from science policy to research and development, since she joined the National Academies in 2002. Dr. Tang’s areas of expertise include ecology, genomics, and biofuels. Among her recently completed projects are the studies Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass (2009), Achievements of the National Plant Genome Initiative and New Horizons in Plant Biology (2008), Protecting Building Occupants and Operations from Biological and Chemical Airborne Threats (2007), and Status of Pollinators in North America (2007). Dr. Tang received a B.Sc. from the University of Ottawa, an M.Sc. from McGill University, and a Ph.D. from Laval University, Canada. Her doctoral dissertation focused on the ecophysiology of cyanobacteria and the use of cyanobacteria in tertiary wastewater-treatment systems. After completion of her doctorate, she received postdoctoral fellowships from the Smithsonian Institution, the National Research Council Canada, and the Quebec Ministry of Education.

MADELINE G. WOODRUFF, a senior program officer at the National Research Council’s Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, is responsible for the AEF Panel on Energy Efficiency Technologies. Prior to joining the NRC she spent 8 years as a senior analyst and project manager at the International Energy Agency in Paris, France, focusing on evaluation of energy technology R&D policy and programs, both domestic and international, and assessment of the potential for energy technology to contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Earlier, Ms. Woodruff was a senior analyst at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, where she managed or contributed to projects on nuclear energy regulatory policy, storage of plutonium recovered from retired nuclear weapons, regulation of mixed radioactive and chemical wastes, industrial energy efficiency, and energy technology R&D. Ms. Woodruff received an M.S. in nuclear engineering and an M.S. in technology and policy from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she was a National Academy of Sciences Graduate Fellow.

JAMES J. ZUCCHETTO is director of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems, National Research Council. Since joining the NRC in 1985, Dr. Zucchetto has been involved in a variety of multidisciplinary studies related to energy technologies, engineering, the environment, research and development programs, and public policy. In his work at the NRC, he has contributed to numerous studies and reports with an important influence on federal programs and policies, including on technologies for improving the fuel economy of light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles and for producing liquid fuels from a variety of fossil and nonfossil resources; hydrogen production; fuel-cell vehicles; and electricity generation,

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