FIGURE 5.4 Cost of alternative liquid fuels produced from coal, biomass, or coal and biomass with no carbon price.

FIGURE 5.4 Cost of alternative liquid fuels produced from coal, biomass, or coal and biomass with no carbon price.

Note: BTL = biomass-to-liquid fuel; CBFT = coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel, Fischer-Tropsch; CBMTG = coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel, methanol-to-gasoline; CCS = carbon capture and storage; CFT = coal-to-liquid fuel, Fischer-Tropsch; CMTG = coal-to-liquid fuel, methanol-to-gasoline.

life-cycle basis. With CCS, the life-cycle CO2 emissions from FT and MTG are about the same as those from petroleum gasoline.

The biochemical conversion of biomass produces fuels that are more expensive than coal-to-liquid fuels because the conversion plants are small and the feedstock is more expensive—biomass costs almost four times as much as coal on an energy-equivalent basis. The production cost of cellulosic ethanol is around $115/bbl on a gasoline-equivalent basis. The cost of thermochemical conversion of biomass, without coal, is higher than the cost of cellulosic ethanol on an energy-equivalent basis and with geologic storage has the potential for large negative net releases of CO2; that is, the process involves a net removal of CO2 from the atmosphere. For biomass-to-liquid and venting of CO2, the estimated fuel cost is $140/bbl if electricity is sold back to the grid at $80/MWh; with geologic storage of CO2, it is $150/bbl if electricity is sold back to the grid at $80/MWh. The



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