FIGURE 5.5 Estimated total carbon dioxide emissions over the life cycle of alternative fuels production—from the mining and harvesting of resources to the conversion to and consumption of fuels.
Note: BTL = biomass-to-liquid fuel; CBFT = coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel, Fischer-Tropsch; CBMTG = coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel, methanol-to-gasoline; CCS = carbon capture and storage; CFT = coal-to-liquid fuel, Fischer-Tropsch; CMTG = coal-to-liquid fuel, methanol-to-gasoline.
Inclusion of a carbon price does not increase the total costs of all thermochemical pathways. For example, thermochemical conversion of biomass costs about $150/bbl of gasoline equivalent with CCS, but with the carbon price and CCS, the produced fuels become competitive with petroleum-based fuels at about $115/bbl of gasoline equivalent ($100/bbl of crude oil equivalent). In general, if a pathway takes more CO2 from the atmosphere than it releases in other parts of its