FIGURE 7.A.3 Assessment of the estimated time to deployment of various carbon-capture technologies.

FIGURE 7.A.3 Assessment of the estimated time to deployment of various carbon-capture technologies.

Note: CAR = ceramic autothermal recovery; ITM = ion transport membrane; MOF = metal organic framework; OTM = oxygen transport membrane; PBI = poly[2,2’-(m-phenylene)-5,5’-bibenzimidazole].

Source: Bauer, 2008.

by 2025. For integrated gasification combined-cycle plants, improved gasifiers, precombustion gas-separation technologies, hydrogen turbine developments, and chilled ammonia methods of carbon capture could enable IGCC plants with CCS to be demonstrated by 2025. Integrated gasification fuel-cell plants, which could improve efficiency over gas turbines, could be demonstrated by about 2030. Finally, CCS could be fully demonstrated by about 2020, but three to five large-scale demonstration plants would be necessary to give vendors, investors, and private industry the confidence that the advanced technologies can be built and operated under normal commercial terms and conditions. While these specific



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