and backup power resources, and deployment of technologies that improve grid intelligence and provide greater system flexibility. Further, supplying renewable resources on a scale that would make a major contribution to U.S. electricity generation would require vast investment in and deployment of manufacturing and human resources, as well as additional capital costs relative to those associated with current generating technologies that have no controls on greenhouse gas emissions. The realization of such a future would require a predictable policy environment and sufficient financial resources. Nevertheless, the promise of renewable resources is that they offer significant potential for low-carbon generation of electricity from domestic sources of energy that are much less vulnerable to fuel cost increases than are other electricity sources. Overall success thus depends on having technology, capital, and policy working together to enable renewable-electricity technologies to become a major contributor to America’s energy future.

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