goals and metrics. A set of technologies that could be integrated as part of a modern grid is shown in Figure 9.8 and discussed in the following section.
Many of the technologies needed for a modern T&D system already exist, and some, to a limited extent, are already deployed in parts of the T&D systems. However, many technologies will need to be deployed in a systematic and integrated way to realize maximum benefits from a modernized T&D system. These technologies can be roughly divided into three categories: (1) advanced equipment and components; (2) measurements, communications, and controls; and