of precision. He indicated that accuracy is needed, but asked how much precision is needed, suggesting an inordinate number of decimal places were used during the development of DRI requirements.

Dr. Miller expressed his concern about the possibility of marginalizing the research that should be at the beginning steps of DRI activities. Although the research needed is often identified as clinical in nature, Dr. Miller countered that the importance of basic biological research cannot be overstated. Such studies outline the physiology involved, and offer a direction for focused human research. He underscored that animal data are not used to extrapolate values for humans, but rather provide information for designing the needed human clinical trials.

Finally, Dr. Miller remarked on the considerable number of crosscutting issues, the advances that have been made, and the back-and-forth between seeking the advances and returning to basics. He highlighted the importance of “finally beginning to understand the process” and closed by remarking that 14 years ago, this meeting could not have taken place—it is not that the questions have changed, but how we are asking the questions has changed.



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