E
Select Acronyms and Abbreviations

3D three-dimensional

AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science

ABWR advanced boiling water reactor

AC alternating current

ACA Australian Coal Association

ACEEE American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy

AECL Atomic Energy Canada Ltd.

AEF America’s Energy Future

AEO Annual Energy Outlook

AEP American Electric Power Corporation

AESO Alberta Electric System Operator

AFCI Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative

AFDC allowance for funds used during construction

AFV alternative fuel vehicle

AHAM Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers

AHTR advanced high temperature reactor

ANWR-1002 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002

AISI American Iron and Steel Institute

ALA American Lung Association

Am americium

APS American Physical Society

APWR advanced pressurized water reactor

ARRA American Recovery and Reinvestment Act



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E Select Acronyms and Abbreviations 3D three-dimensional AAAS American Association for the Advancement of Science ABWR advanced boiling water reactor AC alternating current ACA Australian Coal Association ACEEE American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy AECL Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. AEF America’s Energy Future AEO Annual Energy Outlook AEP American Electric Power Corporation AESO Alberta Electric System Operator AFCI Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative AFDC allowance for funds used during construction AFV alternative fuel vehicle AHAM Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers AHTR advanced high temperature reactor ANWR-1002 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 AISI American Iron and Steel Institute ALA American Lung Association Am americium APS American Physical Society APWR advanced pressurized water reactor ARRA American Recovery and Reinvestment Act 673

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674 America’s Energy Future ASES American Solar Energy Society ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air- Conditioning Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASP alkaline surfactant polymer AWEA American Wind Energy Association bbl barrel bbl/d barrel(s) per day BCG Boston Consulting Group BEV battery-electric vehicle BLM U.S. Bureau of Land Management BOF basic oxygen furnace BOP balance of plant BTP biomass-to-power BTL biomass-to-liquid Btu British thermal unit BWR boiling water reactor C Celsius CAES compressed air energy storage CAFE corporate average fuel economy CAIDI Customer Average Interruption Duration Index CAIR Clean Air Interstate Rule CANDU PHWR Canada deuterium uranium pressurized heavy water reactor Caps capacitor CAR ceramic autothermal recovery CAREM advanced small nuclear power plant CBTL coal-and-biomass-to-liquid CBTP coal-and-biomass-to-power CBFT coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel, Fischer-Tropsch CBMTG coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel, methanol-to-gasoline CCE cost of conserved energy CCS carbon capture and storage CDF core damage frequency CEC California Energy Commission CECA Consumer Energy Council of America

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675 Appendix E CEF Clean Energy Future, Scenarios for a (study) CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act CEO chief executive officer Cf californium CFC chlorofluorocarbons CFL compact fluorescent light CFR Code of Federal Regulations CFT coal-to-liquid fuel, Fischer-Tropsch methane CH4 CHP combined heat and power CI compression-ignition Cm curium CMTG coal-to-liquid fuel, methanol-to-gasoline CNG compressed natural gas CO carbon monoxide carbon dioxide CO2 CO2 eq carbon dioxide equivalent COL construction and operating license CRP Conservation Reserve Program Cs cesium CSP concentrating solar power CTL coal-to-liquid fuel CVT continuously variable transmission CWIP construction work in progress CZMA Coastal Zone Management Act DBT Design Basis Threat DC direct current DI&C digital instrumentation and control DME dimethyl ether DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DOE U.S. Department of Energy DSM demand-side management EAF electric-arc furnace ECBM enhanced coal bed methane

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676 America’s Energy Future EEB Energy Engineering Board EEI Edison Electric Institute EERE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy EGR enhanced gas recovery EGS enhanced geothermal system EHV extra-high-voltage EIA Energy Information Administration EIO economic input/output EIS environmental impact statement EISA Energy Independence and Security Act EOR enhanced oil recovery EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPAct05 Energy Policy Act of 2005 EPR European pressurized water reactor EPRI Electric Power Research Institute EPRI-TAG Electric Power Research Institute—Technical Assessment Guide ERCOT Electric Reliability Council of Texas ESBWR economic simplified boiling-water reactor EU European Union EWEA European Wind Energy Association EWIS European Wind Integration Study F Fahrenheit FACTS Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System FCV fuel-cell vehicle FEMP Federal Energy Management Program FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFB Federal Financing Bank FT Fischer-Tropsch FTBR fast thorium breeder reactor FY fiscal year g gram GaAs gallium arsenide GAO United States Government Accountability Office GCR gas-cooled reactor GDP gross domestic product

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677 Appendix E GE General Electric GHG greenhouse gas GIF Generation IV International Forum GJ gigajoule GNEP Global Nuclear Energy Partnership GPS global positioning system GREET Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (model) GT gas turbine Gt gigatonne GTL gas-to-liquid GW gigawatt gigawatt-electric GWe GWh gigawatt-hour h hour H2 hydrogen H2O water H2S hydrogen sulfide HEV hybrid-electric vehicle HFCV hydrogen fuel-cell vehicle Hg mercury HHV higher heating value HLW high-level waste HV high voltage HVDC high-voltage direct current Hz hertz IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency ICE internal-combustion engine IDST improved decision-support technology IEA International Energy Agency IED intelligent electronic device IGCC integrated gasification combined cycle IMF inert matrix fuel INL Idaho National Laboratory INVAP Investigaciones Aplicadas Sociedad del Estado

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678 America’s Energy Future IOU investor-owned utility IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPP independent power producer IRGC International Risk Governance Council IRR internal rates of return IPST Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology ISFSI independent spent fuel storage installation ISL in situ leach ISO independent system operator ITER International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor ITM ion transport membrane ITS Intelligent Transportation Society IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists J joule JCSP Joint Coordinated System Plan KAERI Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute kg kilogram km kilometer kV kilovolt kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt-hour LAN local area network LBNL Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LCA life-cycle analysis LCCR levelized capital charge rate LCOE levelized cost of electricity LDV light-duty vehicle LED light-emitting diode LES Louisiana Energy Services Limited Partnership LFR lead-cooled fast reactor Li-ion lithium ion LLC limited liability corporation LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

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679 Appendix E LLW low-level waste LNG liquefied natural gas low-E low-emissivity LPG liquefied petroleum gas LWR light-water reactor m3 cubic meter MECS Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey MISO Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology MMS United States Minerals Management Service MOGD methanol-to-olefins, gasoline, and diesel MOF metal organic framework MOX mixed-oxide MSR molten salt reactor MTG methanol-to-gasoline MTU metric tons of uranium MW megawatt MWd megawatt-day MWh megawatt-hour megawatt-electric MWe MWt megawatt-thermal NAS National Academy of Sciences NaS sodium-sulfur NAE National Academy of Engineering NBI New Buildings Institute NDE nondestructive examination NEAC U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee NEI Nuclear Energy Institute NEMS National Energy Modeling System NERAC U.S. Department of Energy Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee NERC North American Electric Reliability Corporation NETL National Energy Technology Laboratory NGCC natural gas combined cycle NGNP Next Generation Nuclear Plant

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680 America’s Energy Future NGV natural gas vehicle NiCd nickel-cadmium NiMH nickel-metal hydride NIOSH National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration nitrogen oxides NOx Np neptunium NPC National Petroleum Council NPRA National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska NPV net present value NRC National Research Council NRDC National Resources Defense Council NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory NSB National Science Board NSPS National Source Performance Standards NSR National Source Review oxygen O2 OCRM Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management OCS outer continental shelf OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD–NEA Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development– Nuclear Energy Agency O&M operation and maintenance OMB U.S. Office of Management and Budget OPEC Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration OTA Office of Technology Assessment OTM oxygen transport membrane PBMR pebble-bed modular reactor PC pulverized coal PEI Princeton Environmental Institute PGC Potential Gas Committee PHEV plug-in hybrid vehicle PMU phasor measurement unit

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681 Appendix E PNNL Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PRA probabilistic risk assessment PSEG Public Service Enterprise Group PTC Federal Renewable Electricity Production Tax Credit Pu plutonium PUC public utility commission PUREX plutonium and uranium extraction PURPA Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act PV photovoltaic PWR pressurized water reactor quads quadrillion Btu RAND Research and Development Corporation RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act R&D research and development RD&D research, development, and demonstration RFF Resources for the Future RFS Renewable Fuel Standard RNA ribonucleic acid RPS renewables portfolio standard RTO regional transmission operator RTU remote terminal unit SAGD steam assisted gravity drainage SAIDI System Average Interruption Duration Index SAIFI System Average Interruption Frequency Index SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition SCWR supercritical water reactor SEIA Solar Energy Industries Association SERI Solar Energy Research Institute SES superconducting energy storage SFR sodium-cooled fast reactor SGI Synthetic Genomics, Inc. Shell Shell Frontier Oil and Gas, Inc. SHGC solar heat-gain coefficient SI spark-ignition

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682 America’s Energy Future SiC silicon carbide SMART system integrated modular advanced reactor SMCRA Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act SMES superconducting magnetic energy storage SNF spent nuclear fuel SNG synthetic natural gas sulfur dioxide SO2 SO3 sulfur trioxide SOx sulfur oxides S&P Standard and Poor’s SPE Society of Petroleum Engineers SPP Southwest Power Pool SPS special protection schemes Sr strontium SSTAR small, sealed, transportable autonomous reactor STATCOM static shunt compensator SVC static volt-amperes reactive compensator SWU separative work units synfuel synthetic transportation fuel t tonne Tc technetium TCE total cash expended Tcf trillion cubic feet TCSC thyristor-controlled series capacitor T&D transmission and distribution Th thorium thorium oxide ThO2 TLR transmission loading relief TOU time-of-use TPC total plant cost TPI total plant investment TCR total capital requirement TRB Transportation Research Board TRU transuranic elements TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act TVA Tennessee Valley Authority

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683 Appendix E TWh terawatt-hour U uranium U3O8 triuranium octoxide UCS Union of Concerned Scientists UF6 uranium hexafluoride UPS uninterruptible power supplies UREX uranium extraction USABC U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium USEC U.S. Enrichment Corporation, Inc. USEPR U.S. evoluiontary power reactor USGS U.S. Geological Survey USNRC U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission USPC ultrasupercritical pulverized coal U-value heat-transfer coefficient UWIG Utility Wind Integration Group V carbon dioxide vented VAR volt-amperes reactive VFT variable frequency transformer VHTR very-high-temperature reactor VRB vanadium redox battery VRI vehicle-to-refueling-station index W watt WRI World Resources Institute WGA Western Governors’ Association Wh watt-hour WinDS Wind Development System ZEBRA battery sodium nickel chloride battery ZnBr zinc-bromine

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