2
Board and Standing Committees: Activities and Membership

At the end of 2006, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had five standing committees representing various disciplines: the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy), the Committee on Earth Studies, the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (jointly with the Board on Life Sciences), the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. Two other committees—the Committee on Microgravity Research and the Committee on Space Biology and Medicine—were disbanded as of August 16, 2006; their work had been largely discontinued due to changing priorities at NASA. The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study committees (see Chapter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific community. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), Sec. 15.

SPACE STUDIES BOARD

HIGHLIGHTS OF SPACE STUDIES BOARD ACTIVITIES

First Quarter

The Space Studies Board held its 148th meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on March 6-8, 2006, in conjunction with the meeting of the ad hoc Committee on an Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs (see Chapter 3). The meeting time of the Board was devoted to reviewing the status of selected ongoing SSB studies, planning near-term consultations with government officials regarding potential future studies, and planning the next SSB meeting.

Second Quarter

The Space Studies Board’s 149th meeting on May 2, 2006, at the National Academy of Sciences’ building in Washington, D.C., was devoted entirely to meeting with NASA Administrator Michael Griffin. Dr. Griffin and the Board had a dialogue about NASA’s priorities and related issues.

The Space Studies Board held its 150th meeting on June 13-15, 2006, at NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Mike Coats, Director of JSC, opened the meeting by welcoming the Board and providing an overview of the center. Highlights of the first day included briefings by Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Man-



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2 Board and Standing Committees: Activities and Membership At the end of 2006, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had five standing committees representing various dis- ciplines: the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy), the Committee on Earth Studies, the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (jointly with the Board on Life Sciences), the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. Two other committeesthe Committee on Microgravity Research and the Committee on Space Biology and Medicinewere disbanded as of August 16, 2006; their work had been largely discontinued due to changing priorities at NASA. The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study committees (see Chapter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific community. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), Sec. 15. SPACE STUDIES BOARD HIGHLIGHTS OF SPACE STUDIES BOARD ACTIVITIES First Quarter The Space Studies Board held its 148th meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on March 6-8, 2006, in conjunction with the meeting of the ad hoc Committee on an Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs (see Chapter 3). The meeting time of the Board was devoted to reviewing the status of selected ongoing SSB studies, planning near-term consultations with government officials regarding potential future studies, and planning the next SSB meeting. Second Quarter The Space Studies Board’s 149th meeting on May 2, 2006, at the National Academy of Sciences’ building in Washington, D.C., was devoted entirely to meeting with NASA Administrator Michael Griffin. Dr. Griffin and the Board had a dialogue about NASA’s priorities and related issues. The Space Studies Board held its 150th meeting on June 13-15, 2006, at NASA’s Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Mike Coats, Director of JSC, opened the meeting by welcoming the Board and providing an overview of the center. Highlights of the first day included briefings by Wayne Hale, Space Shuttle Program Man- 

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0 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 ager, JSC; Mike Sufferdini, International Space Station (ISS) Program Manager, JSC; Paul Marshall, JSC, on the Crew Exploration Vehicle; and John Mather, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Phil Sabelhaus, GSFC, and Eric Smith, NASA Headquarters, on the James Webb Space Telescope. Mary Cleave, Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), joined the Board by teleconference and provided an overview of SMD activi- ties. On the second day, Carl Walz, NASA Headquarters, briefed the Board by teleconference on NASA’s plans for spending the 15 percent of ISS research funds set aside by Congress for non-exploration research. Don Thomas, JSC, followed with an update on other ongoing and planned ISS research. Later in the day, Board members enjoyed tours of JSC’s planetary science curatorial facilities. On the third day of the meeting, briefings were given by Steve Mackwell, director of the Lunar and Planetary Institute; Benjamin Neumann, NASA Headquarters on NASA’s lunar robotic exploration program, via teleconference; and Jeff Hanley, JSC, on Project Constellation. Farewells were said to several members whose terms ended on June 30, 2006, including George A. Paulikas (vice chair, Space Studies Board); Reta F. Beebe (chair, Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration); Roger D. Blandford (co-chair, Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics); Radford Byerly, Jr.; Donald E. Ingber (chair, Committee on Space Biology and Medicine); Ralph H. Jacobson, Calvin W. Lowe; Dennis W. Readey (chair, Com- mittee on Microgravity Research); and J. Craig Wheeler. Third Quarter The Board did not meet during the third quarter; however, the SSB executive committee (XCOM) did meet on August 22-24, 2006, for its annual strategic planning session at the J. Erik Jonsson Woods Hole Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts. The XCOM received a visit from Senator Barbara A. Mikulski. Senator Mikulski shared her thoughts on NASA’s space science program, and gave her insights and perceptions about the range of issues facing NASA and the country. She discussed her work on securing support for the Mikulski-Hutchison amendment to add $1 billion in funding for NASA in FY2007, and the best possible future for our nation in space. In addition to the discussion with Senator Mikulski, the XCOM spoke with several staff from the Senate and House Appropriations committees, the House Science Committee, and the Senate Commerce Committee. NASA SMD representatives also attended the meeting for a discussion on the outlook for future SSB–SMD interactions. The XCOM continued general discussion on the roles and operations of the Board and its standing committees, ad-hoc committees, the NRC Report Review process, potential new study projects, and planning for the November SSB meeting which would coincide with a workshop to discuss how to ensure the resilience of SSB’s decadal surveys. Fourth Quarter The Space Studies Board held a half-day meeting at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on November 14, 2006. The Board meeting was followed by a two-day Board-sponsored workshop on decadal surveys (see Chapter 4). The Board welcomed seven new members whose terms began on July 1: Steven Battel, Charles Bennett, Jack Fellows, Kenneth Nealson, James Pawelczyk, Joseph Veverka, and Warren Washington. The annual balance and composition discussion was held. The Board chair and vice-chair reported on discussions held at the Board’s Executive Committee meeting in August. Board members were presented with the executive sum- maries of four recently released SSB reports. In addition, the statements of task for three new or potential SSB activities were reviewed: “Earth Science and Applications from Space: Ensuring the Climate Measurements from NPOESS,” “NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation,” and a potential seminar series “Celebrating the First 50 Years of Space Science: In Commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the International Geophysical Year.” The Board ended the meeting with a brief discussion of the objectives for the SSB workshop on decadal surveys, which was about to commence.

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 Board and Standing Committees: Actiities and Membership SPACE STUDIES BOARD MEMBERSHIP July 1, 2005–June 30, 2006 July 1, 2006–June 30, 2007 Lennard A. Fisk (chair), University of Michigan Lennard A. Fisk (chair), University of Michigan George A. Paulikas (vice chair), The Aerospace A. Thomas Young (vice chair), Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Corporation (retired) Spiro K. Antiochos, Naval Research Laboratory Spiro K. Antiochos, Naval Research Laboratory Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Roger D. Blandford, Stanford University Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Radford Byerly, Jr., University of Colorado, Boulder Judith A. Curry, Georgia Institute of Technology Judith A. Curry, Georgia Institute of Technology Jack D. Farmer, Arizona State University Jack D. Farmer, Arizona State University Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Jacqueline N. Hewitt, Massachusetts Institute of Atmospheric Research Technology Jacqueline N. Hewitt, Massachusetts Institute of Donald E. Ingber, Harvard Medical School Technology Ralph H. Jacobson, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Tamara E. Jernigan, Lawrence Livermore National (retired) Laboratory Tamara E. Jernigan, Lawrence Livermore National Klaus Keil, University of Hawaii, Manoa Laboratory Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Klaus Keil, University of Hawaii, Manoa Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California Debra S. Knopman,† The RAND Corporation Norman P. Neureiter, American Association for the Calvin W. Lowe, Bowie State University Advancement of Science Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Suzanne Oparil, University of Alabama, Birmingham Norman P. Neureiter, American Association for the James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University Advancement of Science Ronald F. Probstein, Massachusetts Institute of Suzanne Oparil, University of Alabama, Birmingham Technology Ronald F. Probstein, Massachusetts Institute of Harvey D. Tananbaum, Smithsonian Astrophysical Technology Observatory Dennis W. Readey, Colorado School of Mines Richard H. Truly, National Renewable Energy Harvey D. Tananbaum, Smithsonian Astrophysical Laboratory Observatory Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Richard H. Truly, National Renewable Energy Warren M. Washington, National Center for Laboratory Atmospheric Research J. Craig Wheeler, University of Texas, Austin Gary P. Zank, University of California, Riverside Gary P. Zank, University of California, Riverside __________________ †Resigned during 2006. Ex Officio and Liaison Members Raymond S. Colladay, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired) (ex-officio, Chair, NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board) Gerhard Haerendel, Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (liaison, Chair of the European Space Science Committee) Frank E. Muller-Karger, University of South Florida (ex-officio, member of the NRC Ocean Studies Board) Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology (liaison, U.S. representative to COSPAR)

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 Membership of the 2006 SSB Executive Committee July 1, 2005–June 30, 2006 July 1, 2006–June 30, 2007 Lennard A. Fisk (chair), University of Michigan Lennard A. Fisk (chair), University of Michigan George A. Paulikas (vice chair), The Aerospace A. Thomas Young (vice chair), Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Corporation (retired) Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder Radford Byerly, Jr., University of Colorado, Boulder Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Ralph H. Jacobson, Charles Stark Draper Laboratory Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire (retired) Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Suzanne Oparil, University of Alabama, Birmingham Suzanne Oparil, University of Alabama, Birmingham Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University J. Craig Wheeler, University of Texas, Austin Staff Marcia S. Smith, Director (from March 2006) Tamara L. Dickinson, Interim Director (through February 2006) Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer Robert L. Riemer,‡ Senior Program Officer David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer Pamela L. Whitney, Senior Program Officer Brian D. Dewhurst,‡ Senior Program Associate Dwayne A. Day, Senior Program Associate Victoria Swisher, Research Associate (from December 2006) Betty C. Guyot, Consultant Barbara S. Akinwole, Information Management Associate Tanja Pilzak, Administrative Coordinator Christina O. Shipman, Financial Associate Catherine A. Gruber, Assistant Editor Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate Claudette K. Baylor-Fleming, Administrative Assistant Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant __________________ ‡Staff of the Board on Physics and Astronomy who are shared with the SSB. Space Policy Interns Stephanie Bednarek, Summer Brendan McFarland, Summer Emily McNeil, Winter

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 Board and Standing Committees: Actiities and Membership U.S. NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR COSPAR The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Publications Committee, Program Committee, and Bureau meetings were held March 20-23, 2006, in Paris, France. In addition, COSPAR’s new Scientific Advisory Commit- tee, chaired by Lennard A. Fisk of the University of Michigan (and chair, SSB), held its first meeting. The advisory committee emerged from COSPAR’s strategic visioning exercises held during 2004-2005. Other changes from that exercise include efforts to further involve students and young scientists in COSPAR activities, and increased atten- tion to education. The 36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly and affiliated Space Science Exhibition took place in Beijing, China, on July 16-23. The assembly was headquartered in the Friendship Palace of the Beijing Friendship Hotel and the scientific sessions took place on the adjacent campus of the Beijing Institute of Technology. In addition to a wide- range of presentations based on the latest findings from a variety of spacecraft missions, including Cassini, Mars Express and Deep Impact, the scientific program featured solicited contributions based on two recent SSB studies: an oral presentation of “The 2005 National Research Council Report on Preenting the Forward Contamination of Mars” by C. Chyba, S. Clifford, A. Delamere, M. Favero, J. Niehoff, D. Paige, J. Priscu and M. Race (presented by D. Paige); and a poster paper “Reassessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Venus Missions” by J.W. Szostak, R.L. Riemer, D.H. Smith, and J.D. Rummel (presented by D.H. Smith). The COSPAR Council met on July 16 and 23 and the COSPAR Bureau met on July 22. The highlight of the first council meeting was the selection of Bremen, Germany, as the host of COSPAR’s 2010 scientific assembly. Runner-up, Mysore, India, will host the scientific assembly in 2012. The 2008 assembly has already been awarded to Montreal, Canada. Other highlights included elections for the next four year term for COSPAR offices. Prof. R.-M. Bonnet was reelected as President of COSPAR and Prof. Ed Stone and Dr. Wim Hermsen were reelected as Vice Presidents. The Bureau members elected were M.-H. Jiang (China); T. Kosugi (Japan); M.E. Machado (Argentina); G.G. Shepherd (Canada); R. Sridharan (India); L. Zelenyi (Russia). COSPAR also presented the 2006 awards and medals in Beijing. COSPAR did not meet during the last quarter of 2006. COSPAR Headquarters has relocated to the French space agency, CNES (Centre National d’Études Spatiales), following the French government’s decision to sell the International Council for Science building where COSPAR was previously located. Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology (U.S. Representative to COSPAR) Pamela L. Whitney, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (Executive Secretary for COSPAR) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board STANDING COMMITTEES COMMITTEE ON ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS The Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (CAA), which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the Board on Physics and Astronomy, did not meet during the first quarter. CAA met May 19-20, 2006, in Washington, D.C. The committee traditionally uses the spring meeting to con- verse with agency officials and policymakers. This year the committee considered the state of the NASA Astrophys- ics Program. In light of the numerous changes at that agency, the committee also conducted an in-depth discussion of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission with project leadership. In addition, CAA continued its discussion about various options for conducting the next astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey. CAA did not meet during the third quarter while planning continued for a January 2007 Town Hall meeting at the American Astronomical Society to gather community input on the upcoming decadal survey for astronomy and astrophysics. In the fourth quarter, at its meeting at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on Novem- ber 28-29, 2006, the committee heard from Robin Staffin, Department of Energy; Wayne Van Citters, NSF; Rick Howard, NASA; and Todd Boroson, National Optical Astronomy Observatories; and others. CAA participated in a joint SSB-BPA-sponsored Decadal Survey Town Hall meeting on January 9, 2007, at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Seattle, Washington, in order to begin a dialogue with the community about the next survey. A historical summary of reports from CAA and related committees is presented in Figure 2.1.

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 A Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1979) Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1982) Institutional Arrangements for the Space Telescope (1976) Institutional Arrangements The Explorer Program for Long-Lived Space Space Science in the Twenty - for the Space Telescope: A Astronomy and Observatories for Astronomy First Century – Astronomy and Mid-Term Review (1985) Astrophysics (1986) and Astrophysics (1987) Astrophysics (1988) The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1991) A Strategy for Ground -Based A Scientific Assessment of Review of Gravity Optical and Infrared a New Technology Orbital Probe B (1995) Astronomy (1995) Telescope (1995) Federal Funding of A New Science Strategy for Space Astronomy Ground-Based Solar Failed Stars and Super Astronomical and Astrophysics (1997) Research (1998) Planets (1998) Research (2000) Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium (2000) U.S. Astronomy and Connecting Quarks with “Review of Science Requirements The Atacama Large Millimeter Astrophysics: Managing an the Cosmos (2002) for the Terrestrial Planet Finder: Array (ALMA): Implications of a Integrated Program (2001) Letter Report” (2004) Potential Descope (2005) “The Review of Progress in Astronomy and The Astrophysical Astrophysics toward the Decadal Vision Context of Life (2005) (The Mid-Course Review)” (2005) FIGURE 2.1 SSB-NRC advice on astronomy and astrophysics (1979–2006). 2-1

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 Board and Standing Committees: Actiities and Membership CAA Membership July 1, 2005–June 30, 2006 July 1, 2006–June 30, 2007 Roger D. Blandford (co-chair), Stanford University Charles L. Bennett (co-chair), Johns Hopkins University C. Megan Urry (co-chair), Yale University C. Megan Urry (co-chair), Yale University Donald Backer, University of California, Berkeley Donald Backer, University of California, Berkeley Michell C. Begelman, University of Colorado, Boulder Michell C. Begelman, University of Colorado, Boulder Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Thomas J. Bogdan, University Corporation for Thomas J. Bogdan, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Atmospheric Research Adam S. Burrows, University of Arizona Adam S. Burrows, University of Arizona Alexei Filippenko, University of California, Berkeley Alexei Filippenko, University of California, Berkeley Timothy M. Heckman, Johns Hopkins University Timothy M. Heckman, Johns Hopkins University Lynne Hillenbrand, California Institute of Technology Lynne Hillenbrand, California Institute of Technology Charles McGruder III, Western Kentucky University Charles McGruder III, Western Kentucky University Stephan S. Meyer, University of Chicago Stephan S. Meyer, University of Chicago Scott D. Tremaine, Princeton University Eve Ostriker, University of Maryland, College Park Jean L. Turner, University of California, Los Angeles Mark J. Reid, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Scott D. Tremaine, Princeton University Jean L. Turner, University of California, Los Angeles Staff Brian D. Dewhurst, Senior Program Associate, Board on Physics and Astronomy Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board COMMITTEE ON EARTH STUDIES The Committee on Earth Studies (CES) continued to stand down as work continued on the decadal survey “Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future.” CES Membership* Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park Carol Anne Clayson, Florida State University Ross N. Hoffman, Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Steven W. Running, University of Montana, Missoula Robert A. Shuchman, Altarum, Inc. Roy W. Spencer, University of Alabama, Huntsville Jan Svejkovsky, Ocean Imaging, Inc. Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ____________________ *All terms ended during 2006. COMMITTEE ON MICROGRAVITY RESEARCH The Committee on Microgravity Research (CMGR) was not active during 2006, except for various tracking and dissemination activities such as providing requested materials and information on prior reports or assistance to related studies by other committees. The committee chair represented the past work and recommendations of CMGR

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6 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 in the recent SSB study on science balance at NASA. NASA withdrew its support for CMGR and the committee was officially disbanded as of August 16, 2006, the end of the SSB’s 5-year contract with NASA. Future studies relevant to this committee’s past work are expected, however, and will be carried out by ad hoc committees as needed. A historical summary of reports from CMGR and related committees is presented in Figure 2.2. CMGR Membership* Dennis W. Readey, Colorado School of Mines (chair) Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ____________________ *Term ended during 2006. COMMITTEE ON THE ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF LIFE The Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (COEL), which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the Board on Life Sciences, held its first meeting of 2006 in a joint session with the ad hoc Committee on the Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars on January 23-25, 2006, in Irvine, California. The committee also conducted a conference call with Carl Pilcher, the official then in charge of astrobiology programs at NASA headquarters, on February 16, 2006. The principal topic of discussion during the call was the status of NASA’s Astrobiology Program in light of the president’s budget proposals for FY 2007. Following the conference call, the committee drafted comments which were forwarded to the Space Studies Board. COEL met at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on May 10, 2006. At the meeting the committee welcomed its new co-chair, Kenneth Nealson, and thanked six members for their service to the commit- tee over the last three years. In addition, the committee was briefed on the status of NASA’s astrobiology programs and, in particular, the current and future activities of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. At its September 13, 2006, meeting at the University of Colorado’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, the committee continued deliberations on the status of NASA’s astrobiology programs and, in particular, the current and future activities of the NASA Astrobiology Institute. In addition, the committee heard a presentation on the status of the exploration of Enceladus by the Cassini spacecraft. The committee did not meet during the last quarter of 2006. A historical summary of reports from COEL and related committees is presented in Figure 2.3.

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 Board and Standing Committees: Actiities and Membership Materials Processing in Space (1978) Space Science in the Twenty-First Microgravity Science and Century: Applications: Report on a Imperatives for the Workshop (1986, Board on Decades 1995 to Physics and Astronomy) 2015. Fundamental Physics and Chemistry (1988) Toward a Microgravity Research Strategy (1992) “On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program” (1994) “On the Utilization of the Space Station” (1994) Microgravity Research Opportunities for the 1990s (1995) “On Archiving An Initial Review of Clarification of Microgravity Microgravity Research in Issues in the Flight Data and Support of Human Exploration Opportunities Samples and Development of Space Report” (1995) (1996) (1997) “On Research Facilities Planning for the International Space Station” (1997) Future Biotechnology Research on the Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human International Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies (2000) Space Station (2000) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and The Mission of Microgravity and Physical Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Sciences Research at NASA (2001) Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2002) for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2002) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2005) FIGURE 2.2 SSB-NRC advice on microgravity research (1978–2006). 2-2

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 Planetary Protection Mars Conference on Hazard of Planetary Contamination Due to Microbiological Contamination in the Interior of Spacecraft Components (1965) Biology and the “Study on the Exploration of Mars (1965) Biological Quarantine of Venus” (1967) “Review of the Extraterrestrial Life—An Sterilization Anthology and Bibliography, Parameter Probability Supplementary to Biology and “Review of Planetary Astrobiology of Growth (Pg)” the Exploration of Mars (1966) Quarantine Policy” (1970) (1972) “On Contamination of the Life Sciences in Space (1970) Outer Planets by Earth Organisms” (1976) Post-Viking Biological “Recommendation on Quarantine Policy for Investigations of Mars (1977) Uranus, Neptune, and Titan” (1976) Origin and Evolution of Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, Life—Implications for the Planets: A Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Titan (1978) Scientific Strategy for the 1980s (1981) “On NASA Policy for Planetary “On Categorization of the The Search for Life’s Strategy for the Protection” (1985) Mars Orbiter Mission” (1985) Origins: Progress and Detection and Study of Future Directions in Other Planetary Planetary Biology and Systems and Extrasolar “Recommendation on “On Categorization Chemical Evolution (1990) Planetary Materials: Planetary Protection of the Comet 1990-2000 (1990) Categorization of the Comet Rendezvous–Aste Biological Contamination Rendezvous-Asteroid Flyby roid Flyby Mission” of Mars: Issues and Mission and the Titan- (1986) Recommendations (1992) Cassini Mission” (1988) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Mars Sample Return: Issues Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) and Recommendations Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned (1997) from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies: Framework for Decision Making (1998) Size Limits of Very Small Microorganisms: Proceedings of a Workshop (1999) Preventing the “On Scientific Forward Assessment of Options Contamination of for the Disposition of the The Quarantine and Certification Europa (2000) Galileo Spacecraft” of Martian Samples (2002) (2000) Signs of Life: A Report Based on the April 2000 Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (2002) Preventing the Forward Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and “Assessment of Planetary Contamination of Mars (2005) International Programs in Astrobiology (2003) Protection Requirements for Venus Missions” (2006) The Astrophysical Context of Life (2005) FIGURE 2.3 SSB-NRC advice on astrobiology and planetary protection (1965–2006). Figure 2.3

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 Board and Standing Committees: Actiities and Membership COEL Membership July 1, 2005–June 30, 2006 July 1, 2006–June 30, 2007 Kenneth H. Nealson (co-chair), University of Southern Kenneth H. Nealson (co-chair), University of Southern California California Bruce M. Jakosky (co-chair), University of Colorado, Bruce M. Jakosky (co-chair), University of Colorado, Boulder Boulder Jan P. Amend, Washington University Jan P. Amend, Washington University Ruth Blake, Yale University Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey (retired) Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey (retired) Harry Y. McSween, Jr., University of Tennessee, Michael Daly, Uniformed Services University of the Knoxville Health Sciences Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto Anthony Keefe, Archemix Corporation Andrew Steele, Carnegie Institution of Washington Martin Keller, Diversa Corporation Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University Harry Y. McSween, Jr., University of Tennessee, Knoxville Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto Janet L. Siefert, Rice University Andrew Steele, Carnegie Institution of Washington Roger Summons, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Meenakshi Wadhwa, The Field Museum of Natural History Neville J. Woolf, University of Arizona Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Robert L. Riemer, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board COMMITTEE ON PLANETARY AND LUNAR EXPLORATION The Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) did not meet during the first quarter in order to allow the ad hoc Committee on the Review of the Next Decade Mars Architecture to convene. COMPLEX did, however, conduct a conference call with Andrew Dantzler, the director of NASA’s Planetary Science Division, on February 21, 2006. The principal topic of discussion of the call was the status of NASA’s solar system exploration missions in light of the president’s budget proposals for fiscal year (FY) 2007. Following the conference call, the committee drafted comments which were forwarded to the Space Studies Board. COMPLEX held its first meeting of the year on June 5-7, 2006, at the National Academy of Sciences’ building in Washington, D.C. The meeting was devoted to NASA solar system programs and the activities of the Lunar Ex- ploration Analysis Group, the Outer Planets Analysis Group, and the Venus Exploration Analysis Group. In addition, the committee discussed future activities related to the planning of a congressionally-mandated review of NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program and the next solar system exploration decadal survey. COMPLEX’s new chair, Joseph F. Veverka, presided over the committee’s final meeting of 2006 at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on December 4-6, 2006. Eight new committee members were present at the meeting. Two other new members were, unfortunately, unable to attend. The principal item on the committee’s agenda was the identification of potential new study projects. One item explored in detail at the meet- ing was the possibility of a study to assess the candidates for future flagship and New Frontiers missions to explore objects in the outer solar system. A historical summary of reports from COMPLEX and related committees is presented in Figure 2.4.

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0 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANETS PRIMITIVE BODIES Lunar Exploration— Strategy for The Outer Solar System: A Research: 1969-1975 (1969) Program for Exploration (1969) Venus: Strategy for Exploration (1970) Outer Planets Exploration: 1972-1985 (1971) “Report of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration,” Section II of Report on Space Science —1975 (1976) Strategy for the Exploration of Strategy for Exploration of the Primitive Solar-System Inner Planets: 1977-1987 (1978) Bodies – Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids: 1980-1990 A Strategy for Exploration (1980) Update to Strategy for of the Outer Planets: Exploration of the Inner 1986-1996 (1986) Planets (1990) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) Assessment of Mars A Science Strategy for the Exploring the Trans- Science and Mission Exploration of Europa (1999) Neptunian Solar Priorities (2001) System (1998) The Quarantine and Certification of Martian The Exploration of Samples (2001) Near-Earth Objects (1998) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (2002) Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion (2005) Assessment of NASA’s Mars Architecture 2007-2016 (2006) FIGURE 2.4 SSB-NRC advice on solar system exploration (1969–2006). Origins of life topics are covered in Figure 2.3. 2-4

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 Board and Standing Committees: Actiities and Membership COMPLEX Membership July 1, 2005–June 30, 2006 July 1, 2006–June 30, 2007 Reta F. Beebe (chair), New Mexico State University Joseph F. Veverka (chair), Cornell University W. Bruce Banerdt, Jet Propulsion Laboratory W. Bruce Banerdt, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Stephen W. Bougher, University of Michigan Penelope J. Boston, New Mexico Institute of Mining and William D. Cochran, University of Texas, Austin Technology Martha S. Gilmore, Wesleyan University Donald E. Brownlee, University of Washington William B. Hubbard, University of Arizona Bonnie Buratti, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Krishan Khurana, University of California, Los Roger N. Clark, U.S. Geological Survey Angeles Michael R. Combi, University of Michigan Louise M. Prockter, Johns Hopkins University, John Grant, Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Applied Physics Laboratory Space Museum Thomas R. Spilker, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Timothy J. McCoy, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History Alfred S. McEwen, University of Arizona Francis Nimmo, University of California, Santa Cruz Louise M. Prockter, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Darrell F. Strobel, Johns Hopkins University Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS The Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) met on February 24-25, 2006, in Washington, D.C. Principal agenda items included a briefing by Richard Fisher from NASA Headquarters on NASA’s FY 2007 budget for helio- physics, discussions of potential new studies, preparation of briefing materials for presentation to the SSB study “An Assessment of Balance in NASA’s Science Programs” and discussions with Fran Bagenal regarding her March 2, 2006, testimony to the House Science Committee on implications of the FY 2007 budget for heliophysics research and the workforce for heliophysics. The committee also developed detailed plans for its next ad hoc study which is anticipated to be a study of the impacts (especially economic) and potential for mitigation of severe space weather events. CSSP did not meet during the second or third quarters. The committee continued developing detailed plans for its next ad hoc study to examine the impacts (especially economic) and potential for mitigation of severe space weather events. In addition, approximately half of the CSSP’s members were members of the ad hoc committee that wrote and revised the report summarizing the proceedings from a October 16-20, 2005, “Solar and Space Physics and the Vision for Space Exploration” workshop that examined the solar and space physics-related issues—espe- cially those related to the radiation environment beyond Earth—that are associated with fulfillment of NASA’s Vision for Space Exploration. The October 11-13, 2006, CSSP meeting at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., focused on NASA, NSF, and NOAA programs and plans. From discussions with NASA officials, the committee learned of several new missions in development with launch dates extending up to about 2013; thereafter, the program plan is less clear. NASA’s Science Mission Directorate—and Heliophysics, in particular—is working aggressively to identify Lunar Science opportunities in the Vision for Space Exploration. The committee also learned that NOAA has particular current concerns about space weather monitoring programs. Steve Mango of the National Polar-orbit- ing Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Integrated Program Office (IPO) described the recent changes to the NPOESS climate and space weather payload elements, which committee members characterized as “devastating.” The committee also discussed plans for a workshop on the social and economic effects of severe space weather events instead of a study, as had previously been planned. A historical summary of reports from CSSP and related committees is presented in Figure 2.5.

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 Solar System Space Physics in the 1980’s: A Research Strategy (1980) An International Discussion on A Strategy for the Explorer Solar-Terrestrial Data Access, The Physics of the Research in Solar and Space Program for Solar and Space Distribution, and Archiving (1984) Sun (1985) Physics (1983) Physics (1984) An Implementation Plan for Priorities in Solar-System Space Physics (1985) Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015Solar and Space Physics (1988) Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics1991 (1991) A Space Physics Paradox (1994) A Science Strategy for Space Physics (1995) Scientific Assessment of NASA’s Space Weather: A An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics Research Perspective NASA’s Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (1997) Mission Selections (1997) (1997) Radiation and the Astronomy and Ground-Based Solar Readiness for the International Space Astrophysics in the Research: An Upcoming Solar Station: New Millennium Assessment and Maximum (1998) Recommendations to (2000) Strategy for the Future Reduce Risk (1999) (1998) The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics (2002) The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: Panel Reports (2003) Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos (2004) Exploration of the Outer Heliosphere and the Local Solar and Space Physics and Its Role in Space Interstellar Medium: A Workshop Report (2004) Exploration (2004) FIGURE 2.5 SSB-NRC advice on solar and space physics (1980–2006). Figure 2.5

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 Board and Standing Committees: Actiities and Membership CSSP Membership July 1, 2005–June 30, 2006 July 1, 2006–June 30, 2007 Daniel N. Baker (chair), University of Colorado, Daniel N. Baker (chair), University of Colorado, Boulder Boulder Claudia J. Alexander, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Joseph F. Fennell, The Aerospace Corporation Anthony Chan, Rice University Jack R. Jokipii, University of Arizona Andrew F. Cheng, Johns Hopkins University Krishan Khurana, University of California, Los Angeles John C. Foster, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Paul M. Kintner, Cornell University Jack R. Jokipii, University of Arizona William S. Lewis, Southwest Research Institute Paul M. Kintner, Cornell University Dana W. Longcope, Montana State University William S. Lewis, Southwest Research Institute Kristina A. Lynch, Dartmouth College Dana W. Longcope, Montana State University Richard A. Mewaldt, California Institute of Technology Gang Lu, National Center for Atmospheric Research Howard J. Singer, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Barry H. Mauk, John Hopkins University Administration Howard J. Singer, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Leonard Strachan, Jr., Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Administration Astrophysics Leonard Strachan, Jr., Harvard-Smithsonian Center Niescja Turner, Florida Institute of Technology for Astrophysics Ronald E. Turner, ANSER Corporation Niescja Turner, Florida Institute of Technology Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board COMMITTEE ON SPACE BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE The Committee on Space Biology and Medicine (CSBM) was not active during 2006, except for various tracking and dissemination activities such as providing requested materials and information (often to NASA and congressional staff) on prior studies, or assistance to related studies by other committees. The committee chair represented the past work and recommendations of CSBM in the recent SSB study on science balance at NASA. NASA withdrew its support for CSBM and the committee was officially disbanded as of August 16, 2006, the end of the SSB’s 5-year contract with NASA. Future studies relevant to this committee’s past work are expected, however, and will be carried out by ad hoc committees as needed. A historical summary of reports from CSBM and related committees is presented in Figure 2.6. CSBM Membership* Donald E. Ingber, Harvard Medical School (chair) Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ____________________ *Term ended during 2006.

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—006 SPACE BIOLOGY HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT STUDIES Science in Space: Biological Science and Space Research (1960) Report on NASA Biology Program (1968) Physiology in the Space Radiobiological Factors in Environment , Vol. 1 and 2 Manned Spaceflight (1967) Space Biology (1970) (1968) Radiation Protection Infectious Disease Life Sciences in Space: Report Guides and in Manned of the Study to Review NASA Constraints for Spaceflight: Life Sciences Programs (1970) Space-Mission and Probabilities and Vehicle-Design Countermeasures Studies Involving (1970) Priorities for Space Research: Nuclear Missions 1971-1980 (1971) (1970) HZE-Particle Effects in Manned Scientific Uses of the Life Beyond the Earth’s Spaceflight (1973) Space Shuttle (1974) Environment (1979) A Strategy for Space Biology and Medical Science for the 1980s and 1990s (1987) “On the Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Life Sciences (1988) Extended Duration Orbiter Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine1991 Medical (1991) Research “On Several Issues in the Program” (1989) Space Life Sciences” (1993) “On Continued Operation of the BEVALAC Facility” (1992) “On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program” (1994) Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues “On the Planned and Research Strategies (1996) “On Peer Review in National Space NASA Life Sciences Biomedical Programs” (1995) Research Institute” (1996) A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century (1998) Review of NASA’s Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Biomedical Research Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Program (2000) Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2002) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2005) FIGURE 2.6 SSB-NRC advice on space biology and medicine (1960–2006). Figure 2.6