and connected to move the results of surveillance, research, and intervention to the appropriate target populations at risk, whether employees or employers. The logic submodel (Figure 8-1) identifies inputs, activities, outputs, and intermediate and end outcomes.

INPUTS

On the basis of the materials in the evidence package, the committee concluded that about 17 percent of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) budget was devoted to Goal 5 over the period 1997-2006. That translates to about $800,000 per year for the intramural programs and $2.1 million per year for the extramural programs. The work involved about six full-time equivalents (FTEs) at NIOSH per year. The committee was unable to break out the funding or FTEs associated with Goal 5 at the NIOSH Centers for Agricultural Disease and Injury Research, Education, and Prevention (Ag Centers) but summarizes here the activities, outputs, and outcomes from the evidence package.

Planning inputs included the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA, 2000), the National Coalition on Occupational Safety and Health (NCASH) report, and congressional directives. Many of the conferences, workshops, and symposia cited in Chapter 10 may also have helped to set priorities for this goal and other AFF efforts, but they are not so referenced. The logic model starts with the identification of the problems, knowledge gaps, and documentation of areas of severe or significant mortality, morbidity, and injuries. NIOSH identifies them in the opening chapters of the evidence package, but the evidence package often does not connect the materials to the goal of knowledge diffusion and technology transfer.

The second input required is a planning and priority-setting process communicated to NIOSH through the NORA process or from stakeholders. This process is currently underway.

The third stage is the application of priorities to intramural or extramural research through requests for proposals and principal-investigator initiatives. Surveillance projects and research conducted at this stage are expected to provide results for dissemination and improved processes, equipment, personal protective gear, and behavioral changes. The mechanisms for improvement include identifiable actions and proposed solutions, but these still need implementation through engineering, behavioral, or regulatory actions. The engineering solutions require diffusion of knowledge and implementation at the level of the manufacturer or employer and occasionally the worker. Behavioral changes require a mechanism for knowledge diffusion and attitude, motivational, and behavioral changes in practices associated with the workplace. Regulatory changes require a process to pass laws, write regulations or rules associated with the workplace, and have them



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