Space Studies Board

Annual Report 2006

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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Space Studies Board Annual Report 2006

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The Space Studies Board is a unit of the National Research Council, which serves as an independent advisor to the federal government on scientific and technical questions of national importance. The National Research Council, jointly administered by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, brings the resources of the entire scientific and technical community to bear through its volunteer advisory committees. Support for the work of the Space Studies Board and its committees and task groups was provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration contracts NASW-01001 and NNH06CE15B, National Oceanic and Atmo- spheric Administration Contract DG133R04CQ0009, and National Science Foundation Grants ATM-0109283 and AST-0075757.

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From the Chair The foreword to this 2006 Annual Report of the Space Studies Board provides an opportunity to comment not only on our activities for the past year but also on the environment that has shaped those activities. As has been true for the past several years, and may well be for years to come, we live in an environment that is continually changing. NASA has con- tinued to pursue the Vision for Space Exploration laid down by President George W. Bush in 2004, but it has obtained only limited resources to do so, requiring continuing adjustments in other NASA programs and reconsideration of our plans for the future. In this environment, the activities of the Space Studies Board are of particular importance. We can, through the National Research Council reports that we charter, provide advice on the issues most important to the execution and planning of the space program. Through our Congres- sional testimony and public statements, we call attention to the concerns and dilemmas that confront NASA and the science community that it supports. The Space Studies Board itself is also in transition. The year 2006 marked the arrival of a new Director, Marcia Smith, who is the permanent replacement for the long-serving and much admired Joe Alexander. As is evident in this Annual Report, Marcia has had to experience a year that has been among the busiest for the Space Studies Board. And that level of activity appears only to be increasing, as we attempt to help navigate the space program through the technical challenges and political turbulence that are expected in the years ahead. L.A. Fisk Chair Space Studies Board iii

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Contents FROM THE CHAIR iii 1 CHARTER AND ORGANIZATION OF THE BOARD 1 The Origins of the Space Science Board, 1 The Space Studies Board Today, 2 Collaboration with Other National Research Council Units, 5 Assuring the Quality of SSB Reports, 5 Performance Measures, 7 SSB Outreach and Dissemination, 7 Internship Program, 8 2 BOARD AND STANDING COMMITTEES: ACTIVITIES AND MEMBERSHIP 9 Space Studies Board, 9 Highlights of Space Studies Board Activities, 9 Space Studies Board Membership, 11 U.S. National Committee for COSPAR, 13 Standing Committees, 13 Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, 13 Committee on Earth Studies, 15 Committee on Microgravity Research, 15 Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life, 16 Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, 19 Committee on Solar and Space Physics, 21 Committee on Space Biology and Medicine, 23 3 AD HOC STUDY COMMITTEES: ACTIVITIES AND MEMBERSHIP 25 Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs, 25 Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars, 26 Astronomy Science Centers: An Assessment of Best Practices and Guiding Principles for the Future, 27 Beyond Einstein Program Assessment, 27 Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future, 28 Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System, 32 

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i Contents Large Optical Systems in Space, 33 Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems, 33 Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration, 33 NASA Astrophysics Performance Assessment, 34 Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions, 35 Review of the Next Decade Mars Architecture, 36 Review the NASA Science Mission Directorate Science Plan, 36 Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon, 37 4 WORKSHOPS, SYMPOSIA, MEETINGS OF EXPERTS, AND OTHER SPECIAL PROJECTS 39 Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Research and Monitoring in Solar-Terrestrial Physics: A Workshop, 39 Meeting of Experts, 40 Solar System Radiation Environment and NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration: A Workshop, 40 Workshop on Decadal Science Strategy Surveys, 41 5 SUMMARIES OF MAJOR REPORTS 42 5.1 An Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs, 43 5.2 Assessment of NASA’s Mars Architecture 2007–2016, 46 5.3 Distributed Arrays of Small Instruments for Solar-Terrestrial Research: Report of a Workshop, 48 5.4 Issues Affecting the Future of the U.S. Space Science and Engineering Workforce: Interim Report, 51 5.5 The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Interim Report, 55 5.6 Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration: Report of a Workshop, 59 6 SHORT REPORTS 63 6.1 Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions, 64 6.2 A Review of NASA’s 2006 Draft Science Plan, 74 6.3 Review of the Next Decade Mars Architecture, 93 7 CONGRESSIONAL TESTIMONY 96 7.1 NASA’s Science Mission Directorate Impacts of the Fiscal Year 2007 Budget Proposal, 97 7.2 NASA Budget and Programs: Outside Perspectives, 114 7.3 The NASA Workforce: Does NASA Have the Right Strategy and Policies to Retain and Build the Workforce It Will Need?, 121 8 CUMULATIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SSB REPORTS: 1958–2006 126

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Space Studies Board Chairs Lloyd V. Berkner (deceased), Graduate Research Center, Dallas, Texas, 1958−1962 Harry H. Hess (deceased), Princeton University, 1962–1969 Charles H. Townes, University of California at Berkeley, 1970−1973 Richard M. Goody, Harvard University, 1974–1976 A.G.W. Cameron (deceased), Harvard College Observatory, 1977−1981 Thomas M. Donahue (deceased), University of Michigan, 1982−1988 Louis J. Lanzerotti, American Telephone & Telegraph Co., Bell Laboratories, 1989−1994 Claude R. Canizares, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1994–2000 John H. McElroy (deceased), University of Texas at Arlington, 2000–2003 Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan, 2003– Space Studies Board Vice Chairs George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation (retired), 2003–2006 A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired), 2006– ii

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