3
Ad Hoc Study Committees: Activities and Membership

When a sponsor requests that the Space Studies Board conduct a study, an ad hoc committee is established for that purpose. The committee terminates when the study is completed. These study committees are subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), Section 15, because they provide advice and recommendations to the federal government. The SSB and/or one of its standing committees provide oversight for ad hoc study committee activities. Thirteen ad hoc committees were organized, met, or released studies during 2006. (Activities and membership are summarized below.)

In addition, four ad hoc committees that produced reports in 2005 were formally disbanded in 2006: the Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions, the Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars, the Committee on Principal Investigator-Led Missions in the Space Sciences, and the Committee on Priorities for Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion. Their reports are summarized in the 2005 annual report.

ASSESSMENT OF BALANCE IN NASA’S SCIENCE PROGRAMS

The ad hoc Committee on an Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs met on March 6-8, 2006, and delivered its report, An Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs, to NASA and Congress on May 4, 2006. The report was the third and final component of the NRC’s advisory response to a request, as a part of fiscal year 2005 appropriations legislation for NASA, that called for “a thorough review of the science that NASA is proposing to undertake under the space exploration initiative and to develop a strategy by which all of NASA’s science disciplines … can make adequate progress towards their established goals, as well as providing balanced scientific research in addition to support of the new initiative.” The report presents an assessment of NASA’s integrated strategy and proposed science program, as set forth in materials that accompany the NASA FY 2007 budget request. The Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5.

Membership*

Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan (chair)

George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) (vice chair)

Spiro K. Antiochos, Naval Research Laboratory

Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado

Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University

Roger D. Blandford, Stanford University

Radford Byerly, Jr., University of Colorado



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3 Ad Hoc Study Committees: Activities and Membership When a sponsor requests that the Space Studies Board conduct a study, an ad hoc committee is established for that purpose. The committee terminates when the study is completed. These study committees are subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), Section 15, because they provide advice and recommendations to the federal government. The SSB and/or one of its standing committees provide oversight for ad hoc study committee activities. Thirteen ad hoc committees were organized, met, or released studies during 2006. (Activities and mem- bership are summarized below.) In addition, four ad hoc committees that produced reports in 2005 were formally disbanded in 2006: the Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions, the Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars, the Committee on Principal Investigator-Led Missions in the Space Sciences, and the Com- mittee on Priorities for Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion. Their reports are summarized in the 2005 annual report. ASSESSMENT OF BALANCE IN NASA’S SCIENCE PROGRAMS The ad hoc Committee on an Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs met on March 6-8, 2006, and delivered its report, An Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs, to NASA and Congress on May 4, 2006. The report was the third and final component of the NRC’s advisory response to a request, as a part of fiscal year 2005 appropriations legislation for NASA, that called for “a thorough review of the science that NASA is proposing to undertake under the space exploration initiative and to develop a strategy by which all of NASA’s science disciplines . . . can make adequate progress towards their established goals, as well as providing balanced scientific research in addition to support of the new initiative.” The report presents an assessment of NASA’s inte- grated strategy and proposed science program, as set forth in materials that accompany the NASA FY 2007 budget request. The Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5. Membership* Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan (chair) George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) (vice chair) Spiro K. Antiochos, Naval Research Laboratory Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University Roger D. Blandford, Stanford University Radford Byerly, Jr., University of Colorado 

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6 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 Judith A. Curry, Georgia Institute of Technology Jack D. Farmer, Arizona State University Jacqueline N. Hewitt, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Donald E. Ingber, Harvard Medical School Bruce M. Jakosky, University of Colorado Klaus Keil, University of Hawaii Debra S. Knopman, RAND Corporation Calvin W. Lowe, Bowie State University Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Frank E. Muller-Karger, University of South Florida Suzanne Oparil, University of Alabama, Birmingham Ronald F. Probstein, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dennis W. Readey, Colorado School of Mines Harvey D. Tananbaum, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory J. Craig Wheeler, University of Texas, Austin A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Dwayne A. Day, Senior Program Associate, Space Studies Board Claudette K. Baylor-Fleming, Administrative Assistant, Space Studies Board ____________________ *All terms ended during 2006. ASTROBIOLOGY STRATEGY FOR THE EXPLORATION OF MARS The ad hoc Committee on the Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars (Mars Astrobiology) held its first meeting on January 23-25, 2006, in Irvine, California, along with the Committee on the Origins and Evolu- tion of Life. At its May 10-12, 2006, meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., the committee received a briefing on the status of NASA’s Mars exploration plans and the heard presentations relating to the committee’s statement of task, including the geological history of Mars, recent results from Mars Express, isotopic biomarkers, the characteristics of sites of possible biological interest on Mars, and the status of astrobiol- ogy instrument development. The committee also drafted an outline of its final report and discussed presentations required for its next meeting. The committee met at the University of Colorado’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics on Septem- ber 13-15, 2006, in Boulder, Colorado. In addition to a briefing on the status of NASA’s Mars exploration plans, the committee heard presentations on morphological biomarkers and on the scientific goals and status of the Mars Science Laboratory and, in particular, its astrobiologically relevant payload. In addition, the committee spent a considerable amount of time refining the outline of its report, assigning responsibility for the drafting of different sections to committee members, and drafting a schedule for the completion of its task. The committee’s November 8-10, 2006, meeting at the J. Erik Jonsson Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, was devoted to completing the committee’s report, An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars. Following a committee conference call on December 7, 2006, a complete draft of the report was assembled and distributed to members on December 15, 2006. After review by committee members, the draft report was sent to external review- ers on December 19, 2006. (The final report was released in June 2007.) Membership Bruce M. Jakosky, University of Colorado, Boulder (chair) Jan P. Amend, Washington University William M. Berelson, University of Southern California Ruth Blake, Yale University Susan L. Brantley, Pennsylvania State University Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey (retired)

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees James K. Fredrickson, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Anthony Keefe, Archemix Corporation Martin Keller, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Harry Y. McSween, Jr., University of Tennessee, Knoxville Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto Andrew Steele, Carnegie Institution of Washington Roger Summons, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Robert L. Riemer, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ASTRONOMY SCIENCE CENTERS: AN ASSESSMENT OF BEST PRACTICES AND GUIDING PRINCIPLES FOR THE FUTURE The ad hoc Committee on Astronomy Science Centers was formed to review lessons learned from experience with NASA’s ensemble of space astronomy science centers in order to recommend a set of guiding principles and best practices for consideration in making decisions about approaches to meeting the needs of the astronomy com- munity with future science centers. On February 9-11, 2006, the committee met to discuss the Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) efforts at the science centers and to continue drafting its report. The committee heard from Kath- leen Lestition, Chandra X-Ray Center; James Manning, Space Telescope Science Institute; and Michelle Thaller, Spitzer Science Center; about their E/PO efforts. The committee also heard from Nick Cabot, Science Department Chair at Nathan Hale High School in Seattle; Carl Pennypacker, Principal Investigator of Hands-on Universe; and Roberta Tanner, Loveland High School, Loveland, Colorado. These educators provided their views of and advice on the center’s E/PO programs. The committee chair visited the Spitzer Science Center and Michelson Science Center on April 18, 2006, and the Chandra X-Ray Center on May 3, 2006. The committee held its final meeting May 10-12, 2006, in Irvine, California. Work on the report continued during the third and fourth quarters. (A final published report was released in June 2007.) Membership Steven R. Bohlen, Joint Oceanographic Institutions (chair) Roger G. Barry, University of Colorado, Boulder Stephen S. Holt, Babson College; Olin College Richard A. McCray, University of Colorado, Boulder Alexander Sandor Szalay, Johns Hopkins University Paula Szkody, University of Washington Paul Adrian Vanden Bout, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Pamela L. Whitney, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (co-study director) Brian D. Dewhurst, Senior Program Associate, Board on Physics and Astronomy (co-study director) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board BEYOND EINSTEIN PROGRAM ASSESSMENT The ad hoc Beyond Einstein Program Assessment Committee was formed to assess the five proposed Beyond Einstein missions (Constellation X-ray Observatory, Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, Joint Dark Energy Mis- sion, Inflation Probe, and Black Hole Finder probe) based on their potential scientific impact and preliminary tech- nology, management plans and cost estimates, and to recommend one mission for first development and launch. The committee held its first meeting in Washington, D.C., on November 6-8, 2006. Representatives of the 11 Beyond

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 Einstein mission concepts presented their projects and responded to committee questions. (The report was released in September 2007.) Membership Charles F. Kennel, University of California, San Diego (co-chair) Joseph H. Rothenberg, Universal Space Network (co-chair) Eric G. Adelberger, University of Washington Bill Adkins, Adkins Strategies, LLC Thomas Appelquist, Yale University James S. Barrowman, Independent Consultant David A. Bearden, Aerospace Corporation Mark Devlin, University of Pennsylvania Joseph Fuller, Jr., Futron Corporation Karl Gebhardt, University of Texas, Austin William C. Gibson, Southwest Research Institute Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Andrew J. Lankford, University of California, Irvine Dennis McCarthy, Independent Consultant Stephan S. Meyer, University of Chicago Joel R. Primack, University of California, Santa Cruz Lisa J. Randall, Harvard University Craig L. Sarazin, University of Virginia James S. Ulvestad, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Clifford M. Will, Washington University Michael S. Witherell, University of California, Santa Barbara Edward L. Wright, University of California, Los Angeles Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (co-study director after January 2007) Pamela L. Whitney, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (co-study director through January 2007) Brian D. Dewhurst, Senior Program Associate, Board on Physics and Astronomy (co-study director) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board EARTH SCIENCE AND APPLICATIONS FROM SPACE: A COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT AND STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE The Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future (ESAS) decadal survey, led by an 18-member steering (executive) committee, utilized seven thematically organized study panels: 1. Earth Science Applications and Societal Benefits 2. Land-use Change, Ecosystem Dynamics and Biodiversity 3. Weather (incl. space weather and chemical weather) 4. Climate Variability and Change 5. Water Resources and the Global Hydrologic Cycle 6. Human Health and Security 7. Solid-Earth Hazards, Resources, and Dynamics The study was initiated in 2004 and many meetings were held in 2005. An interim report, Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Sere the Nation, was released in April 2005. During the first quarter of 2006, the following meetings took place:

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees • ESAS Steering Committee (January 10-12, Washington, D.C.) • Panel on Earth Science Applications and Societal Benefits (January 26-27, Washington, D.C.) • Panel on Climate Variability and Change (February 6-7, Irvine, California) • Panel on Human Health and Security (March 23-24, Washington, D.C.) Representatives from the steering committee and the panels were present on January 30, 2006, in Atlanta, Georgia, for a “town hall” community forum that was held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the American Meteorological Association. Representatives were also present on February 21, 2006, for a town hall which was held in conjunction with the American Geophysical Union’s Ocean Sciences meeting in Hawaii. By the end of the first quarter, 20 of 21 planned panel meetings had been completed. Panels completed second drafts of their report chapters and identified, prioritized, and provided rough cost estimates for their recommended suite of activities. During the second and third quarters, the following meetings took place: ESAS Steering Committee: May 2-4, 2006 (Irvine, California); Panel on Land-use Change, Ecosystem Dynamics and Biodiversity: April 24-25, 2006 (Washington, D.C.) and August 22-24, 2006 (Woods Hole, Massachusetts). As the third quarter ended, the committee was preparing a draft of its final report for external review. A pre- publication version of the final report was released on January 15, 2007. (The final report was published in October 2007.) Also during the third quarter, the committee received a request from NASA to perform additional tasks in a subsequent report—to undertake a fast-track study that will examine strategies to recover lost capabilities stemming from the June 2006 changes to the NPOESS program. This study will also examine several issues related to recent changes in the GOES-R program. ESAS Executive Committee Membership Richard A. Anthes, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (co-chair) Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire (co-chair) James G. Anderson, Harvard University Susan K. Avery, University of Colorado, Boulder Eric J. Barron, University of Texas, Austin Otis B. Brown, Jr.,* University of Miami Susan L. Cutter, University of South Carolina Ruth DeFries, University of Maryland William B. Gail, Microsoft Virtual Earth Bradford H. Hager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Anthony Hollingsworth,** European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (retired) Anthony C. Janetos, Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory/University of Maryland Kathryn A. Kelly, University of Washington Neal F. Lane, Rice University Dennis P. Lettenmaier, University of Washington Bruce D. Marcus, TRW Inc. (retired) Warren M. Washington, National Center for Atmospheric Research Mark L. Wilson, University of Michigan Mary Lou Zoback, Risk Management Solutions Stacey W. Boland, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (consultant) Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ____________________ *Through January 2006. **The committee notes with deep regret Anthony Hollingsworth’s death on July 29, 2007.

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0 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 ESAS Panel on Earth Science Applications and Societal Benefits Membership Anthony C. Janetos, Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory/University of Maryland (chair) Roberta Balstad, Columbia University (vice chair) Jay Apt, Carnegie Mellon University Philip E. Ardanuy, Raytheon Information Solutions Randall Friedl, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Michael F. Goodchild, University of California, Santa Barbara Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Gordon McBean, University of Western Ontario David L. Skole, Michigan State University Leigh Welling, Crown of the Continent Learning Center Thomas J. Wilbanks, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Gary W. Yohe, Wesleyan University Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ESAS Panel on Land-use Change, Ecosystem Dynamics, and Biodiversity Membership Ruth S. Defries, University of Maryland (chair) Otis B. Brown, Jr., University of Miami (vice chair) Mark R. Abbott, Oregon State University Christopher B. Field, Carnegie Institution of Washington Inez Y. Fung, University of California, Berkeley Marc Levy, Center for International Earth Sciences Information Network James J. McCarthy, Harvard University Jerry M. Melillo, Marine Biological Laboratory Walter V. Reid,* Stanford University David S. Schimel, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Arthur Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Dan Walker, Scholar, Ocean Studies Board Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (from August 2006) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board ____________________ *Resigned from panel February 2006. ESAS Panel on Weather Membership Susan K. Avery, University of Colorado, Boulder (chair) Thomas H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State University (vice chair) Edward V. Browell, NASA Langley Research Center Lt. Col. William B. Cade III, Air Force Weather Agency Bradley R. Colman, National Weather Service Jenni-Louise Evans, Pennsylvania State University Eugenia Kalnay, University of Maryland, College Park Roger A. Pielke, Jr.,* University of Colorado, Boulder Christopher Ruf, University of Michigan Carl F. Schueler, Raytheon Company Jeremy Usher, Weathernews Americas, Inc. Christopher S. Velden, University of Wisconsin-Madison Robert A. Weller, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Curtis Marshall, Program Officer, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (from August 2006) Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ____________________ *Resigned from panel August 2006. ESAS Panel on Climate Variability and Change Membership Eric J. Barron, University of Texas, Austin (chair) Joyce E. Penner, University of Michigan (vice chair) Gregory Carbone, University of South Carolina James A. Coakley, Jr., Oregon State University Sarah T. Gille, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Kenneth C. Jezek, Ohio State University Judith L. Lean, Naval Research Laboratory Gudrun Magnusdottir, University of California, Irvine Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Michael Oppenheimer, Princeton University Claire L. Parkinson, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Michael J. Prather, University of California, Irvine Mark R. Schoeberl, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Byron D. Tapley, University of Texas, Austin Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ESAS Panel on Water Resources and the Global Hydrologic Cycle Membership Dennis P. Lettenmaier, University of Washington (chair) Anne W. Nolin, Oregon State University (vice chair) Wilfried H. Brutsaert, Cornell University Anny Cazenave, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales Carol Anne Clayson, Florida State University Jeff Dozier, University of California, Santa Barbara Dara Entekhabi, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Richard Forster, University of Utah Charles D.D. Howard, Independent Consultant Christian D. Kummerow, Colorado State University Steven W. Running, University of Montana Charles J. Vorosmarty, University of New Hampshire Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) William Logan, Senior Program Officer, Water Science and Technology Board Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ESAS Panel on Human Health and Security Membership Mark L. Wilson, University of Michigan (chair) Rita R. Colwell, University of Maryland, College Park (vice chair) Daniel G. Brown, University of Michigan Walter F. Dabberdt, Vaisala, Inc. William F. Davenhall, ESRI John R. Delaney, University of Washington

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 Gregory Glass, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Daniel J. Jacob, Harvard University James H. Maguire, University of Maryland at Baltimore School of Medicine Paul M. Maughan, MyoSite Diagnostics, Inc. Joan B. Rose, Michigan State University Ronald B. Smith, Yale University Patricia Ann Tester, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Raymond Wassel, Senior Program Officer, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ESAS Panel on Solid-Earth Hazards, Resources, and Dynamics Membership Bradford H. Hager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chair) Susan L. Brantley, Pennsylvania State University (vice chair) Jeremy Bloxham, Harvard University Richard K. Eisner, State of California, Governor’s Office of Emergency Services Alexander F.H. Goetz, University of Colorado, Boulder Christian J. Johannsen, Purdue University James W. Kirchner, University of California, Berkeley William I. Rose, Michigan Technological University Haresh C. Shah, Stanford University Dirk Smit, Shell Exploration and Production Technology Company Howard A. Zebker, Stanford University Maria T. Zuber, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Dan Walker, Scholar, Ocean Studies Board Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board EXPLORING ORGANIC ENVIRONMENTS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM The Task Group on Organic Environments in the Solar System (TGOESS), an ad hoc committee under the auspices of COMPLEX, COEL, and the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, did not meet during 2006. The task group’s activities concerned the revision and review of its report, Exploring Organic Enironments in the Solar System, which looks at the sources, location, and history of organic carbon in the solar system. (The report was released in February 2007.) Membership* James P. Ferris, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (chair) Luann Becker, University of California, Santa Barbara Kristie A. Boering, University of California, Berkeley George D. Cody, Carnegie Institution of Washington G. Barney Ellison, University of Colorado John M. Hayes, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Robert E. Johnson, University of Virginia William Klemperer, Harvard University Karen J. Meech, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Keith S. Noll, Space Telescope Science Institute Martin Saunders, Yale University

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Robert L. Riemer, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Christopher K. Murphy, Senior Program Officer, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ____________________ *All terms ended during 2006. LARGE OPTICAL SYSTEMS IN SPACE During the first quarter, staff of the SSB and the Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences worked with NASA and the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) to move forward on the study on large optical systems in space (LOIS)—a survey and analysis of technology opportunities and issues relevant to the development and op- eration of medium-size and large optical systems in space. Before committee formation was completed, however, NRO and NASA terminated the study. NASA deobligated its funds, but NRO provided a no cost extension in order to allow the use of the funds for a future study to be determined. Marcia S. Smith, Director, Space Studies Board Richard E. Rowberg, Associate Executive Director, Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences Pamela L. Whitney, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board LIMITS OF ORGANIC LIFE IN PLANETARY SYSTEMS The Committee on the Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems, an ad hoc committee of the Space Stud- ies Board and the Board on Life Sciences, did not meet during 2006. The committee’s report was sent to external review in August 2006. For the third and fourth quarters, the committee continued to revise the report in response to the comments provided by the reviewers. (The report was released in July 2007.) Membership John A. Baross, University of Washington (chair) Steven A. Benner, Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution George D. Cody, Carnegie Institution of Washington Shelley D. Copley, University of Colorado, Boulder Norman R. Pace, University of Colorado, Boulder James H. Scott, Dartmouth College Robert Shapiro, New York University Mitchell L. Sogin, Marine Biological Laboratory Jeffrey L. Stein, Sofinnova Ventures Roger Summons, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Jack W. Szostak, Massachusetts General Hospital David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director through December 2006) Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director from December 2006) Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board MEETING THE WORKFORCE NEEDS FOR THE NATIONAL VISION FOR SPACE EXPLORATION The Committee on Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration, under the auspices of SSB and the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, was organized to assess the current and future supply of personnel for a qualified U.S. aerospace workforce to meet the needs of NASA and the larger aerospace science and engineering community in the context of the nation’s long-term space exploration vision.

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 The committee held a two-day information-gathering workshop as a part of its first meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on January 23-25, 2006. The workshop was organized to examine relevant workforce demographics and factors that may impact them, future workforce skill needs, and issues that may require further study. The approximately 35 participants included study committee members and representa- tives from NASA, DOD, NSF, aerospace industry, academia, and several non-governmental organizations. The committee held its second meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center on February 22-23, 2006, to gath- er additional information and to plan its interim report. NASA representatives presented results of workforce analyses and modeling carried out by NASA’s Systems Engineering and Institutional Transition Team. The committee also heard presentations from Bureau of Labor Statistics representatives on projections of future labor force supply and demand in aerospace science and engineering, and heard additional aerospace industry perspectives on workforce issues. The committee delivered its interim report, Issues Affecting the Future of the U.S. Space Science and Engineering Work- force, on April 26, 2006, and released it to the public on April 27, 2006. The Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5. The committee held its third meeting May 8-9, 2006, at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., to gather additional information and to begin work on its final report. At the meeting the committee heard from representatives from university engineering departments and science departments, held discussions with NASA of- ficials regarding the agency’s education strategy and interactions with U.S. universities and regarding the final report of NASA’s Systems Engineering and Institutional Transition Team, and received a briefing on university engineering enrollment data from a representative of the American Society for Engineering Education. On May 9, 2006, the committee co-chairs, David Black and Daniel Hastings, met with Scott Pace, the NASA Associate Administrator for Program Assessment and Evaluation, and other NASA officials to discuss future plans for the study. Committee co-chair David Black testified on the conclusions of the interim report at a hearing of the House Science Committee’s Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics on June 13, 2006. The committee’s fourth meeting, at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on September 27-29, 2006, was devoted to discussions of the committee’s response to the study charge, NASA’s response to its interim report, and to writing the committee’s draft final report. The draft of the committee’s final report, Building a Better NASA Workforce: Meeting the Workforce Needs for the National Vision for Space Exploration, was completed in the fourth quarter and sent to review in January 2007. (The report was released in April 2007.) Membership David C. Black, Universities Space Research Association (co-chair) Daniel E. Hastings, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (co-chair) Burt S. Barnow, Johns Hopkins University John W. Douglass, Aerospace Industries Association of America, Inc. Ray M. Haynes, Northrop Grumman Space Technology Margaret G. Kivelson, University of California, Los Angeles William Pomerantz, X PRIZE Foundation Joseph H. Rothenberg, Universal Space Network Kathryn C. Thornton, University of Virginia Dwayne A. Day, Senior Program Associate, Space Studies Board (study director from October 2006) Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director through September 2006) Victoria Swisher, Research Associate, Space Studies Board Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board NASA ASTROPHYSICS PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT The ad hoc Committee on NASA Astrophysics Performance Assessment was tasked with assessing NASA’s performance in achieving the goals laid out by the 2000 NRC astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey, Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, as well as in the 2003 NRC report Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos. At its first meeting on June 19-21, 2006, in Washington, D.C., the committee heard from a panel of congressio- nal staff about the reasons the study was requested, as well as from Eric Smith who presented NASA’s perspective on the study. The committee then discussed the current state of the NASA Astrophysics Program with the chairs of

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees various advisory committees (including the NRC Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics, the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee, and the NASA Astrophysics Subcommittee). Rick Howard and Eric Smith of NASA also presented their assessments of how the current NASA Astrophysics Program measures up to the program laid out in previous NRC reports. On August 14-16, 2006, the committee met at the Science Museum of Minnesota in St. Paul, Minnesota, to hear about a number of projects which were recommended by the NRC reports Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium and Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos. The committee devoted its last meeting on October 20-22, 2006, at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., to drafting its final report. The report went to external review at the end of 2006. (The report was released in January 2007.) Membership Kenneth H. Keller, Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (chair) Martha P. Haynes, Cornell University (vice chair) Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Catherine Cesarsky, European Southern Observatory Megan Donahue, Michigan State University Rolf-Peter Kudritzki, University of Hawaii at Manoa Stephen S. Murray, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Robert Palmer, Independent Consultant Joseph H. Taylor, Jr., Princeton University Michael S. Turner, University of Chicago Rainer Weiss, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Charles E. Woodward, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis Brian D. Dewhurst, Senior Program Associate, Board on Physics and Astronomy (study director) Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board PLANETARY PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS FOR VENUS MISSIONS The ad hoc Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions, established under the aus- pices of COEL, was tasked with assessing the existing planetary protection requirements for spacecraft missions to Venus. The committee’s short report “Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions” was released on February 14, 2006, and is reprinted in Chapter 6. At the suggestion of NASA’s Planetary Protection Officer, the poster paper “Reassessment of Planetary Protec- tion Requirements for Venus Missions,” by J.W. Szostak, R.L. Riemer, D.H. Smith, and J.D. Rummel was displayed at the General Assembly of COSPAR in Beijing in July 2006. Membership* Jack W. Szostak, Massachusetts General Hospital (chair) Ruth Blake, Yale University Michael J. Daly, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences David H. Grinspoon, Southwest Research Institute Anthony Keefe, Archemix Corporation Gary J. Olsen, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Robert L. Riemer, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy (study director) David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ____________________ *All terms ended during 2006.

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6 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 REVIEW OF THE NEXT DECADE MARS ARCHITECTURE The ad hoc Committee for the Review of the Next Decade Mars Architecture, formed to assess NASA’s Mars exploration plans for the period 2007 to 2016, met in Washington, D.C., on March 29-31, 2006, and held a sub- sequent conference call on April 4, 2006. Edited copies of the report, formatted as a letter, were sent to NASA on June 30, 2006. A final version of the report, Assessment of NASA’s Mars Architecture 00-06, was published in August 2006. The original short report is reprinted in Chapter 6; the Executive Summary of the final report is reprinted in Chapter 5. Membership* Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University (chair) Jeffrey Barnes, Oregon State University Penelope Boston, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology Stephen Bougher, University of Michigan Sherry L. Cady, Portland State University Robert Clayton, University of Chicago Jeffrey Forbes, University of Colorado John Grant, Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum Ronald Greeley, Arizona State University Victoria Hamilton, University of Hawaii Catherine Johnson, University of California, San Diego Timothy McCoy, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History Ralph McNutt, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Angus McRonald, Global Aerospace Corporation Francis Nimmo, University of California, Santa Cruz David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (study director) Rodney N. Howard, Senior Project Assistant, Space Studies Board ____________________ *All terms ended during 2006. REVIEW OF THE NASA SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE SCIENCE PLAN The ad hoc Committee on the Review of the NASA Science Mission Directorate Science Plan, formed to conduct an assessment of NASA’s draft science plan, held its only meeting on July 11-13, 2006, at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C. The committee reviewed NASA’s draft science plan and was briefed by NASA representatives and congressional staff. The committee held several teleconferences following the meet- ing to discuss its report. The short report was submitted to NASA on September 15 and released to the public on September 25. The chair, Tom Young, briefed NASA representatives and congressional staffers on October 5. The short report is reprinted in Chapter 6. Membership* A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin (retired) (chair) Spiro K. Antiochos, Naval Research Laboratory Ana P. Barros, Duke University James Burch, Southwest Research Institute Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park Jack Farmer, Arizona State University Margaret Finarelli, George Mason University John Huchra, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Ralph Lorenz, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona Dan McCammon, University of Wisconsin

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 Ad Hoc Study Committees Anneila Sargent, California Institute of Technology Jessica Sunshine, University of Maryland Carl Wunsch, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Dwayne A. Day, Senior Program Associate, Space Studies Board (study director) Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board ____________________ *All terms ended during 2006. SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT FOR THE EXPLORATION OF THE MOON The ad hoc Committee on the Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon held its first meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., June 20-22, 2006. The committee was briefed on a variety of current issues in lunar science. In addition to discussing presentations required at future meetings and drafting an outline for its interim report, the committee also discussed outreach activities designed to engage the interna- tional lunar science community in its activities. Outreach activities began at the meeting of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group in Beijing, China, in July 2006. Additional outreach activities took place at a variety of meetings including the American Astronomical Society Division for Planetary Sciences meeting in October 2006 and the American Geophysical Union meeting in December 2006. At its August 2-4, 2006, meeting at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, the committee was briefed on a wide variety of lunar science and related issues which assisted in the formulation of the report draft. Also during this quarter, the committee held a teleconference to make final revisions to its draft report for submission to NRC review. The committee’s interim report, The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Interim Report, was delivered to NASA on September 15, 2006. The Executive Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5. The committee held its third meeting on October 25-27, 2006, in Santa Fe, New Mexico, to assess the response of the lunar science community and NASA to the interim report and to continue work on the final report. The com- mittee heard presentations from NASA staff, other experts, and members of the committee. The committee held teleconferences on December 7, 13, and 19, 2006, to discuss progress on the final report, and, on December 13, to hear details on NASA’s lunar architecture from NASA staff. (The final report was released in May 2007.) Membership George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) (chair) Carlé M. Pieters, Brown University (vice chair) William B. Banerdt, Jet Propulsion Laboratory James L. Burch, Southwest Research Institute Andrew Chaikin, Science Journalist, Arlington, Vermont Barbara A. Cohen, University of New Mexico Michael Duke,* Colorado School of Mines Anthony W. England,** University of Michigan Harald Hiesinger, University of Münster, Germany Noel W. Hinners, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired) Ayanna M. Howard, Georgia Institute of Technology David J. Lawrence, Los Alamos National Laboratory Daniel F. Lester, McDonald Observatory Paul G. Lucey, University of Hawaii S. Alan Stern,† Southwest Research Institute Stefanie Tompkins, Science Applications International Corporation Francisco P. Valero, Scripps Institution of Oceanography John W. Valley, University of Wisconsin-Madison Charles Walker, Independent Consultant, Annandale, Virginia Neville J. Woolf, University of Arizona

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 Robert L. Riemer, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy (study director) David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Rodney N. Howard, Senior Project Assistant, Space Studies Board Stephanie Bednarek, Research Assistant, Space Studies Board ____________________ *During committee deliberations, Dr. Duke recused himself from discussion of the finding and recommendation related to the South Pole-Aitken Basin. **Dr. England resigned from the committee on August 11, 2006, because of other commitments. †Dr. Stern resigned from the committee on September 24, 2006, to join the NASA Advisory Committee Science Subcommittee (and on April 2, 2007, became Associate Administrator for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate).