TABLE 4.11 Estimates of Energy Savings from Major Energy Efficiency Policies and Programs

Policy or Program

Electricity Savings (TWh/yr)

Primary Energy Savings (Quads/yr)

Year

Source

CAFE vehicle efficiency standards

4.80

2006

NRC, 2002a

Appliance efficiency standards

196

2.58

2006

Nadel et al., 2006b

PURPA and other CHP initiatives

1.62

2006

Shipley et al., 2008c

ENERGY STAR® labeling and promotion

132

1.52

2006

EPA, 2007bd

Building energy codes

1.08

2006

Nadel, 2004e

Utility and state end-use efficiency programs

90

1.06

2006

York and Kushler, 2006f

DOE industrial efficiency programs

0.40

2005

DOE, 2007b

Weatherization assistance program

0.14

2006

DOE, 2006dg

Federal energy management program

0.11

2005

FEMP, 2006h

Total

13.31

Note: Estimates are based on the sources shown, augmented or modified as indicated.

aExtrapolation to 2006 of fuel savings estimated by NRC (2002), and assuming that 75 percent of the energy savings from vehicle efficiency improvements are due to the CAFE standards.

bExtrapolates between savings estimates by ACEEE for 2000 and 2010.

cAssumes that 85 percent of the energy savings from all CHP systems installed in 2006 was due to PURPA and other policy initiatives.

dAssumes 75 percent of energy savings estimated by U.S. EPA in order to avoid double counting savings with utility and state programs.

eIncreases energy savings estimate for new buildings constructed during 1990–1999 from Nadel (2004) by 100 percent to account for the impact of codes prior to 1990 and post–1999.

fExtrapolates 2004 national electricity savings estimate to 2006 based on national DSM budget estimates for 2005 and 2006.

gAssumes 5.6 million weatherized households and average energy savings of 25 million Btu/yr per household, from Berry and Schweitzer (2003).

hBased on the reported reduction in energy use per square foot of floor area during 1985–2005 and actual primary energy use in federal buildings as of 2005 (i.e., excluding energy use by transport vehicles and equipment).

Experience in California and New York

This section describes the experience of two large states that have put many energy efficiency programs in place, predominantly for electricity, and have collected extensive data on the results. Both states have achieved electricity consumption per capita that is about 40 percent below the national average. Figure 4.8 illustrates electricity use per capita from 1960 to 2006 in California, New York, and the United States as a whole.



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