External factors actions or forces beyond NIOSH’s control (for example, by industry, labor, regulators, and other entities) with important bearing on the incorporation in the workplace of NIOSH’s outputs to enhance safety and health.

Extramural research research supported by funds from NIOSH to researchers and organizations outside NIOSH through a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement.

Health effects research research that investigates physical, chemical, and biologic hazards (injuries and exposures, illness, and death).

Hired farm worker persons that are paid to perform duties on a farm. Farmworker adjective used to describe a noun, such as “farmworker health” or “farmworker families.”

Farm worker any person (self-employed, unpaid, or paid) that performs tasks on a farm.

Industrial hygiene the science of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and controlling workplace conditions that may cause workers’ injury or illness.

Intermediate outcomes related to the research program’s association with behaviors and changes at individual, group, and organization levels in the workplace. An assessment of the worth of NIOSH research and its products by outside stakeholders (for example, production of standards or regulations based in whole or in part on NIOSH research; attendance in training and education programs sponsored by other organizations; use of publications, technologies, methods, or recommendations by workers, industry, and occupational safety and health professionals in the field; and citations of NIOSH research by industry and academic scientists).

Intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) a systematic change in conditions to determine the effects on a physical capacity, skill, or performance.

Intramural research research within NIOSH.

Knowledge diffusion the adaptation of knowledge in a broad range of scientific and engineering research and development.

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