FIGURE 5.5 Estimated total carbon dioxide emissions over the life cycle of alternative fuels productionfrom the mining and harvesting of resources to the conversion to and consumption of fuels.

FIGURE 5.5 Estimated total carbon dioxide emissions over the life cycle of alternative fuels production—from the mining and harvesting of resources to the conversion to and consumption of fuels.

Note: BTL = biomass-to-liquid fuel; CBFT = coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel, Fischer-Tropsch; CBMTG = coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel, methanol-to-gasoline; CCS = carbon capture and storage; CFT = coal-to-liquid fuel, Fischer-Tropsch; CMTG = coal-to-liquid fuel, methanol-to-gasoline.

Inclusion of a carbon price does not increase the total costs of all thermochemical pathways. For example, thermochemical conversion of biomass costs about $150/bbl of gasoline equivalent with CCS, but with the carbon price and CCS, the produced fuels become competitive with petroleum-based fuels at about $115/bbl of gasoline equivalent ($100/bbl of crude oil equivalent). In general, if a pathway takes more CO2 from the atmosphere than it releases in other parts of its



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