• How to develop sensitive outcome measures of exercise over inactivity at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and functional levels to show positive effects of exercise?

  • How to develop experimental models for use by the human population?

  • Given that physical activity is an inexpensive treatment that could have substantial preventive and restorative benefits for cognitive and brain function, how can such interventions be studied and how can they be implemented on a population-based scale?

  • How will technology (e.g., novel equipment, improved environment) facilitate and motivate people to exercise on a regular basis? Specifics should include how technological innovation will make exercise more attractive and compelling for cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems improvement (e.g., aerobic and resistance exercise).

  • How can we change community design in rural, suburban, and urban settings to facilitate and encourage as well as promote exercise in younger and older populations? What are the recommended strategies for such enhancement?

Initial References

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Buckwalter, J. A., V. M. Goldberg, and S. L-Y Woo (eds.). 1993. Musculoskeletal tissue aging: Impact on mobility. Chicago, Ill: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons.

Hardy, S. E., and T. M. Gill. 2005. Factors associated with recovery of independence among newly disabled older persons. Archives of Internal Medicine 165(1):106-112.

Judge, J. O., C. Lindsey, M. Underwood, and D. Winsemius. 1993. Balance improvements in older women: Effects of exercise training. Physical Therapy 73(4):254-262.

Kramer, A. F., S. J. Colcombe, E. McAuley, P. E. Scalf, and K. I. Erickson. 2005. Fitness, aging and neurocognitive function. Neurobiology of Aging 26(suppl. 1):124-127.

Littbrand, H., E. Rosendahl, N. Lindelöf, L. Lundin-Olsson, Y. Gustafson, and L. Nyberg. 2006. A high intensity functional weight-bearing exercise program for older people dependent in activities of daily living and living in residential care facilities: Evaluation of the applicability with focus on cognitive function. Physical Therapy 86(4):489-498.

Mangione, K. K., and K. M. Palombaro. 2005. Exercise prescription for a patient 3 months after hip fracture. Physical Therapy 85(7):676-687.

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