, 31, 94 volume of exports, 31 see also Animal production systems; Beef cattle; Dairy cattle; Dairy products; Meats and meat products; Poultry; Swine Antibiotics alternatives to, 5, 135, 168, 169, 171 benefits of, 49, 168, 170-171, 389 chloramphenicol, 129 confinement rearing and, 49-50, 85, 90, 168, 170-171 FDA regulation of, 50, 129-130 in feed, 49-50 gentamicin, 130, 173 health risks to humans from, 128-129, 130 medicinal, 49, 168, 169, 301 penicillin, 50, 128, 169 and profitability, 9 reduction in use of, 9 research and development costs, 168 and resistance of bacteria, 50, 84, 127- 128, 168 sulfamethazine, 129 tetracycline, 50, 128, 301 trends in use of, 49-50, 168, 170-171, 394 Apples, 49, 178, 210, 211, 223 B Bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens, 185, 220 Alternaria macrospora, 188 animal-to-human transmission of, 128 Bacillus thuringiensis, 182, 220, 342, 361, 362 beneficial, 162, 164, 184, 185, 186, 221, 342 campylobacter, 127 disease control in animals with, 221 listeria, 127 nitrogen-fixing, 148-149, 162 nematode control with, 186 Pas teuria penetrans, 186

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INDEX Pseudomonas sp. for fungi control, 185 Pseudomonas syringae, ice minus strains of, 221 resistance to antibiotics, 50, 84, 127- 128, 168 ruminal, 166 salmonellae, 50, 84, 127, 128 in sewage sludge, 127 in soils, 162, 164 weed control with, 188 Balfour, Eve, 136 Barley acreage idled under conservation program, 80-81 animal diseases from, 393 irrigation of, 52, 53 rotations with, 159, 234-235, 240 yields, 52 Bee Indemnity Act of 1970, 122 Beef cattle alternative management strategies, 261, 388-397; see also Crop- livestock production antibiotic use on, 49, 301, 394 breeding, 283-284, 389, 392-393, 394, 397 case study of Coleman Natural Beef, 388-397 disease control in, 302, 389, 392, 393- 394, 397 feeding, 389, 393 feedlot finishing, 55, 77, 395-396 finishing operation, 287-288, 301-302, 395-396 and food safety concerns, 63 grading standards for, 13, 83, 167, 396 growth stimulant implants in, 395 losses from disease, 224, 392-393, 396- 397 nutrient content of manure, 153 pasture maintenance practices, 389 profitability of, 94, 254, 284, 388-389, Case studies 394-397 regional differences in farm income from, 61 size of production operations, 55-56 specialization and, 54 Bell peppers, 344-347, 348-349 Bermuda grass, 166 Biological pest control with Agrobacterium strain, 185, 220 with bacterial insecticides, 182, 220, 342, 361, 362 with coastal Bermuda grass, 186-187 with coaling moth granulosis virus, 223, 330-333 429 for Colorado potato beetles, 125 with Crotolaria spectabilis, 186 economics of, 219-224 effectiveness of, 179 in fruit and vegetable production, 65, ?29 immunization of host plants, 220 insect hormones, 183 for nematodes, 186-187 nonpathogenic microflora, 13, 185, 221 pheromones, 180-181, 183, 220, 221, 223, 330, 382 for plant pathogens, 185-186 with plants, 17, 186-188, 221 predatory and parasitic insects, 180, 182, 219-221, 223, 331-332, 341, 344, 361, 380 Pseudomonas control of fungi, 185 regulatory standards for, 13 reproductive suppression by release of sterilized males, 182, 220, 221 research needs on, 15, 17, 219, 223-224 resistant crop cultivars, 4, 5, 179, 183- 184, 186, 219-221 stimulation of plant defense system, 185-186 success factors in, 219-220 vaccination, 186, 220 see also Disease control; Genetically engineered products and organisms; Integrated pest management; Plant breeding Biotechnology, agricultural applications of, 14, 17; see also Genetically engineered products and organisms Birdsfoot trefoil, 149 Bluestem grass, 283 Bureau of Reclamation, 52, 53 c crop -live stock pro duct ion, 215-21 6, 228-230, 249-250, 253-323 fresh-market vegetable operation, 212- 213, 250, 336-349 of integrated pest management, 212, 250, 251, 336-349, 374-387 livestock farming, 388-397 processing tomato operation, 212-213, 251, 374-387 rice production, 398-417 tree fruits, walnuts, and vegetables, 223, 250, 324-334 vineyards (table grapes), 222, 250-251, 350-373

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430 Chickpeas, 149 Citrus, 43, 178 Clean Water Act, 98, 104 Clovers, 146, 148, 149, 154, 167, 187, 231, 255-256, 259, 263, 265, 281 Commodity Credit Corporation, 11, 52, 74, 81 Commodity price and income support programs acreage enrolled in, 10, 71, 85, 235 adverse effects of, 10-12, 17, 26, 70, 79, 115, 199, 207, 236, 238-240 and agricultural trade, 27-30, 69, 71, 75, 236 and alternative farming practices, 6, 8, 10-12, 17-18, 26, 69-75, 85, 235- 240 base acreage rule, 10-11, 18, 65, 69, 70, 74, 79, 85, 205, 236-240 benefits of, 78, 90, 205, 228 costs of, 3, 65-67, 89, 97 crops and products covered by, 74, 235 cross-compliance rule, 10-11, 69-70, 79, 81, 85, 104, 117, 237 deficiency payments, 7, 11, 65-67, 70, 71, 74, 81, 90, 93, 130, 205, 237-240 definition of terms, 74-75 disaster relief and insurance benefits, 78, 81, 90, 205 effects on nonparticipants, 65, 68 eligibility rules, 10-11, 18, 69, 81, 237 exempt crops, 11, 69, 237 and farm income, 7, 11, 65-67, 74, 93, 130, 238-240 fertilizer use and, 12, 38, 40, 70, 205, 207 and irrigation, 52-54, 70 and land use, 11, 12, 59, 65, 76, 90, 207, 236; see also Conservation Reserve Program and legume-based rotations, 10, 233- 235, 238-240 limitations on payments, 74, 93 loan rates, 6, 11, 28, 30, 74-75, 90, 236 participation, 71-73, 93, 207, 273-274 pesticide use and, 10, 12, 38, 70, 205, 207 and production costs, 205, 207-208 purpose of, 69, 74 recommended restructuring of, 17-18, 23, 65 and regional economies, 58-59, 62 target prices, 11, 65, 70, 71-73, 74, 78, 205, 237-238 yield goals, 10, 25, 69, 70-72, 93, 138 Commodity prices ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURE alternative farming and, 8, 136, 255- 256, 263, 265, 324, 399, 413 effects on regional economies, 62 farm policy and, 68, 72-73, 91, 235 and irrigation, 54 and loan rates, 90 market, 72-73, 93, 237 and soil conservation, 79 target, for federal program crops, 11, 65, 70, 71-73, 74, 78, 205, 237-238 trends in, 5, 92 see also specific commodities Compost, 151-152, 222, 358, 365; see also Manures Conservation Reserve Program and agricultural productivity, 81, 117, 119 cropland enrolled in, 11, 18, 44, 70, 79-81, 117, 118, 402 effect on soil erosion, 99, 103, 115-119 effect on water pollution, 99, 103, 104 eligibility for other federal programs tied to, 81 Consumer price index, for food, 35-36 Continuous cropping, 42, 138-139, 144, 147, 231, 232; see also Specialization Com acreage enrolled in federal programs, 10, 71 acreage idled under conservation programs, 80-81 animal feed from, 166, 254, 274 costs of production, 38-39, 200-201, 203, 205-206, 210, 216, 233, 238, 264, 274 deficiency payments for, 11 export trends, 27, 29 fertilizer use on, 38-42, 139, 152, 200, 344-345 genetic diversity of, 120 for grain, 52 integrated pest management on, 178, 187, 210, 343-345 irrigation of, 51-53, 77, 109, 113-114, 277 low-lignin, 166 market prices for, 11, 72 mechanical cultivation of, 25 monoculture, 42, 139, 147, 231, 232 nitrogen-responsive varieties, 40 participation rates in commodity programs, 72 pesticide use on, 5, 38, 44, 47-48, 83, 101, 139, 175, 200-201, 210, 344- 345

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INDEX regional differences in farm income from, 61 ridge tillage of, 25 rotations with, 9, 25, 40, 140, 145, 146, 149, 153, 157, 159, 215, 231-232, 238-240, 249, 253-285 specialty markets for, 254 surpluses, 52, 114 target prices for, 72, 237, 238 value of exports, 29 yields, 34, 52, 145, 147, 200-201, 210, 216, 232, 255, 262, 271, 275-277 Cotton acreage enrolled in federal programs, 10, 71 acreage idled under conservation programs, 80-81 costs of production, 39, 206, 210, 238 export trends, 27, 29, 30-31 fertilizer use on, 39-42 integrated pest management in, 49, 178, 188, 210, 211 irrigation of, 52, 53, 113-114 loan rates for, 75 pesticide use on, 43, 44, 47-49, 124, 210 pests, 124, 178, 185, 187, 188, 220 profitability of, 94 regional differences in farm income from, 61, 62 surpluses, 114 target price of, 238 value of exports, 29, 31 volume of exports, 31 yields, 34, 52, 210 Cropland from erodible grassland, 79 idled, ]:1, 18, 44, 70, 79-81, 117, 118, 402 irrigated, 53 value of, 119 wetlands conversion to, 76, 78 Crop-livestock production animal waste management in, 230; see also Manures buildings and facilities, 257-258, 270, 291, 311-312 case studies of, 215-216, 228-230, 249- 250, 253-323, 388-397 costs of production, 68, 264-265, 321 cover crops in, 320-321 crop rotations in, 54, 145, 229-230, 266, 270, 278, 280-282, 287, 294- 297, 313-314 crop yields in, 255, 261-262, 267, 271, 275, 276, 288, 303-304, 309, 310 431 disease control in, 255, 260, 263, 276, 309, 322-323 environmental impacts of, 284, 302- 303 federal policy effects on, 62, 85 irrigation in, 275, 276, 278 labor management, 255, 260, 267, 276, 288, 293-294, 309, 317-318 livestock management, 255, 261, 266- 268, 274, 283-284, 287, 288, 301- 302, 309, 321-323 machinery, 258, 270, 291-293, 392 marketing strategies for, 255, 263, 265, 267, 276, 287, 288, 309 obstacles to use of hay and forage, 165-167 pasture renovation for, 282-283 pest control in, 54, 255, 260, 263, 267, 288, 300-301, 309, 317, 410 pesticide use in, 54, 254, 272, 273 prevalence of, 54 profitability of, 166, 228-229, 255, 262, 265, 267, 273-274, 276, 284-285, 288, 304-306, 309, 311 research needs on, 165 soil fertility management in, 142, 144, 152, 228-230, 255, 258-259, 261, 263, 267, 270-271, 276, 281, 288, 297-300, 309, 311, 318-320 tillage practices, 259, 272, 294-297, 314-316 weed control, 215-216, 255, 259-260, 263, 267, 272-273, 276, 288, 300- 301, 309, 316 Crop rotations benefits of, 138-140, 199, 230 barley-soybeans, 159 climate and, 10 coin-alfalfa, 149 com-barley- com-oats, 240 cam- corn-soybeans-hay-hay-hay, 253 corn- corn- com-wheat-alfalfa, 231 corn-hay-soybeans, 275-285 coin-oats-alfalfa, 153, 232 com-oats- clover, 231 coin- oats-meadow-meadow, 238-240 corn-soybeans, 232 corn-soybeans- corn-oats, 239-240 com-soybeans- corn-oats-alfalfa, 266- 274 coin-soybeans-hay-hay, 253 coin-soybeans-small grain-red clover hay, 146, 215, 249, 253-265 corn-wheat-alfalfa, 140 and crop health, 4, 140 in crop-livestock production, 54, 145,

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432 229-230, 266, 270, 278, 280-282, 287, 294-297, 313-314 and crop yields, 138-139, 141, 150, 199, 228, 232-233, 234, 239, 255, 294 and deficiency payments, 238-240 definition, 138 disadvantages, 141, 230, 238-240 economics of, 141, 197, 199, 230-233, 238-240 federal policies working against, 6, 10, 70, 71, 85, 141, 199, 233-235, 238- 240 and fertilizer needs, 140, 199, 230, 232, 240 in fruit and vegetable production, 329, 378 with legumes, 9, 17, 18, 40, 71, 85, 119, 135, 136, 138-139, 140-141, 143, 144, 157, 199, 230-235, 238- 240, 299, 405 length of, 138, 141 and nutrient availability, 4, 40, 139- 140, 143, 144, 230-233 perpetuating alternative legume system (PALS), 233-235, 238-241 and pest control, 4, 9, 54, 85, 135, 139, 140, 175, 178, 184, 186, 209, 212, 230, 232, 234-235, 399 research needs on, 6, 15, 17, 21, 150 rice-vetch, 398, 399, 402-405, 407-410, 411, 413-414 rotational effects, 138-140, 145, 231- 232 short, 144, 159 sod-based, 139-140 and soil conditions, 10, 139-140 and soil erosion, 4, 70, 115, 119, 135, 137, 140, 141, 257 small grains- corn-soybeans- corn- small grains, 294-297 and weed control, 4, 5, 135, 188, 214- 216, 255, 259, 288, 300, 399, 410 wheat-barley-wheat-peas, 234-235 Crop yields from alternative farming practices, 8, 216; see also specific crops crop rotations and, 138-139, 141, 150, 199, 228, 232-233, 234, 239, 255, 294 cultivar improvement and, 34, 38, 120, 166, 303 disease control and, 120 dryland, 52-53 farm income and, 203-204, 216-217 farm policy and, 68, 70-71, 78, 138 ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURE fertilizer use and, 34, 38, 42, 113, 144, 200-201 in fruit and vegetable production, 326, 332, 333, 351, 383 integrated pest management and, 12- 13, 210-212, 213, 383 irrigation and, 51-53, 104, 113 machinery improvements and, 34 perpetuating alternative legume system (PALS), 233-235, 238-241 pesticide use and, 34, 36, 38, 175, 200- 201 and production costs, 200-201, 203, 216 and profitability, 78, 144 rotation effects, 138-140, 145, 231-232 soil salinization and mineralization and, 104 soil types and, 262, 277 specialization and, 25-26, 42, 78, 138, 147, 231 trends in, 3, 34-35, 37, 38 see also Crop-livestock production; Crop rotations; and specific crops Cultivation, see Tillage D Dairy cattle alternative management strategies, 169, 173, 225, 232, 254, 261 antibiotic use on, 49, 130 breeding of, 120, 254 disease control in, 169, 173-174, 225 farm size and market share, 57, 58 feed, 261 genetic diversity of, 7, 120 losses from disease, 224-225 nutrient content of manure, 153 profitability of, 94 Dairy products antibiotics in milk, 129, 169 fat content of, 12, 84 and food safety concerns, 63, 127, 129, 169 foreign producer subsidy equivalents for, 97 grading standards for, 12-13, 84, 235 milk production per cow, 34 pathologic bacteria in, 127 price supports for, 235 regional differences in farm income from, 61 surpluses of, 68, 84 Dairy termination program, 68, &1 Disease control

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INDEX alternative strategies, 183-186, 224- 228, 255, 405-407 in animal production systems, 5, 17, 50, 55, 167-175, 224-228, 302, 389, 392, 393-394, 397 crop rotations and, 4, 184, 209, 255, 382 in feedlots, 55 genetic, 5, 120-121, 173-174, 183, 382 by harvesting and processing practices, 184, 399 hormonal therapy and, 171-175 immunization of animals, 172-173, 393 immunization of plants, 220 parasitism, 173 in planting practices, 120-121, 184, 230 quarantine, 288 research needs on, 184, 226 sanitation and, 184 soil health and, 184, 260 stress prevention and, 174 technology and advanced diagnostics for, 174-175 tillage and, 184 see also Animal diseases; Antibiotics; Plant diseases and pathogens Diversification benefits of, 4, 141, 178, 228-229 and crop yields, 228 public policies and, 10-11, 69, 85, 228, 237 research needs on, 219 studies of, 228-235; see also Case studies see also Crop-livestock production; Crop rotations; Leguminous crops; Planting practices E Economic assessment of alternative methods animal disease prevention, 224-228 biological pest control, 219-224 comparative regional cost of production, 199-202 crop-livestock systems, 228-230 crop rotations, 141, 197, 199, 230-233; see also Leguminous crops data availability on, 22 enterprise budgeting approach, 211 federal policy impacts, 235-241 flaws in, 196, 187, 198-199, 202-203, 241 integrated pest management, 208-224 methodology, 196-203 433 partial budgeting techniques, 196 pesticide use, 218-219 and production costs, 203-208 research needs on, 21-23, 208, 240-241 risk programming, 197-198 studies of farming practices, 196-197 and transition to alternatives, 198-199, 238 weed control, 216-218 whole-farm analysis, 197-198, 199 see also Agricultural productivity; Case studies; Farm income; Production costs; Profitability Erosion, see Land, marginal; Soil erosion Farm economy credit costs, 52, 54 credit sector losses, 92 debt-to-asset ratios, 91, 92-93, 95 federal support and, 26, 58-59, 61-63, 93 production expenses, 91 regional implications of IPM, 211-212 share of retail prices for food, 34-37 trends in, 26, 90-93 see also Agricultural productivity; Economic assessment of alternatives; Farm income; Inputs, off-farm; Production costs ~ . term Income from alternative systems, 197, 203-204, 216-217, 238-240 from crop-livestock production, 61, 262 crop rotations and, 238-240 and crop yields, 203-204, 216-217 from deficiency payments, 7, 11, 65- 67, 74, 93, 130, 238-240 from direct government payments, 67, 93 estimation of changes in, 197 farm program outlays and, 65-66, 130 favorable capital gains treatment, 76 from off-farm sources, 93, 266, 390 and production costs, 91, 203 regional differences in, 57, 59-63, 203- 204, 208 from rents and interest, 62, 237-238 returns to farmers from retail food sales, 35-37 sources of, 54, 58-59, 61-62, 130 specialization and, 54 and transition to alternative farming methods, 199, 238

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434 trends in, 26, 91, 93, 95, 130 see also Production costs; Profitability Farm machinery costs per acre for, 203-204 for crop-livestock production, 258, 270, 291-293, 392 and crop yields, 34 depreciation of, 52, 76, 77, 90, 204, 226-227 development of, 37 farm policy and capital investments in, 68, 90, 226 for fertilizer application, 40 field cultivator, 161 for fruit and vegetable production, 325, 328, 357, 377 for hay crops, 392 insect vacuum, 214 investment tax credits on, 76, 77 labor displacement by, 77 laser-guided, 213 offset disk, 161, 257 research needs on, 21 ridge tillage planter, 157 sales trends, 92 and specialization, 90 spray rigs, 43 tractors, 37, 213 value of, 77 Farm policy and agricultural structure, 68-69, 85 and alternative farming practices, 6, 10-12, 17-18, 26, 62, 69-75, 85, 235-240 conflicts in, 25-26, 85 and crop surpluses, 25-26, 30, 53, 70, 78, 79, 81, 89, 91, 113-114, 236, 237 economic hardship and, 6-7, 62, 89, 92-93, -130 effects of, 65-84 farm income and, 7, 11, 65-67, 74, 93, 130, 238-240 and interest rates, 91 lack of long-range planning in, 68-69 and production costs, 205, 207-208 reforms, effects of, 207-208 see also Commodity price and income support programs; Irrigation; Regulatory policy; Research and extension; Soil conservation, and federal policies; Tax policy; Trade policy; Water conservation and protection Farm size and financial condition, 7, 12, 94 growth in, 6, 54, 85 ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURE and practicality of alternative practices, 215 and production costs per unit of output, 12, 208 regional differences in, 57-58 specialization and, 54, 85 tax policy and, 76-77 Farmers and farm labor for crop-livestock production, 255, 260, 267, 276, 288, 293-294, 309, 317- 318 in fruit and vegetable production, 332- 333, 375, 382-383 health risks to, 13, 20, 121-122, 416 labor productivity, 37 for livestock farming, 389, 390 number of farmers, 33-34 off-farm employment/income of, 58- 59, 62 skill and time requirements of, 9-10, 22 Farmers Home Administration loans, 81, 91 Farms amount of cropland farmed, 34 number of, 25-26, 54 operating costs, 3, 12; see also Production costs regional characteristics of, 57-65 value of, 37-38, 63-64, 68, 76, 90-91 see also Case studies; Crop-livestock production Fava beans, 147-149, 359 Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, pesticide restrictions under, 123 Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1954, 82-83 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act cost-benefit assessments, 13, 19, 23, 108, 218 pesticides registered under, 46, 82 standards for new products, 13, 82 see also Pesticides; Regulatory policy Feed grains, see Barley; Corn; Oats; Sorghum Fertilizers adverse effects of, 7, 9, 16, 42, 89, 98, 207 benefits of, 34, 38, 42, 184, 200, 222, 363, 365 broadcast, 160, 162 and commodity prices, 40 costs of, 38-39, 119, 200-201, 288, 299 in crop-livestock production, 54, 230, 270

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INDEX and crop yields, 34, 38, 42, 113, 144, 200-201 federal policies and use of, 12, 38, 40, 70, 205, 207 health hazards of, 127 inefficient use of, 10, 12, 42, 144 limestone, 156 microbial fertilizers, 255, 258, 263 and monocultural production, 25, 42, 139 reduction of need for, 4, 5, 9, 140, 199, 232, 240 sewage sludge, 127, 136, 309, 319-320 timing and placement of, 9, 10, 144 trends in use of, 40-42, 85 water pollution from, 3, 89, 98, 127, 207 see also Crop rotations; Leguminous crops; Manures; Nitrogen fertilizers; Phosphorus fertilizers; Plant nutrients; Potassium fertilizers Fescue, 167, 275, 277, 283, 390 Field peas, 148, 149 Flax, 53 Food consumer expenditures for, 34-35, 37 consumer price index, 35-36 pathologic bacteria in, 127 safety, 63, 83-85, 126-127, 224 see also Case studies; Dairy products; Meats and meat products; and .... specific crops Food grading and cosmetic standards and animal feeding and management systems, 13, 83, 167, 396 for dairy products, 12-13, 84, 235 for fruits and vegetables, 12-13, 19-20, 62, 177, 236 for meats, 12-13, 83, 167, 236, 396 and pest control practices, 12-13, 19- 20, 62-63, 177, 340 Food industries employment in, 33-34, 37, 58 historical patterns in, 25-27, 32 portion of GNP, 26-28 Food processing, 35, 37-37, 177 Food Security Act of 1985 conservation compliance provisions of, 69-70, 79, 81, 85, 104, 117, 237 cross-compliance rule, 10-11, 69, 85, 104 effect on alternative farming practices, 18 export programs, 30 feed grain program, 68 435 freezing of yield levels, 70-71, 237 limitations on commodity payments, 74 loan rate changes under, 75 sodbuster and swampbuster provisions, 76, 79 soil conservation provisions, 117, 162, 402 Forage crops antimetabolites and plant toxins in, 167 bioavailability of nutrients in, 165-166 in crop-livestock production, 54, 165- 167 erosion control with, 141, 165 in federal commodity program, 18 harvesting, storage and processing of, 165 lignocellulose digestion, 165-166, 189 nitrogen fixation with, 145, 165 nutrient absorption by, 154 obstacles to use of, 165-167 palatibility of, 166-167 research needs on, 166 weeds as, 215, 230, 389 see also Alfalfa; Animal feeds; Hays; Leguminous crops Fruits and vegetables biological control methods in, 182, 222 exports, 31 grading and cosmetic standards for, 12-13, 19-20, 62-63, 177, 236 imports, 96 integrated pest management in, 9, 65, 177, 182, 221-223 pesticide residues in, 127 pesticide use in, 5, 20, 44, 186, 222- 223 regional differences in production and farm income from, 58, 61, 63, 65 unit value of, 177 see also Case studies; Orchard crops; and specific fruits and vegetables Fumigants chloropicrin, 185, 341, 360, 365 methyl bromide, 185, 341, 348, 360, 365 need for, 186 sulfur dioxide, 365 Fungicides application methods, 43, 123 bacterial, 185 captan, 414 chlorothalonil, 107 ethylene bisdithiocarbamates, 123 health risks from, 126, 185

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436 mancozeb, 343, 344 market share, 44, 46 need for, 186 pest resistance to, 46, 124, 185 registered under FIFRA, 46 use of, 44-46, 179, 214 see also Disease control G Genetic diversity of crops and domestic animals, 7, 120-121 Genetically engineered products and organisms biological pest control agents, 221 corn with reduced lignin, 166 definition of, 13 economic benefits of, 222 herbicide-resistant crops, 188 nitrogen-fixing, 17 regulatory standards for, 13 resistance to viruses in tobacco plants, 184, 221 ruminal bacteria, 166 toxic plants, 182, 221 Grading standards, see Food grading and cosmetic standards Grains, see Feed grains; Small grains; and specific grains Groundwater decontamination of, 107-108 depletion of, 51, 77, 89-90, 109, 113- 114, 130, 207 drinking water from, 105, 107, 109 energy costs for pumping of, 51 fertilizer contamination of, 42, 111, 147 irrigation water from, 51, 52, 105, 109 monitoring of, 18 nitrate in, 3, 63, 89, 109, 110-112, 113- 114, 147 Ogallala aquifer, 77, 113 pesticides in, 3, 16, 63, 89, 101, 105- 109, 112, 113-114 H Hays erosion control with, 141, 230 harvesting, storage, and processing of, 165, 282, 295 irrigation of, 53 marketing of, 275, 295 millet-pea-rye mixture, 280 nitrogen availability from, 147 obstacles to use of, 165-167 ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURE potassium depletion by, 154 prices, 295 production by dairy farmers, 68 profitability of, 145, 230 in rotations, 138, 141, 253, 275-285 yields, 276, 277 see also Forage crops Health risks allergic reactions, 129 from antibiotic use in animal feeds, 128-129 assessment of, 129 cancer, 105, 121-122, 126, 129 cholinergic illness, 122 from fertilizers, 127 methemoglobinemia, 105 multiple myeloma, 122 from nitrate in drinking water, 105 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, 121-122 from pesticides, 82-84, 105, 121-122, 126, 185, 416 salmonellosis, 128-129 systemic poisoning, 122 Herbicides acifluorfen, 106 alachlor, 83, 101-104, 105, 106, 107, 109, 300 ametryn, 106 application methods, 10, 43, 363 application rates, 43 atrazine, 101-103, 105, 106, 107, 109, 160, 281, 300, 344 benefits assessments, 83 bentazon, 106 benzene hexachloride (BHC), 42, 107, 175 bromacil, 106, 107 butylate, 102-103, 106, 300 chloramben, 106, 109, 385 in crop-livestock production, 54 crop losses from, 125 cyanazine, 102-103, 106, 107, 109, 160 cycloate, 106 1,2-D, 107, 385 1,3-D, 107, 385 2,4-D, 42, 102-103, 106, 109, 121-122, 175, 272 dalapon, 106 DCPA, 106, 107 dicamba, 102-103, 106, 107, 109 dinoseb, 106, 107, 385 diphenamid, 106, 385 diuron, 106, 107, 363 in drinking water, 101, 105 economics of, 5, 217-218

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INDEX EPTC plus R-25788, 278, 280, 281 fluometuron, 106 glyphosphate, 188, 329, 363, 385 groundwater and surface water contamination, see Groundwater; Surface water hexazinone, 106, 108 human health risks from, 121-122 linuron, 103, 108, 300 maleic hydrazide, 106 market share, 44, 187 MCPA, 106, 406, 409, 414 metolachlor, 83, 102-103, 106, 108, 109, 217, 300 metribuzin, 102-103, 106, 108, 109 molinate, 404, 409, 410-411, 414 napropamide, 382, 386 paraquat, 363, 386 pebulate, 382, 386 picloram, 106, 108, 109 prometon, 108 pronamide, 106 propachlor, 109 propazine, 106, 108 prophan, 106 simazine, 101, 103, 106, 108, 109, 160, 363 spot-spraying of, 10 2,4,5-T, 106 terbacil, 106 2,4,5-1P 106, 109 trends in use of, 44-47, 101, 175 trifluralin, 102-103, 108, 109, 386 Howard, Albert, 136 Information on alternative agriculture, 137 Inputs, off-farm agrochemicals, 37; see also Fertilizers; Pesticides antibiotics, 49-50 costs of, 3, 5, 23, 38-39, 91, 92, 203- 208, 300, 344, 364 dependency on, 25 economic activity generated by, 32-33 employment in industries producing, 37 fuel, 38-39, 51 GNP share, 27 government policies supporting use of, 10-13, 15, 205, 207, 233, 237 inefficiencies in use of, 12, 205, 236 irrigation, 50-54 437 reduction in use of, 4, 9, 23 seed, 39 transportation, 37, 38 see also Farm machinery Insect control alternative, 178-183 crop rotations and, 4, 212, 300 by endophyte fungus Acremonium coenophialum, 167 through plant breeding, 121; see also Biological pest control; Integrated pest management Insecticides aldicarb, 105-107, 109 aldrin, 82, 107 application methods, 43, 123 atraton, 107 azinphos-methyl, 362, 385 Bacillus thuringiensis, 125, 342, 361, 362, 385 benomyl, 234 cancellation of, 82, 123 carbamates, 122, 175, 362, 385 carbaryl, 183, 362, 385 carbofuran, 102-103, 106, 107, 109, 122-123, 296, 408, 410, 413 carbophenothion, 362 chlordane, 82, 104, 106, 107 chlordecone, 82 chlorothalonil, 343, 385 chlorpyrifos, 109 copper sulfate, 407 in crop-livestock production, 54 cryolite, 362 DDT, 42, 82, 103, 107, 123, 124, 126, 127, 175 demeton, 362, 385 diazinon, 107, 123, 362, 385 dibromochloropropane, 107 dicofol, 123, 385 dieldrin, 82, 107 dimethoate, 296, 362, 385 dioxathion, 362 disulfoton, 106, 385 endosulfan, 107, 385 endrin, 123 ethoprop, 107 ethyl parathion, 410 fenamiphos, 106 fonofos, 107, 109, 385 health risks from, 122 heptachlor, 82 lindane, 108, 385 malathion, 108, 385 market share, 44

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438 methamidophos, 108, 386 methidathion, 330 methomyl, 106, 108, 799, 343, 344, 361, 365, 381, 386 methyl parathion, 108, 124, 386 oxamyl, 106, 108, 386 parathion, 108, 386, 407, 409, 413-414, 417 pest resistance to, 124, 173 phorate, 109 phosalone, 330 propargite, 330 spot-spraying of, 10 synthetic pyrethroids, 46, 175, 342 TDE, 108 toxaphene, 104, 108, 123, 134, 344, 386 trends in use of, 44-46, 48 triadimefon, 364 water pollution by, 102 Insects alfalfa weevil, 182, 220, 260 Anagrus wasp, 220, 361, 363, 365 aphid, 179, 222, 330, 379 armyworm, 410 Australian Vedalia beetle, 182 Bactra verutana, 187 bee, 122 beet army worm, 378, 379 beneficial, 10, 122-124, 180, 182, 187, 214, 220, 361, 363 boll weevil, 124 carabid beetle, 187 coaling moth, 330 Colorado potato beetle, 124, 125 corn rootworm, 178, 212, 300 cotton aphid, 124 cotton bollworm, 124 cotton leafworm, 124 European corn borer, 121, 179, 182, 222 fire ant, 341, 344 fruit fly, 182 fruitworm, 378, 379, 381 grape leafroller, 183 grasshopper, 410 greenbug, 121 Hessian fly, 179, 221, 222 ladybug, 214 leaf-feeding caterpillar, 182, 220 leafhopper, 222-223, 360, 363, 410 leafmining weevil, 187, 409, 410, 414 lygus bug, 214 Mexican bean beetle larva, 180 mosquito, 220, 410 oriental fruit moth, 183, 223, 330 pink bollworm, 178, 183, 212, 220 ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURE potato leafhopper, 296 purslane sawfly, 187 rice water weevil, 403, 407, 408, 410, 413 scabies and lice in livestock, 389, 393 scale, 182, 330 screwworm, 182, 220 seed midge, 403 snails (predatory), 220 spider mite, 124, 182, 214, 222, 330, 359, 363, 381 spined soldier bug, 180 tobacco budworm, 124 tomato pests, 183, 379, 381 vineyard mite, 363 wheat stem sawfly, 179, 799 see also Pests Integrated pest management (IPM) biological pest control in, 219-224 case studies, 212, 250, 251, 336-349, 374-387 components of, 4, 135, 176, 208-209, 341-348 consultant industry, 177, 211, 342 cost-benefit assessments of, 210-212, 384-385 and crop quality, 210, 211, 213 and crop yields, 12-13, 210-212, 213, 383 development of, 176-178 economic threshold principle, 176, 177, 207, 208, 211-212, 337-338, 381, 407 economics, 22, 210-213, 343-347, 380 effects on water quality, 108 federal support for, 177 in fruit and vegetable production, 65, 341-348, 378-382 insect and mite control, 178-183, 212, 379-381 nematode control, 186-187 and pesticide use, 44, 46, 49, 176, 209- 214, 218-219, 340-341, 343-344, 380, 384 plant pathogen control, 183-186, 209 profitability of, 22, 177, 188, 209, 212- 213, 223, 348-349, 384 regional economic implications of, 211 research needs on, 6, 15-16, 21, 22, 162, 164, 173, 174, 184, 185, 188, 209 scouting for pests, 4, 10, 135, 181, 209- 214, 330, 337-338, 342-344, 346, 360, 380, 382, 405 weed control, 187-188, 209, 214-218, 343-344, 380

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INDEX see also Biological pest control; Crop rotations tax policy and, 76 see also Cropland; Pasture Leguminous crops Irrigation acreage under, 50, 108-109, 113 aquifer depletion from, 51, 77, 109, 113, 130, 207 center pivot systems, 51, 77, 113 competition with urban users, 54 and crop yields, 51-53, 104, 113 economic costs of, 51, 54, 109, 113 fanjet, 357 federal policies and, 52-54, 68-69, 70, 76, 77, 236 ~ v flood, 389, 399, 402 280-282 in fruit and vegetable production, 329, ~ ~ ~ 356-357, 378 gravity, 356-357, 375, 378, 389 pest control with, 178, 382, 399, 407 410, 411-412 profitability of, 54, 77 regional differences in, 50, 63, 77 runoff from, 98 soil improvement with, 156 and soil salinization and mineralization, 114, 130, 207 sources of water for, 51, 52, 105, 113, 356 sprinkler guns, 276, 278 of surplus crops, 113-114 use of, 50-54, 76 wastewater, 104 water conservation, 52, 54, 77 and water quality, 108-109, 113-115 J lohnsongrass, 215, 275-278, 280-282, 329 K Kesterson wildlife refuge, 104 L Land, marginal conversion to pasture, 164 cultivation of, 11, 12, 76, 90, 236 protection of, 18, 79, 81 Land use Conservation Reserve Program and, 11, 18, 44, 70 economic policy changes and, 11 federal farm program effects on, 10-11, 18, 59, 65, 68 harvested acres, 35 market demand and, 11 439 costs of, 15, 136, 233 economics of, 5, 136, 199, 230-233 effects on water quality, 108 erosion control with, 119, 188 government policies and use of, 10, 233-235, 238-240 and grain yields, 141, 145, 231 groundwater contamination from, 147, 150 interseedin~ with weeds 275-277, nitrogen fixation with, 10, 13, 40, 108, 119, 136-137, 140-141, 143, 145- 150, 157, 160, 165, 188, 222, 229, 230-235, 259, 270, 299, 357-358, 359, 198, 405 perpetuating alternative legume system (PALS), 233-235, 238-241 profitability of, 145, 230-235 regional distinctions in use of, 231 rotations with, 9, 17, 18, 40, 71, 85, 119, 135, 136, 138-139, 140-141, 143, 144, 157, 199, 230-235, 238- 240, 299, 405 soil pH for, 154 see also Forage crops; and specific crops Lentils, 149 Lespedeza, 148, 167, 186-187 Livestock genetic resistance to disease, 173-174 immunization of, 172-173 lignocellulose digestion, 165-166 muscle-to-fat ratios, 167 parasitism in, 173 stress in, 174 see also Animal production systems; Beef cattle; Crop-livestock production; Dairy cattle; Poultry; Swine M Manures animal, 42, 54, 55, 85, 99, 144, 150- 153, 215, 258, 271, 283, 293, 357, 405 application methods and timing, 150- 151, 259, 263, 271, 298-299 biogas from, 151-152 composted, 151-152, 358 disposal problems of feedlots, 55 excessive applications of, 16 green, 119, 137, 143, 144, 146, 256, 259, 263, 359, 398, 405, 412

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440 handling and storage of, 151, 152, 283 nutrient contribution of, 150-153, 230, 258, 298-299 nutrient losses from, 151, 154 pollution from, 89, 99, 105, 152 research needs on, 152 and soil quality, 119, 164, 255 substitution for chemical fertilizers, 5 weed seeds in, 215 Markets and marketing strategies for beef cattle, 389, 394-396 for cattle-livestock production, 255, 263, 265, 267, 276, 287, 288, 309 specialty markets, 77, 254, 255, 389, 394-396 see also specific commodities Meats and meat products drug residues in, 129, 173 fat content of, 12, 13, 83, 84, 167 grading standards for, 12, 83, 84, 167 imports, 96 pathologic bacteria in, 127, 128 Millet, 275, 277, 281, 282 Monoculture, see Specialization Mulch, 187 plastic, 213, 341, 345-346 see also Compost N National Program for Soil and Water Conservation, 104 National Stream Quality Accounting Network, 99 National Water Quality Surveillance System, 99 Nematode control, 186-187, 222 New River, pollution of, 114, 116 Nitrate availability for plant uptake, 143, 145 drinking water standard for, 105 Oats groundwater contamination by, 3, 7, 105, 109, 110-112, 127, 152, 207 health risks from, 105, 127 losses from soil, 143, 145 and nitrogen fixation, 146, 150 and plant diseases, 184 surface water contamination by, 7, 99, 207 Nitrogen fertilizers ammonium compounds, 40, 145, 184, 270, 408 application rates per acre by crop, 41 atmospheric deposition of, 99 availability for plant uptake, 42, 143 benefits of, 34, 38, 42, 184 economics of use, 145, 240, 408 ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURE energy inputs for synthesis of, 145 excessive applications of, 16, 42, 207 and plant diseases, 184, 406 and soil acidification, 42 timing and placement of, 9, 42 urea, 145, 408 use of, 40-42 water pollution from, 42, 99, 101, 105, 111, 160, 162, 207 see also Fertilizers; Nitrate Nitrogen fixation crop rotation and, 4, 40, 143 energy required for, 145 by genetically engineered bacteria, 13 harvest timing and, 147, 259 by legumes, 4, 10, 13, 40, 42, 108, 119, 137, 143, 145-150, 157, 160, 165, 188, 229-231, 259, 270, 299, 357- 358, 359, 398, 405 physical and managerial factors in, 146 research on, 148-150 soil temperature and, 147, 148 Nursery-greenhouse production, profitability of, 94 Nutrient cycling, 3, 6, 143-145, 150, 160, 164, 188-189; see also Crop rotations; Nitrogen fixation; Plant nutrition Nuts almonds, 210, 223 integrated pest management for, 49, 210 profitability of, 94 value of exports, 31 volume of exports, 31 walnuts, 223, 324-334 see also Peanuts o . . acreage m conservation reserve program, 80-81 costs of production, 274 exemption from cross-compliance rule, 11, 69, 237 high-test-weight, 260 irrigation of, 53 pedigreed, 266 rotations with, 153, 240, 255 yields, 255 Orchard crops, 53, 185 Orchardgrass, 149, 281, 283 Oregon, drug residues in milk in, 129 Organic farming case study of, 324-334, 398-417 certification, 329, 333, 413

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INDEX plant nutrient sources, 153 practitioners and advocates of, 136 premium prices for commodities, 136, 255, 263, 265, 324, 399, 413 p Pasture feed value of, 281 improving quality of, 166-167 irrigation of, 53, 390 parasitism in animals on, 173 permanent, 255, 269, 277 renovation and interseeding, 282-283 Peanuts acreage idled under conservation programs, 80 costs of production, 210 integrated pest management on, 178, 210 irrigation of, 53 pesticide use on, 44, 49, 179, 210 yields, 210 Pest control climate and, 9, 177, 185, 212, 220, 389 by crop rotation, 4, 9, 54, 85, 135, 139, 140, 175, 178, 184, 186, 209, 212, 230, 232, 234-235, 399 by cultivation, 54, 83, 175; see also Tillage economic costs of, 13, 210-211, 223, 408 federal policies and, 6, 10, 62-63 naturally occurring agents, 13; see also Biological pest control; Integrated pest management by plant breeding, 121, 175 planting techniques for, 83 with plastic mulch, 213, 341, 345-346 research activities in, 175 research needs on, 6, 15-16, 21, 22, 162, 164, 173, 174, 184, 185, 188, 209 by tillage, 4, 5, 83, 157, 160 see also Biological pest control; Disease control; Insect control; Integrated pest management; Pesticide use; Weed control Pest-predator relationships, 3, 199; see also Biological pest control Pest resistance, 3, 5, 7, 13, 22, 46, 121, 123, 124-125, 126, 175, 209-210, 316, 417; see also Insects; Nematodes; Plant diseases and pathogens; Weed control Pesticides adverse effects of, 7, 9, 16, 90, 105, 121-125 441 in animal feeds, 84 animal losses from, 122-123, 126 application methods, 10, 43, 209 application rates, 12, 44, 175, 177, 213- 214 arsenic, 107 atmospheric deposition of, 103-104 climate and, 9, 46, 186, 212-213 cosmetic quality of foods and, 12-13, 19-20 cost-benefit assessments of, 83, 218- 219 in crop-livestock production, 54, 230, 272, 273 crop losses from, 125 and crop yields, 34, 36, 38, 175, 200- 201 destruction of beneficial organisms, 10, 122, 123, 175, 180, 187, 199 and diversification, 44 and ecological interactions, 122-123, 130, 175 economic costs of, 38-39, 121, 175, 200-201, 203-204, 278, 280, 285, 363, 364, 408-409, 410, 413-414 effectiveness of, 121, 123 farm size and use of, 44 federal policies and, 6, 10, 12, 19-20, 38, 70, 82-83, 177, 205, 207 in foods, 3, 13, 20, 22, 23, 82-84, 126 in groundwater, 3, 89, 105-109, 112, 341, 416 health advisory levels, 107-108 health risks from, 82-84, 105, 121-122, 126, 130, 175, 416 in integrated pest management systems, 44, 46, 49, 176-177, 209- 212, 340-341, 343-344, 380, 384 and labor needs, 44 market value of, 44 monocultural production and, 25, 139 persistence in environment, 103-104, 106, 126 pest resistance to, 3, 5, 7, 13, 22, 46, 121, 123, 124-125, 126, 175, 209- 210, 417 reduction of, 4, 9, 46-47; see also Integrated pest management, 209- 210 regulation of, 6, 13, 19-20, 82-83, 122- 123, 126, 218 in response to pest resistance, 124- 125, 126 and resurgence and secondary outbreaks of pests, 123 and soil erosion, 123 in surface water, 63, 89, 100, 101-104 i

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442 synergistic effects of, 84, 127 toxicity of, 105, 361, 362 use of, 42, 44-45, 85, 101 and worker exposure, 20, 22 see also Fungicides; Herbicides; Insecticides Phosphorus fertilizers acidulated phosphate, 153 availability for plant uptake, 143 trends in use of, 40-41 water pollution from, 99-101, 160, 162 Photosynthesis, 141, 142 Plant breeding for insect control, 121, 179 for palatability of forages, 167 resistant crop cultivars, 4-6, 17, 21, 34, 38, 120, 135, 166, 179, 183-184, 186, 209, 219-221, 255, 303 Plant diseases and pathogens alternative control methods, 179, 183- 186, 209, 212, 255 bacterial soft rot, 184 biological control of, 185-185 blight in walnuts, 332 brown leafspot, 407 brownstem rot, 232 bunch rot, 364 citrus tristeza virus, 186, 221 corn leaf blight, 221 crown gall tumors, 185, 221 fusarium wilts, 184 grape fanleaf virus, 365 leaf diseases in cereal grains, 230 overwintering in crop residues, 158 pine root rot fungus, 221 potato scab, 184 powdery mildew, 230, 364 research needs on, 15, 17, 20, 21, 164, 184 Rhizoctonia and Pythium fungi, 185, 407 seed rot, 407 sheath blight, 407 soil microbial populations and, 255, 260 stalk rot, 184 stem rot, 399, 405-407 take-all (wheat), 184 wee d- specific, 188, 220 wheat root pathogens, 212 wheat stem rust, 121, 179 Plant nutrition crop rotations and, 4, 40, 139-140, 143, 144, 230-233 and disease control, 184, 222, 260 essential elements, 141-142, 154-156 genetic improvements in use of, 5 ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURE and insect control, 222, 363, 365 management of, 143-154, 222, 255, 258-259, 276, 281, 288, 297-300, 328-329, 357-359, 375, 3-77; see also Soil fertility management nitrogen, 141-143, 144-152, 154; see also Leguminous crops; Manure; Nitrogen fixation and pest resistance, 17 phosphorus, 141-142, 152-154, 156 potassium, 141-142, 152, 154 research needs on, 17, 21 soil biota and, 162-164 soil properties and, 142-143, 148, 152- 156, 158, 164 sources and functions of, 141-142 see also Nitrogen fertilizers; Phosphorus fertilizers; Potassium fertilizers; Soils Plant toxins, 167, 187-188 Planting practices climate and, 10 closely sown crops, 141, 187, 221 and disease control, 120-121, 184, 230 double cropping, 230 genetically diverse crops, 120-121 intercropping, 187, 230 pest control with, 83, 140, 141, 178, 209 polyculture, 230 profitability of, 230 soil erosion and, 4, 70, 140, 141, 277- 278 strip cropping, 70, 140, 141, 229, 269, 277-278, 286 terracing, 269-270 timing of planting, 4, 135, 178, 184, 187, 209, 259, 263 transplanting of seedlings, 187 weed control and, 4, 187, 259 see also Case studies; Crop rotations Pollution, agricultural sources of, 3; see also Fertilizers; Groundwater; Pesticides; Surface water Potassium fertilizers availability for plant uptake, 143, 154 climate and needs for, 154 use of, 40-41 Potatoes, 52, 53, 124, 125, 178, 184 Poultry antibiotic use in production, 9, 49, 85 broiler industry, 57 confinement of, 228 egg industry, 57 genetic diversity of, 7, 120 manure, 153, 301

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INDEX microbiological contamination of, 83, 84, 127, 128 production of, 34, 57 profitability of, 94 regional differences in farm income from, 61 turkey industry, 57 Production costs accounting systems and methods, 202-203 for alternative systems, 5, 23, 136, 196- 208, 210-211, 215, 216, 222, 264, 413 comparison by region, 199-206, 208, 210-211 for corn, 38-39, 200-201, 203, 205-206, v 210, 216, 233, 238, 264, 274 in, 12, 94 for cotton, 39, 206, 210, 238 crop-live stock product ion, 68, 264-265, 321 crop rotations and, 233, 238-240 and crop yields, 200-201, 203, 216 farm income and, 91, 203-204, 208 farm size and, 12, 208 federal policies and, 205, 207-208 fertilizers, 5, 38-39, 119, 145, 200-201, 203-206, 233, 264, 288, 299, 408 integrated pest management, 210-213, 343-347, 380 irrigation, 51, 54, 109, 113 machinery, 203-204 methods for comparing, 202-203 national averages for selected inputs, 206 oats, 274 peanuts, 210 per acre, 199-202, 203-206, 265, 321 per unit of output, 12, 199-202, 203, 206, 208, 264 pest control, 13, 210-211, 408 for pesticides, 5, 38-39, 121, 175, 200- 201, 203-206, 233, 278, 280, 285, 300, 344, 363, 364, 408-409, 410, 413-414 for rice, 39, 206, 238, 408-409, 413-415 for sorghum, 39, 206 for soybeans, 38-39, 200-201, 203, 205- 206, 210, 216, 238, 264, 274 for wheat, 38-39, 71, 200-201, 203-206, 238 see also Profitability Profitability 443 crop yield and, 78, 144 factors affecting, 197 of fruit and vegetable production, 94, 223, 326, 333-334, 337, 348-349, 351, 367-371, 384 of hays, 145, 230 input use and, 12, 54, 77, 144, 205 of integrated pest management, 22, 177, 188, 209, 212-213, 223, 348- 349, 384 of irrigation, 54, 77 of leguminous crops, 145, 230-235 of livestock farming, 94, 389 measures of, 199-200 methods for improving, 195 neighborhood and regional variation of planting practices, 230 of rice production, 399, 413-416 variable costs and, 12, 205; see also Production costs see also Economic assessment of alternative methods; Farm income R Reed canary grass, 167 Regional distinctions acreage idled under conservation programs, 80, 118 animal production systems, 54-55 aquifer depletion, 113 costs of production by alternative methods, 12, 199-202, 210-211 in crop rotations with legumes, 231 environmental effects of agriculture, 63, 89-90, 99, 101 farm income sources, 58-59, 61-63 farm size, 57 farmland prices, 90-91 feed grain production, 55 financial condition of farms, 94 groundwater contamination, 107-108, 110, 111-112 irrigated acreage, 50-52, 54, 77, 109, 113-114 in pest control needs, 212 pesticide use, 5, 46, 101 sales per farm, 57, 59-60 soil erosion, 63 structural changes in agriculture, 54- 55 of crop-livestock production, 166, 228- water quality, 63 229, 255, 262, 265, 267, 273-274, Regulatory policy 276, 284-285, 288, 304-306, 309, on antibiotic use in animals, 50 311 cost-benefit assessments, 13, 19, 23

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444 for pesticide approval, 6, 13, 19, 218- 219 and product availability, 5 reforms needed in, 13, 18-20, 23, 219 for soil and water conservation, 18-19 see also Conservation Reserve Program; Food grading and cosmetic standards; Food Security Act of 1985 Research and extension adaptive field research, 15 on alternative practices and federal policies, 63, 65, 77-78, 136-137 contributions in, 6, 90, 136-137 on crop rotations, 233-235, 238-240 funding for, 14, 15 in genetic engineering, 16-17 impediments to, 14, 138, 223-224, 240-241 on integrated pest management, 6, 175, 177 interdisciplinary approach, 6, 14, 137- 138 interest in alternative farming practices, 14 in molecular biology, 15, 223 on-farm, 14, 23 on nitrogen fixation, 148-150 policy goals, 63, 65, 77-78, 136-137 soil and water conservation, 6 state of, 14-17 USDA low-input sustainable agriculture initiative, 20 tillage, 6 Research needs on alternative practices, 22-23, 188, 196 animal health and nutrition, 17, 20, 21, 165, 169, 171-172, 173, 174-175, 225 animal production systems, 4-5, 15, 21, 164-165, 167 biological control methods, 15, 17, 21, 183, 185, 188, 219, 223-224 centers for sustainable and alternative agriculture, 20 computer aids for farm management, 22 cover crops, 15, 17 crop-livestock systems, 165, 173 crop rotations, 6, 15, 17, 21, 150 on disease control, 21, 169, 171-172, 173, 174, 184, 226 diversication, 219 economics of alternative systems, 20, 21-23, 138, 196, 208, 225, 240-241 ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURE environmental consequences of agricultural practices, 15-16, 138 farm equipment, 21 forage crops, 166, 167 funding, 20-21 genetic engineering, 16-17, 21, 166, 167, 187, 188 integrated pest management, 6, 15-16, 21, 22, 162, 164, 173, 174, 184, 185, 188, 209 lignocellulose digestion, 166, 189 manures, 21, 152, 165 monitoring processes and analytical tools, 15 nutrient cycling, 9, 17, 21, 143, 145, 150, 164, 189 on-farm interactions, 6, 14, 20, 22, 138, 188 plant breeding, 16, 21, 184, 187 plant health and nutrition, 15, 17, 20, 21, 164, 184 planting practices, 21 resistant cultivars, 21, 184 soil and water conservation, 15, 20, 21, 22 soil fertility management, 164 technological trends and policy changes, 198 tillage systems, 6, 16, 21, 150, 162 weed control, 17, 21, 188 Rice acreage enrolled in federal programs, 10, 71 acreage idled under conservation programs, 80 case study, 398-417 export trends, 27, 29, 30 integrated pest management for, 178 loan rates for, 75 nitrogen-fixing sources for, 149 organic, 398-417 participation rates in commodity programs, 73 regional differences in farm income from, 61, 62 value of exports, 29 Rural Clean Water Program, 104 Rye, 53, 360 S Saliniz at ion and depletion of Colorado River, 104, 114 of soils, 89, 104, 114-115, 130, 207 Sediment deposition economic consequences of, 99

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INDEX and nutrient loading, 99-100 in surface water, 63, 98-100 volume of, 99 Selenium, 104 Sewage sludge, as fertilizer, 127, 136, 309, 319-320 Sheep forage improvements for, 167 management in crop-livestock pro duct ion, 266-267 profitability of, 94 Small grains irrigation of, 113-114 rotation with leguminous forages, 9, 146 surpluses, 114 see also Oats; Wheat Soil conditions acidity, 42, 142, 146 biological antagonism level, 186 cation exchange capacity, 142-143, 145, 154, 156 crop rotations and, 10, 139-140, 143 depth of soils, 116 and erosion, 116, 257 and groundwater contamination, 109, 114 moisture retention, 116, 119, 139, 142, 143, 158, 164 monitoring of, 6, 10 nitrogen fertilization and, 42 and nitrogen fixation, 148 organic matter and, 116, 119, 139-140, 143, 164, 272 and pesticide binding, 142 pH, 143, 154-156, 184, 259, 263, 271, 278, 300 and plant nutrients, 142-143, 148, 152- 156, 158, 164 planting schedules and, 10 texture, 142, 164 tillage and, 119, 135, 158, 160 Soil conservation compliance, 69-70, 79, 81, 85, 104, 117, 237 Conservation Reserve Program, 11, 78-81 crop prices and surpluses and, 79 crop rotations and, 4, 70, 115, 119, 135, 137, 140, 141, 257 eligibility for federal programs tied to, 81 and excess production capacity, 81 federal policies and adoption of alternative practices, 6, 10, 18, 68, 70, 78-82 445 with hays and forages, 78-79, 137, 165 incentives for, 79 research contributions in, 6 rotations and, 4, 70, 115, 119, 135, 137, 140, 141, 257 runoff reduction strategies, 117 tillage and, 5, 6, 70, 81, 119, 135, 136, 141, 156-160, 162, 184, 229, 303 Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act of 1936, 78 Soil erosion and agricultural productivity, 98, 115- 117, 119 cultivation of marginal lands and, 90 economic costs of, 115-116 management practices contributing to, 115, 119 nutrient losses from, 116, 143; see also Plant nutrition offsite effects of, 115 onsite damage from, 115-116 planting practices and, 4, 137, 140 policies contributing to, 79, 89, 115 prevalence of, 3, 18, 63, 130 prevention of, see Soil conservation research needs on, 15, 22 and sediment deposition in surface waters, 115 tillage and, 4, 70, 160-161, 257, 272 and water quality, 98, 115-120 by wind and water, 116-117 see also Land, marginal Soil fertility management amending soil reaction, 154-156 in crop-livestock production, 142, 144, 152, 228-230, 255, 258-259, 261, 263, 267, 270-271, 276, 281, 288, 297-300, 309, 311, 318-320 in fruit and vegetable production, 222, 326, 328-329, 337, 347-348, 351, 357-359, 375, 377 nitrogen, 144-152; see also Leguminous crops; Nitrogen fertilizers; Nitrogen fixation for organic farming, 153 phosphorus, 152-154; see also Phosphorus fertilizers potassium, 154; see also Potassium fertilizers see also Crop rotations; Fertilizer use; Manures; Nitrogen fixation; Plant nutrition; Soil conditions; Tillage Soil fumigation, rotations and, 214; see also Fumigants Soils alkaline, 156

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446 beneficial fauna in, 158, 162-164 Bennington, 257, 262 Berks, 289, 291 Clarinda, 269 clay, 142, 143, 153 Clearfield, 269 and crop yields, 262, 277 erosion potential, 257 Fogelsville, 289, 291 Homewood, 257, 262 Louisburg, 276-278 Luray, 257, 262 Macksburg, 269 Madison, 276-278 mineralization of, 104, 164 Monocan, 277 muck, 340 nutrient management in, see Soil fertility management Pacelot, 276-278 quality of, 143; see also Soil condition Ryder, 289, 291 salinization of, 89, 104, 114-115 sandy, 109, 114, 142, 338, 340 Sharpsburg, 269 silt, 142 Stockton clay adobe, 400 testing of, 6, 10, 144, 154, 186, 278, 300, 359 toxic to plant roots, 156 Weikert, 289, 291 Winterset, 269 Sorghum acreage enrolled in commodity program, 71, 80 acreage in conservation reserve program, 80-81 cyanogenic glycosides in, 167 diseases, 184- input costs for, 39, 233 integrated pest management in, 178 irrigation of, 52, 53, 109, 113-114 market price for, 72 participation rates in commodity programs, 72 pest-resistant, 121 surpluses, 114 tannins in, 167 target price for, 72 yields, 52 Soybeans animal feed from, 254, 281, 297 costs of production, 38-39, 200-201, 210, 233, 238, 264, 274 exemption from cross-compliance rule, 11 export trends, 27, 29, 94 ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURE fertilizer use on, 38-42, 200-201 integrated pest management in, 178, 180, 187, 210 irrigation of, 52, 53 loan rates for, 75 meal, 94 monoculture, 147 nitrogen fixation by, 146-149 pesticide use on, 5, 38, 44, 47-48, 83, 101, 175, 200-201 pests, 186 prices for, 237, 238, 254 regional differences in farm income from, 61, 62 rotations with, 9, 25, 146, 159, 186, 215, 232, 239-240, 249, 253-274, 275-285 specialty markets for, 254 tillage of, 25, 187 value of exports, 29 yields, 34, 52, 200-201, 216, 255, 262, 271, 277 Specialization adverse effects of, 7, 119 climate and, 78 and crop yields, 25-26, 42, 78, 138, 147, 231 factors contributing to, 25-26, 50, 97- 98 and pest control, 185, 186 and structural changes in agriculture, 54-55, 85 Strawberries, 185, 214 Sudan grass, 167, 281 Sugar, 96, 97 Sugar beets, 53, 186 Sugarcane, 53, 341, 344 Sunflowers, 53 Surface water depletion of, 104, 114 economic costs of contamination, 98 estuary degradation, 100-101 eutrophication, 100, 153-154 fertilizers in, 16, 42, 63, 89, 98-101, 153-154 monitoring of, 18, 99 pesticides in, 16, 63, 89, 100-104 sediment deposition in, 63, 98-99, 100, 153-154 soil erosion and contamination of, 98 ~ . Swine alternative management practices, 171, 227-228 antibiotic use on, 49, 85, 170-171 confinement rearing, 9, 77, 169-171, 227-228 disease prevention in, 169-171

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INDEX economics of alternative production systems, 94, 171, 227-228 effects of farm programs on production of, 65, 68 feed costs, 68 and food grading standards, 13 genetic diversity of, 120 hormonal therapy for, 167 management in crop-livestock operation, 267 nutrient content of manure, 153 productivity of different production systems, 171, 227-228 profitability of, 94, 171, 227-228 regional differences in farm income from, 61 respiratory infections in, 169-170, 225 size of production production, 55-57 specialization and, 54 stress in, 174 T Tax policy accelerated depreciation of equipment, 52, 76, 77, 90 and agricultural trade, 27 and animal production, 76, 77, 226- 227 capital gains preferences, 76, 90 and cultivation of erodible land, 90 and farm size, 76 investment tax credits, 52, 76-77, 226- 227 and irrigation, 52, 54, 76, 77 and land use, 76 and real estate prices, 76 and structural changes in agriculture 76-77 and value of machinery and vehicles, 77 Tax Reform Act of 1976, 76, 77, 226 Technological change and disease control in animals, 174- 175 farm policy and, 68, 90, 198 and structural change in agriculture, 97-98 Technology Transfer Act, 224 Tillage chisel plowing, 119, 158, 160, 257, 259, 272, 281, 402 conservation, 5, 6, 70, 81, 119, 135, 136, 141, 156-160, 162, 184, 229 conventional, 119, 161, 257, 272 double-disking, 147, 259 ecofallow, 184 447 erosion control with, 70, 81, 119, 135, 141, 156-160, 253, 257, 272, 303 evaluation of effectiveness of, 217 French plow, 360 in fruit and vegetable production, 329, 378 and herbicide runoff, 101 moldboard plowing, 147, 158, 160, 272, 303 mulch, 156, 158, 272 no tillage, 119, 147, 156, 158-160, 253, 257, 270, 272, 277, 280, 282, 360, 413 and nutrient availability, 147, 160, 162 and nutrient cycling, 160 pest control with, 4, 5, 83, 157, 160, 162, 178, 184, 188, 255, 360, 395, 399 and pesticide use, 156, 157 research needs on, 6, 16, 21, 150 ridge, 25, 119, 156-157, 162, 163, 215- 218, 270-272 and soil properties, 119, 135, 158 strip, 119, 156 water conservation with, 156-157, 160 weed control with, 4, 5, 160, 162, 163, 187, 214, 215, 255, 259, 263, 272, 329, 343, 395, 399 see also Soil conservation Tobacco acreage idled under conservation programs, 80 exports, 94 imports, 96 IPM costs and benefits, 210 irrigation of, 53 pest control in, 186, 188, 221 profitability of, 94 regional differences in farm income from, 61 Tomatoes, 178, 181, 184, 186, 188, 212- 213, 251, 347-349, 374-387 Trade policy and fruit and vegetable production:, 62 of U.S. competitors, 30 see also Agricultural trade Turnips, 270, 271, 274, 283 U U.S. Environmental Protection Agency pesticide review program, 82, 83, 122- 123, 218 survey of pesticides in groundwater, 105-106 U.S. Food and Drug Administration, regulation of animal drugs, 50, 129-130

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448 U.S. Geological Survey, survey of well contamination, 105 V Vegetable oils and oilseeds exports, 30, 31, 93 foreign producer subsidy equivalents for, 97 Vegetables, see Fruits and vegetables Vetches, 147-149, 157, 398, 399, 402-405, 407-410, 411, 413-414 W Walnuts, 223, 324-334 Water agricultural use of, 50; see also Irrigation contamination, see Groundwater; Surface water; Water quality depletion allowances, 52, 77 "use it or lose it" code, 114 Water conservation and protection agricultural competition with urban users, 54 cropping patterns and, 108 federal policies on, 6, 10, 18 by integrated pest management, 108 and irrigation, 52, 54, 77 by leguminous nitrogen sources, 108 reduction of agricultural uses of water, 114 research contributions on, 6 tillage and, 5, 157, 160-162 water quality improvement projects, 104 Water quality groundwater, 105-109 irrigation and, 108-109, 113-115 regional characteristics of, 63, 68, 101- 102, 110-112 soil erosion and, 115-120 surface water, 98-104 Weed control by allelopathic crops, 17, 187-188, 216 alternatives, 187-188, 214-218, 230 by competition with other plants, 187, 216, 221 with cover crops, 214, 215, ?~9, 320- 321 in crop-livestock production, 215-216, 255, 259-260, 263, 267, 272-273, 276, 288, 300-301, 309, 316 crop rotations and, 4, 5, 135, 188, 214- 216, 255, 259, 288, 300, 399, 410 economic assessment of alternative measures, 216-218 ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURE by flooding, 343, 399 in fruit and vegetable production, 222, 326, 329, 337, 343-344, 351, 360, 375, 382 hand weeding, 979, 255, 260, 263 harvesting of weeds as hay, 215, 389 with herbicides, 5, 187, 288 by insects and plant pathogens, 187, 220 interseeding, 276 with irrigation, 410 planting practices and, 4, 187, 215, 221, 255, 259, 263 summer fallowing for, 395 tillage and, 4, 5, 160, 162, 163,- 187, 214, 215, 217-218, 255, 259, 263, 272, 329, 343, 395, 399 weather and, 215 and weed resistance, 316 Wetlands, protection of, 18, 76, 79 Wheat acreage enrolled in federal programs, 10, 71 acreage idled under conservation programs, 79, 80-81 continuous production of, 42 cost of production, 38-39, 71, 200-201 203-204, 233, 238 deficiency payments for, 11 diseases, 121, 184, 212, 230 erosion rates on, 119 export trends, 27, 29, 30 farm program payments for, 65 fertilizer use on, 38-42, 200-201 grasses, 390 integrated pest management in, 178 irrigation of, 52-53 loan rates for, 75 market prices for, 11, 71, 73 participation rates in commodity programs, 73 in perpetuating alternative legume system (PALS), 233-235, 238-241 pesticide use on, 38, 43, 44, 47-48, 179, 200-201 regional differences in farm income from, 61, 62 resistant cultivars, 179, 221, 222, 260 rotations with, 140, 145 as a seed crop, 254-255 spring, 164 surpluses, 52 target prices, 71, 73, 74, 238 value of exports, 29 winter, 119, 200-201, 234 yields, 27, 34, 52, 145, 200-201