Index

A

Acetone-butanol-ethanol process, 253

ActaCell, 163

Advanced materials, 29, 74, 87, 184, 190, 281, 282, 513, 581

Air-quality standards, 88

Air transportation

air-traffic management, 157

consumption of energy, 157, 167

demand, 170

energy efficiency improvements, 45, 167, 170

freight, 86, 170

passenger, 86 n.8, 167, 170

Algal biodiesel, 75, 89, 252-253

Alkanes, 221, 225, 252

All Cell Technologies, 163

Altair Nanotechnologies, 163

Alternative transportation fuels.

See also Biofuels;

Cellulosic ethanol;

Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels;

Coal-to-liquid fuels;

Corn ethanol;

Light-duty vehicles

barriers to deployment, 93-94, 250-252

biochemical conversion, 67, 90-91, 93, 219, 220-225, 234, 235-236, 237, 238, 241-242, 243, 244-245, 247, 248-249, 251, 252, 253, 256-258

carbon capture and storage, 4, 5, 64, 65, 66, 72, 73, 78, 94, 212, 220, 224-225, 226, 227, 228, 229-230, 231-233, 236, 237-238, 239, 250-251

carbon price, 38 n.1, 93, 234, 237, 238, 239-240, 244, 252, 371, 406

CO2 emissions, 4, 62, 71-73, 222, 224-225, 227-228, 232, 233-239, 243-244, 248-249, 262

coal liquefaction, 91, 211-212, 220-221, 226, 227, 230-232, 261, 335

compressed natural gas, 94, 258, 259-261

conversion technologies, 90-92, 219-233;

see also Biochemical;

Thermochemical

costs, 66-67, 92-93, 233-244, 252, 265-266

deployment scenarios, 93-94, 244-248, 252-267

dimethyl ether, 94, 258, 262-263

environmental impacts (non-greenhouse), 212, 248-249

feedstock supply, 213-219, 233-234, 235, 236, 241-244

findings, 3-4, 62-67, 73, 217-218, 224-225, 231-233, 243-244, 246-248

hydrogen, 4, 5, 6, 30, 44, 45, 67, 73, 74, 75, 84, 85, 94, 158, 160, 161, 164, 165, 166, 173, 174, 195, 258, 263-267

infrastructure for distribution, 90, 93, 221, 223, 224, 226, 251-252, 253, 254, 256, 259, 260, 263

methanol, 72, 94, 226, 258-259, 262

panel report, 31, 81

petroleum substitution potential, 73, 212, 245, 265-267

public policies and, 252, 264-265

RD&D, 74-75, 221, 247, 255, 265, 267



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Index A carbon price, 38 n.1, 93, 234, 237, 238, 239-240, 244, 252, 371, 406 CO2 emissions, 4, 62, 71-73, 222, 224-225, 227- Acetone-butanol-ethanol process, 253 228, 232, 233-239, 243-244, 248-249, 262 ActaCell, 163 coal liquefaction, 91, 211-212, 220-221, 226, 227, Advanced materials, 29, 74, 87, 184, 190, 281, 282, 230-232, 261, 335 513, 581 compressed natural gas, 94, 258, 259-261 Air-quality standards, 88 conversion technologies, 90-92, 219-233; see also Air transportation Biochemical; Thermochemical air-traffic management, 157 costs, 66-67, 92-93, 233-244, 252, 265-266 consumption of energy, 157, 167 deployment scenarios, 93-94, 244-248, 252-267 demand, 170 dimethyl ether, 94, 258, 262-263 energy efficiency improvements, 45, 167, 170 environmental impacts (non-greenhouse), 212, freight, 86, 170 248-249 passenger, 86 n.8, 167, 170 feedstock supply, 213-219, 233-234, 235, 236, Algal biodiesel, 75, 89, 252-253 241-244 Alkanes, 221, 225, 252 findings, 3-4, 62-67, 73, 217-218, 224-225, 231- All Cell Technologies, 163 233, 243-244, 246-248 Altair Nanotechnologies, 163 hydrogen, 4, 5, 6, 30, 44, 45, 67, 73, 74, 75, 84, Alternative transportation fuels. See also Biofuels; 85, 94, 158, 160, 161, 164, 165, 166, 173, 174, Cellulosic ethanol; Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid 195, 258, 263-267 fuels; Coal-to-liquid fuels; Corn ethanol; Light- infrastructure for distribution, 90, 93, 221, 223, duty vehicles 224, 226, 251-252, 253, 254, 256, 259, 260, barriers to deployment, 93-94, 250-252 263 biochemical conversion, 67, 90-91, 93, 219, methanol, 72, 94, 226, 258-259, 262 220-225, 234, 235-236, 237, 238, 241-242, panel report, 31, 81 243, 244-245, 247, 248-249, 251, 252, 253, petroleum substitution potential, 73, 212, 245, 256-258 265-267 carbon capture and storage, 4, 5, 64, 65, 66, 72, public policies and, 252, 264-265 73, 78, 94, 212, 220, 224-225, 226, 227, 228, RD&D, 74-75, 221, 247, 255, 265, 267 229-230, 231-233, 236, 237-238, 239, 250-251 685

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686 Index B supply, 233-234, 235, 236, 241-244 synthetic (GTL) diesel fuel, 94, 223, 258, 261, 263 Battery technologies technologies ready beyond 2020, 252-258 costs, 85, 163, 168, 582, 625 technologies ready beyond 2020 and 2035, deployment timeframe, 116, 163, 626 258-267 industry alliances and partnerships, 163 Aluminum industry, 175, 176, 179, 190, 185, 312 for LDVs, 4, 5, 6, 76, 85, 159, 160, 162-163, 174, American Electric Power, 100, 314, 573, 602, 603, 263-264 625 lead-acid, 162, 582, 627 American Iron and Steel Institute, 87, 182 lithium ion, 162-163, 625, 627 American Lung Association, 404 nickel cadmium, 627 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, 272, 273, nickel metal hydride, 625, 627 274 performance capabilities, 85, 159, 163, 165 American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- R&D opportunities, 6, 30, 76, 79, 85, 625-626 Conditioning Engineers, 152 n.12, 194 reliability issues, 582, 625 American Wind Energy Association, 272, 310 size/weight considerations, 159, 160 Ammonia, 249, 401, 402, 422, 423, 431, 432, 434- sodium-sulfur, 582, 625, 627 435, 512 status of, 162 Anaerobic digestion, 253, 283 for T&D system storage, 6, 51, 61, 78, 291, 307, Appliances and electronics 309, 582, 584, 601, 616, 634, 625-626, 627 availability, 153 vanadium redox, 625, 627 biomass-fueled, 322 ZEBRA, 627 consumer-targeted programs, 200 zinc bromide, 625, 627 demand for, 137 Behavior. See Consumer behavior energy-efficiency standards, 154 n.13, 192, 193- Biobutanol, 89, 213, 220, 221, 253-254 194, 197, 198, 200 Biochemical conversion of fuel energy savings, 41, 193-194 air emissions, 248-249 improvements in, 142 biobutanol, 253 information availability, 87-88 carbon capture and storage, 220, 224-225, 236, lifespan, 141 237-238 load management technologies, 84, 153, 585, 597, cellulosic ethanol, 67, 90-91, 93, 221-225, 234, 605-606, 617, 630 235-236, 237, 244-245, 251 manufacturing, 175 corn ethanol, 90, 91, 219-220, 234, 241-242 in new homes, 137, 151 costs, 90, 92-93, 222, 223, 224, 234, 237, 238, potential savings, 146, 147, 148 241, 251, 252 R&D, 194-195 findings, 224-225 remanufactured, 185 genomics applications, 225, 256-257 tax credits, 195 and greenhouse gases, 90, 222, 224-225, 234, wood-burning, 322 248-249 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 344, 345, 351, 354, metabolic and bioprocess engineering applications, 355 256, 257-258 Argonne National Laboratory, 163, 370 n.21, 388, plant siting, 247-248 523 n.19 process, 220-225 Arsenic, 249 RD&D, 90, 221-222, 224 Australia, 20, 286, 485, 486, 535, 538, 540 supply of fuel from, 90-91, 241-242, 243, 244-245 Automotive Energy Supply joint venture, 163 synthetic biology applications, 257

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687 Index Biomass-to-liquid fuels. See also Biochemical technical challenges, 225, 251 conversion technology improvement scenarios, 222-225, 251, competitiveness, 239-240 256-258 costs, 67, 91, 217, 222-223, 224, 234, 237-238, transport and distribution challenges, 90, 221, 223 239-240, 241, 251, 252 water use, 248 environmental concerns, 212 Biodiesel, 37, 62 n.17, 75, 89, 213, 252-253 feedstock supply, 213-217 Biofuels. See also Biochemical conversion; Biomass; greenhouse gas emissions, 71, 91, 212, 227, 234, Biomass-to-liquid fuels; Cellulosic ethanol; Coal- 237-238, 239 and-biomass-to-liquid fuels; Corn ethanol R&D, 217-218 advanced, 66, 221, 224-225 supply of fuel from, 37, 241-242, 243, 244-245 algal biodiesel, 75, 89, 252-253 thermochemical conversion, 91, 226, 227, 228, bacteria- and yeast-based direct routes to, 255-256 229, 232, 239-240 biobutanol, 89, 213, 220, 221, 253-254 Biopower from CO2 feedstocks, 74-75 build time, 128 consumption, 21, 37 capacity, 128, 390-391 greenhouse gas emissions, 212, 213, 224-225 carbon balance, 69, 288, 386-390 hydrocarbon fuels from biomass, 3-4, 225, 254-255 co-firing with coal, 361-362 n.15, 391 potential of, 66, 73, 212, 245 cost estimates, 57, 58, 126, 294-295, 390 production strategy, 247-248 defined, 287-288 R&D, 74-75, 221-222, 224 employment, 304 Biomass environmental impacts, 101, 288, 302 carbon issues, 72, 221, 229 feedstock supply, 32, 287-288, 289, 299 co-fed coal, see Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel landfill gas fuel, 97, 272 n.2, 287, 288, 387 consumption, 17, 18, 332 land-use values, 301 cost of energy from, 58 market share, 304 on CRP lands, 89, 214, 215, 218, 234 municipal solid waste fuel, 89, 97, 213-214, 217, diesel fuel components, 255 235, 235, 272, 273, 287 distance from conversion plant, 215-216, 217 oxygen-blown gasification, 288-289, 386, 419, 421 electricity generation, see Biopower policies, 273 environmental impacts of crops, 248 pretreatment step, 221, 222, 224, 288-289, 251, 288 findings, 217-218 prospects, 299, 385-391 food/feed crop displacement, 89, 213, 217, 233, readiness for deployment, 291, 317 289, 299 sources, 97, 235, 272 n.2 gasification technologies, 226, 227, 228, 229, 232, supply of electricity, 36, 51, 271-272, 288, 316, 361-362 n.15, 386, 422 317, 385-386 gasoline blend stock, 254-255 technology description, 97, 287-289 greenhouse gas emissions, 69, 72, 212 wood-based, 97, 272 n.2, 288 hydrocarbon fuels from, 254-255 Biotechnology, 4, 254, 255-258 incentives for growers, 89-90, 216-217, 218 Brazil, 20 industrial use, 17, 180 British Petroleum, 254, 336 non-electricity applications, 32, 321-322 Buildings sector. See also Appliances; Commercial; price delivered to conversion plant, 215 Residential supply, 32, 37, 66, 77, 89-90, 211, 213-217, 221, advanced technologies, 83-84, 149-152, 155 229-230, 233, 235 barriers to improving energy efficiency, 77, 152- sustainable production, 89, 214-215, 217-218 154, 155 systems approach to production, 216-217

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688 Index Bush (George H.W.), administration, 26, 458 n.34 capital investment needs, 83, 148, 152-154 Bush (George W.), administration, 26, 458 n.34, 461, combined heat and power production, 83, 144, 155 470, 492, 510 conservation supply curves, 40, 82, 83, 140, 144, Business-as-usual reference case, xi, 36 145-149 alternative transportation fuels, 93-94, 247 consumption of energy, 2, 14, 83, 137, 139, buildings sector, 2, 141, 145-146 141-142 CO2 emissions, 2, 11 cooling and heating systems, 14, 41, 47, 83, 145, 149, 150, 193 deployment of technologies, 93-94 cost-effectiveness of improvements, 41, 148, 155 energy efficiency improvement, 2, 141, 145-146, cost of conserved energy, 45-46, 47, 48-49, 145, 177, 178-179, 186 146-148, 149 energy supply and consumption, 12, 36 drivers for improving, 84, 154, 155 fossil fuels, 11 electricity consumption, 41, 42, 47, 139, 141, 146- industrial sector, 2, 141, 177, 186 147, 155 nuclear power, 446-447 electricity generation capacity, 154-155 transmission and distribution system, 635 end-use and technology approach, 145, 150 transportation sector, 2, 141, 247 energy codes, 38-39 n.1, 40, 50, 88, 146, 153, 154, 192, 194, 198, 199, 200, 201, 319 energy efficiency, 2, 38-39 n.1, 40-41, 42, 47-49, 87-88, 136-137, 140, 141-155, 193, 194, 195, C 197 energy intensity, 141-142 California findings, 2, 47-49, 154-155 air emission standards, 263, 393-394, 404 integrated (whole-building) approaches, 84, 143- electricity demand, 617 144, 145, 149-152, 155 electricity T&D, 567, 581 n.22, 617 lighting, 47, 50, 83, 84, 142, 143-144, 146, 147, energy efficiency standards, 191, 193, 196, 198, 149, 150-151, 153, 154 n.12, 155, 193, 194, 199-200 195, 197 geologic storage of CO2, 340 limitations of studies, 143, 155 nuclear power, 481 n.82, 531 natural gas consumption, 14, 15, 17, 24, 37, 41, Canada 48-49, 139, 146-147, 155, 259, 331 carbon capture and storage, 424 payback period for technologies, 82, 148, 153 crude oil resources, 416 petroleum consumption, 17, 24, 139 electricity T&D interconnections, 567, 573 potential energy savings, 47-49, 50, 83, 143-145, methane hydrate mining, 418 155 natural gas exports, 15, 102-103, 336 n.3, 346 projected energy demand, 41, 42 nuclear power, 507 RD&D, 150, 197 tar sand resources, 340, 408-409 reference case, 141, 145-146 uranium resources, 485, 538 regulatory policies, 87, 152-153 Cap and trade programs, 38 n.1, 189, 252, 393-394, retail price of energy, 47-48, 83, 148, 149, 152 406 services for improving energy efficiency, 153-154 Carbon accounting, 230, 251, 368, 387-388 stock of buildings, 141 Carbon capture and storage (CCS). See also Geologic tax credits, 195-196 storage of CO2; specific energy sources windows, 84, 144, 149, 150-151, 155, 194-195, in biochemical conversion of fuel, 220, 224-225, 197 236, 237-238 Bureau of Land Management, 351, 352 capture-ready plants, 3, 39, 51, 230, 366-369

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689 Index Carbon dioxide emissions. See also Carbon capture chemical looping, 364, 365, 421, 430, 431 and storage; Geologic storage of CO2; CO2 compression, 69-70, 105, 106 n.13, 224, 226, 227, 363, 424-425, 431, 434, 435 Greenhouse gas emissions; individual energy CO2 separation, 267, 363, 364-365, 397, 422, 423, sources and sectors 430-431, 434 alternative transportation fuels, 62, 64, 66 co-capture of CO2 and other pollutants, 364, 365, annual U.S. emissions, 68 424 biochemical conversion processes, 234 costs, 52, 67, 91, 212, 227-230, 360, 364, 368, cap and trade programs, 38 n.1, 189, 393-394, 406 369-370, 434-435 carbon prices, 28, 38 n.1, 52, 93, 234, 237, 238, and costs of electricity, 16, 425 239-240, 244, 252, 371, 406 demonstration of commercial viability, 5, 6, 39, by energy source, 72 51-52, 65, 66, 68, 70, 73, 74, 91, 92, 107, 108- negative, 69, 71, 72, 91, 227, 230, 232, 237, 238, 109, 212, 225, 227, 228, 230, 232-233, 250- 362, 389, 391, 395 251, 361, 360, 365, 378, 382-383, 397, 398, policies and regulations, 33, 52, 252, 361 431, 432 timeframe for reducing, 68, 71 energy requirements, 367 trends, 11 environmental issues, 406-407 Carbon dioxide feedstock, 75 findings, 5, 39, 231-233 Carbon dioxide injection for enhanced oil recovery, and greenhouse gas emissions, 69, 72, 300 91, 224, 227, 338-340, 341, 342, 343, 396, importance, 30, 92, 300 397, 398, 401, 402, 407, 424, 435-437 industrial sector, 183 Carbon price/taxes, 28, 38 n.1, 52, 93, 105, 234, 237, infrastructure, 339 238, 239-240, 244, 252, 371, 378, 390, 402, NCGG plants, 365 406 nontechnical issues, 439-441 Carter administration, 26, 458 n.34 oxygen-blown gasification, 288-289, 386, 419, 421 Cellulosic ethanol oxygen production, 423-424 barriers to deployment, 250, 251 parallel programs, 225 capacity build, 244-245 partial capture, 368-369 carbon capture and storage, 5, 65, 66, 224-225, pipelines for CO2, 60, 109, 339, 368, 377 n.24, 236, 237-238 commercial development, 221-222, 224, 251 382, 396, 397, 402, 406-407, 419, 420-421, conversion technologies, 3, 67, 89, 90-91, 93, 221- 435, 439 225, 234, 235-236, 237, 244-245, 251 policy environment, 230, 251, 368, 382 costs, 92-93, 125, 127, 222-223, 224, 237-238, R&D, 107-108, 364-365, 431-432 240, 251 retrofitting plants for, 3, 5, 51, 53-54, 69-70, 72, deployment, 92-93, 125, 127, 222, 244-245 104, 105, 367, 369, 381-382, 383, 384, 392, economic competitiveness, 66, 67, 92-93 395 environmental impacts, 248 safety issues, 16, 212, 406-407, 436 feedstock, 4, 213-217, 222-223 siting, 439-440 greenhouse gas emissions, 5, 66, 71-72, 213, 224- status, 16, 39 225, 236, 238, 239 strategies, 74, 421-426 infrastructure issues, 221, 223-224, 225, 251-252, thermochemical conversion of biofuels and, 74, 254 91-92, 94, 226, 227, 228, 229-230, 231-233, petroleum replacement potential, 3-4, 63, 66, 90, 250-251 91, 221-222 Carbon controls, 78, 38 n.1, 189, 244, 393-394, 406. production capacity, 90-91, 244-245 See also Cap and trade; Carbon price RD&D, 6, 64, 74, 221-222, 224

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690 Index future contributions, 381-385 sources, 235, 236 industry use, 14, 17, 24, 176, 180, 182 supply potential, 63, 66, 129, 241-242 infrastructure constraints, 13, 16, 23, 218 systems approach, 250 integrated gasification and combined cycle (IGCC) waste-heat and waste-materials as energy sources, plants, 70, 74, 104, 106, 121, 124, 126, 128, 221 228, 361, 363-364, 365, 367, 369-373, 376, Cement industry, 44, 86, 87, 175, 178, 182-183, 186, 377-378, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 402, 423 387, 388, 389-390, 395, 406, 410, 419, 421, Cesium, 461, 519, 522, 523, 552 425, 426, 428, 431, 432 Chemical Engineering Plant Construction Cost Index, liquefaction, 91, 211-212, 220-221, 226, 227, 372 230-232, 261, 335; see also Coal-to-biomass-to- Chemical manufacturing, 86, 175, 176, 178, 180, 184, liquid fuels; Coal-to-liquid fuels 186, 190, 226, 331 n.2 locations of power plants, 398 China, 20, 77 n.19, 135, 175, 319, 504, 505, 509, mining, 16, 60, 218, 219, 249, 355, 408 572, 605, 630 new plants with CCS, 53, 381-385 Chernobyl accident, 446 oxyfuel plants, 70, 74, 104, 364, 365, 367, 395, Chlorofluorocarbons, 11 n.3 419, 423-424 Chrysler, 163 oxygen-blown gasification, 288-289, 386, 419, 421 Clean Air Act, 26, 78, 384, 405 pollution control, 189 Clean Air Act Amendments, 189 prices, 16, 25, 59, 235, 355, 358 Clean Air Interstate Rule, 40, 404 n.39 production (domestic), 66, 336, 355 Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee, 404 pulverized coal (PC) plants, 106, 121, 124, 126, Clean-Fuel Fleet Program, 261 128, 228, 361-365, 366, 367, 369-379, 380, Clean Water Act, 405, 539 381, 382, 383-385, 387, 388, 389, 395, 406- Climate change, 11 n.3, 25 407, 419, 420, 425, 428, 430, 432 Clinton administration, 26, 458 n.34 RD&D, 6, 64, 74, 221-222, 224, 430-441 Clostridium beijernickii BA101, 253 reserves and resources, 16, 89, 92, 218-219, 336, Coal 355-356, 357, 358 air-blown PC plants, 106, 121, 124, 126, 128, 228, retirement of plants, 69, 105, 381, 382, 383, 394- 361-365, 366, 369-379, 380, 381, 382, 383- 395, 419, 426, 427, 428-429 385, 387, 388, 389, 395, 406-407, 419, 420, retrofitted/repowered plants with CCS, 53, 69-70, 425, 428, 430, 432 71, 77 as alternative fuel source, 74, see also Coal-and- safety management, 408 biomass-to-liquid; Coal-to-liquid supercritical PC, 105, 361, 362, 367, 373, 419 attributes, 332 supply curves, 234 carbon capture and storage, 3, 39, 51, 53, 58, 68, supply of electricity, 36, 49 69-70, 366-379, 421-426, 430-441 T&D system, 16 CO2 emissions, 16, 24, 68, 69-70, 356, 360 timeframe for deployment of clean technology, co-fed biomass and, 91, 235, 237-238, 242, 430-441 245-246 ultrasupercritical PC, 70, 74, 104-105, 128, 362, consumption, 14, 17, 18, 21, 22, 36, 218, 332, 336 363, 367, 419, 430-431 costs, 16, 52, 57, 58, 219, 420-421 Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels electricity generation, 3, 13, 14, 16, 17, 23, 24, 36, capacity build, 245-247 49, 51, 53, 57, 58, 68, 69, 71, 74, 189, 218, carbon capture and storage, 4, 65, 66, 73, 91-92, 331, 358, 360, 366-379, 381-385, 419-430 94, 230, 239 environmental impacts, 16, 52, 92, 219, 249, 408 commercial development, 227, 230 findings, 3, 219

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691 Index low-energy buildings, 84, 144, 152 conversion technologies, 3-4, 74, 91-92, 227, 228, natural gas consumption, 140, 148 229, 230, 231, 232, 235, 237-238, 242, 245- price of energy, 149 246, 247-248, 249 solar voltaic systems, 144 costs, 67, 91, 92-93, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 240 whole-building approach, 144 demonstrations, 66, 227 Comprehensive Environmental Response, deployment, 93-94, 245-247 Compensation and Liability Act, 405 environmental impacts, 4, 92, 249 Concentrating solar power feedstock requirements, 66, 92, 246 backup capability, 284 findings, 246-248 cooling systems, 84, 150 greenhouse gas emissions, 4, 66, 71-72, 91-92, 227, costs, 58, 285, 293, 294-295 232, 239 dish-Stirling engine systems, 97, 284, 285 petroleum replacement potential, 4, 65, 66 electricity generating capacity, 96, 272, 276-277 production capacity, 5, 91, 92 employment, 304 siting of plants, 92, 247-248 greenhouse gas emissions, 69 supply, 32, 37, 63-64, 65, 211 high-temperature chemical processing, 97, 101, 285 Coal-to-liquid fuels molten salt receivers, 285 capacity build, 245 non-electricity applications, 284, 285 carbon capture and storage, 64, 65, 72, 73, 94, optical materials, 97, 285 212, 230, 239 parabolic troughs, 97, 284, 285 competitiveness, 236-237 power towers, 97, 284-285 costs, 66, 67, 92-93, 228-231, 236-237, 240 resource base, 276-277 direct liquefaction, 220, 230-231 storage, 276, 284 environmental impacts, 249 technology description, 97, 284-285 feedstock supply, 218-219 Connecticut, 196, 481 n.82 greenhouse gas emissions, 64, 72, 211-212, 227, Conoco Phillips, 261 239, 245 Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), 89, 214, 215, supply, 37, 63-64, 65, 245 218, 234 thermochemical conversion, 220, 227, 228-229, Conservation supply curves, 40, 82, 83, 140, 144, 230-231 145-149 Coastal Zone Management Act, 305 Consumer behavior Combined-heat-and-power systems (cogeneration), 44, economic factors, 136-137, 154, 156, 172, 173 51, 86, 87, 88, 144, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, education, training, and technical assistance, 196- 183, 186, 187, 190, 196, 198, 452 197, 200, 201 Commercial buildings. See also Lighting energy-efficient technologies, 49, 50, 79, 136-137, barriers to technology investments, 152, 153 154, 156, 172, 192 combined heat and power systems, 144 information/awareness factors, 136, 137, 154, 155 consumption of energy, 17, 22, 36-37, 138, policies targeting, 196-197, 200, 201 141-142 preferences, 136, 137, 156, 192 cooling and heating systems, 193 risk aversion, 136, 192, 260 electricity, 140, 147 and transportation energy efficiency, 136, 156, 172 energy efficiency savings, 40-41, 47-49, 140, 144, Consumption. See Energy consumption 147, 148 Context for the report energy intensity, 141-142 aspects not assessed, 31-33 energy management and control systems, 83-84, challenges to sustainable transformation, 25-27 142 charge to the committee, 10, 30-33, 36 lease structures, 153

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692 Index reference scenario, 120 cost estimates, 32-33 simultaneous expansion and modernization of current U.S. energy system, 11-25 T&D system, 61 panel reports, 31 site-dependent impacts, 57 strategy of the committee, 30-33 source of, 120-121 technology role, 27-30 source of supply estimates, 122, 126-127 timeframes, 30 uncertainties in estimates, 56, 59 Cooling systems, 14, 41, 47, 83, 145, 149, 150, 193. underlying assumptions, 32 See also Heating and cooling systems Council on Environmental Quality, 403 n.35 Corn ethanol Critical technologies, 30 biochemical conversion, 220-221, 234 n.6, 241-242 CO2 emissions, 72, 236, 238, 239 consumption, 17, 213 costs, 67, 234-236, 237, 240 grain supply, 233 D plant build rates, 90-91, 127 price of corn, 235 Delivered electricity, 42, 43 production capacity, 90-91, 129, 245 Demand. See Energy demand; Electricity demand social and environmental concerns, 63, 89, 213 Demand-side management, 88 supply, 233, 241-242, 243, 331 smart meters, 9 n.1, 45, 60, 118, 153, 292, 578, sustainability, 89, 220-221 579, 580, 589, 591, 598, 603, 605-606, 632 Cost-effectiveness of energy-efficiency technologies, 2, state/utility policies, 196, 199-200 40-41, 49, 82, 148, 154, 155, 181 Demonstrations. See Research, development, and Costs. See also specific sectors, resources, and demonstrations technologies Denmark, 138, 140 before-tax discount rate, 126-127 Deployment of new technologies, general. See also comparison of power plant capital costs, 374-376 specific technologies and energy sources conditional assumptions, 32-33 accelerated, 6, 35, 37-38, 39, 76-79 of conserved energy, 45-46, 47, 48-49, 145, 146- barriers to, 60, 76-79, 87-88, 93-94, 136-137, 152- 148, 149 154, 155, 172-173, 185-189, 191-192, 202, debt/equity, 126-127 250-252, 447, 477-482, 494-495, 497-498 drivers of, 292-293, 379 consumer resistance to, 35, 50 externalities, 14 n.7, 29, 252, 299 coupling energy-supply and supporting feedstock and food costs, 121, 124-125 technologies, 78 financing period, 122, 126-127 “crash” effort, 35 levelized cost of electricity, 55-60, 293-297, 369- economic effects on end-users, 35, 50 379, 380, 381, 390 industrial capacity and personnel for, 77-78 life-cycle, 50, 56, 136 options, 38-39 limitations, 121, 124-125 parallel tracks, 30, 57, 174, 225, 400, 605 methodologies for estimating, 32-33, 55-56, portfolio approach, 68 120-131 readiness for, 38, 39 overnight costs, 122, 126-127 siting concerns, 57, 60 plant life, 121, 126-127 supply factors, 77-78 plant maturity, 121, 124-125 timeframes for, 35 plant size, 121, 124-125 turnover rate of infrastructure and, 77 projections for evolutionary nuclear plants, Diesel fuel 526-532 biodiesel, 37, 62 n.17, 75, 89, 213, 252-253

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693 Index baseload, 57, 58-59, 60 components from biomass, 255 biomass, 51, 57, 58 freight transport, 171 capacity increases, 154-155 synthetic (GTL), 223, 258, 261, 263 carbon capture and storage, 78, 107-108, 360-361, supply, 37 362-369, 421-426, 430-441 thermal efficiency, 262 challenges, 359-361 thermochemical conversion, 228 CO2 emissions, 333, 358-359, 360, 362-365, 366, Dimethyl ether, 94, 258, 262-263 Dimethyl furan, 254 428-429 Duke Energy, 187, 376 coal-fired plants, 3, 13, 14, 16, 17, 23, 24, 36, 49, DuPont, 254 51-52, 53, 57, 58, 59, 68, 69, 71, 74, 104-105, 189, 218, 331, 358, 359, 360, 365-369, 381- 385, 395, 419-430 combined-heat and power plants, 51 competitiveness of technologies, 51, 59 E consumption of liquid fuels, 37 costs, 55-60, 105-107, 360, 366, 369-379, 380, EaglePicher, 163 395, 420-421, 428 Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study/ findings, 394-396 Joint Coordinated System Planning Study, 100, fossil fuel, 51, 58, 104-107, 358-396 314-315 fuel costs, 57, 58-59, 365-366 Economic growth, 25 health concerns, 60 Economic recession, xii, 15, 77, 95, 222, 272, 526 integrated gasification and combined cycle (IGCC) Electric motors, 145, 159, 162, 180, 184, 193, 263 plants, 70, 74, 104, 106, 121, 124, 126, 128, Electric Power Research Institute, 293, 382, 420, 527 228, 361, 363-364, 365, 367, 369-373, 376, n.24, 531, 550 n.62, 592, 632 377-378, 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, Electricity consumption 387, 388, 389-390, 395, 406, 410, 419, 421, energy efficiency savings, 40-41, 140, 146-147, 425, 426, 428, 431, 432 150, 154 intermittent, 57, 58-59 per capita, 199 investment barriers, 359-361, 366 projected, 146 mix of coal, natural gas, and biomass plants, 391- by sector, 41, 42, 47, 139, 140, 141, 146-147, 155, 394, 395, 425-426 180, 181, 184 natural gas, 3, 13, 14, 15, 16, 23, 24, 36, 51, 55, time-of-use pricing programs, 186 57-58, 59, 68-69, 105-106, 259, 273, 314, 358, Electricity demand 360, 365-366, 425-426 building sector, 155 NGCC plants, 23, 57-59, 69, 70, 105-106, 126, charges and demand-response incentives, 189 128, 274, 361, 365, 366, 369-373, 377-378, electrified vehicle fleet and, 4, 44-45, 155, 366 378, 380, 385, 387, 388, 389, 390, 393, 394, energy-efficiency technologies and, 32, 44-45, 155, 426 189 new plants, 42, 45, 105, 359-360, 394-395, price of energy and, 186, 199 427-428 T&D system and, 27 oxyfuel plants, 70, 74, 104, 364, 365, 367, 395, Electricity generation. See also Nuclear energy 419, 423-424 age of baseload plants, 23 PC/IGCC competition, 361-365 air-blown PC plants, 106, 121, 124, 126, 128, 228, petroleum, 51, 359, 360, 365-366 361-365, 366, 369-379, 380, 381, 382, 383- portfolio approach, 4-5, 51, 107-108, 396 385, 387, 388, 389, 395, 406-407, 419, 420, projections, 358 425, 428, 430, 432

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694 Index electrified vehicle fleet and, 4, 597-598 RD&D, 395-396 emergency response capability, 611 renewable sources, 13, 51, 52, 57, 58, 59, 359 environmental benefits, 116, 596-599 retail price of electricity, 47-48, 49, 56, 100, 188, FACTS technology, 116, 578, 579-580, 583, 588, 529 602-603, 617, 621-622 siting of facilities, 57, 60 findings, 3, 60-61, 604-607 supply curves, 391-394, 426-430 grid visualization, 117, 589, 590, 591, 613, 631 supply from new technologies or technology mixes, HVDC, 571, 572, 579, 580-581, 598, 603, 615, 49, 51-60 616, 619, 623-624 from waste heat and materials, 221, 235 integrating intermittent/renewable resources water use, 60, 409-410 integrated in, xiii, 3, 27, 34, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, wholesale power markets, 56-57, 59 98-99, 116, 118, 133, 290, 291, 292, 296-297, Electricity sector 298, 305-307, 308, 314-315, 316, 322, 563, barriers to improvement, 77 576, 581-582, 584, 597, 604, 607, 614-615, demand side technologies, 45, 60 620, 624, 625 energy efficiency improvements, 40-41 intelligent control and communications, 291, 292, greenhouse gas emissions, 4, 5, 16, 24, 68-69, 70, 297, 322-323, 576-577, 586-588, 604, 611 73 investment barriers, 78, 600, 606 Electricity supply curves, 140 market accommodations, 61 Electricity transmission and distribution (T&D) modern system characteristics, 575-579 systems Northeast blackout of 2003, 573 AC and DC lines and cables, 580-581 operations planning and design, 590-591, 613-614 accommodating all generation and storage options, optimization and efficiency, 577, 613, 619-620 51, 60, 61, 576, 614-615 personnel and equipment shortages, 605 addressing problems, 574-575 potential for deployment, 583-584, 588-589, 591 advanced equipment and components, 116, 579- power electronics, 579-580 584, 604 power quality, 577, 619 barriers to deployment, 78, 117-118, 599-602, problems, 13, 78, 569-574 606-607 public safety benefits, 599 benefits of modernization, 3, 60-61, 118, 594-599 R&D, 607-608 cascading failures and blackouts, 60 regional ownership and regulation, 78, 152-153 characteristics of a modern grid, 611 regulatory and legislative barriers, 78, 152-153, communications system, 116-117, 586-587, 600-601, 606-607 631-632 reliability measures, 61, 611, 612 control technologies, 587-588 restoration after an emergency, 613 costs of connecting, 293 n.5, 296-297, 298, 317 security, 115, 577, 579, 582, 587, 594-595, 596, costs of modernization, 58-59, 61, 117, 592-594, 600, 601, 604, 618 606, 632-636 self-healing, 576, 577, 579-580, 587, 616-617, 618, cultural and communication barriers, 601-602, 607 621 current system, 564-569, 604 sensing and measurements, 116-117, 584-585, 604, custom power, 116, 578, 580, 583, 603, 622-623 628-630 customer motivation and involvement, 61, 617 smart meters, 9 n.1, 45, 60, 118, 292, 578, 579, decision-support tools, 117, 579, 589, 590, 591, 580, 589, 591, 598, 603, 605-606, 632 599, 603-604, 605, 613, 618, 633 storage, 6, 51, 61, 78, 291, 307, 309, 581-583, deployment of a modern system, 602-604, 605-606 584, 601, 616, 624-626, 627, 634 distribution system, 61, 605-606, 611 system operations, 589-590, 591, 613 economic benefits, 115, 595-596

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695 Index barriers to deployment, 6, 76-77, 78, 87-88, 136- systems operator training, 590 137, 152-154, 155, 172-173, 185-189, 191-192, technical barriers, 600, 606 202 technologies, 116-117, 578-592, 604-605 baseline/reference cases, 83, 177 terrorist threats, 618 capital investment needs, 83, 148 transformers, 193, 375, 564 n.1, 571, 583, 598- combined heat and power production, 44, 51, 86, 599, 618, 620, 621, 622, 626-628, 633 87, 88, 144, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 186, transmission system, 60, 61, 314-315, 317, 564, 187, 190, 196, 198, 452 605, 606 conservation distinguished from, 135 n.1, 145 n.7 wholesale power markets, 576, 615-616 conservation supply curves, 40, 82, 83, 140, 144, Electronics. See Appliances and electronics 145-149 Emergency Economic Stabilization Act, 273 consumer behavior, 49, 50, 79, 136-137, 154, 156, Endangered Species Act, 40, 405 172, 192 Energy conservation, xiii, 33, 40 n.3, 61, 135 n.1, cost of conserved energy, 45-46, 47, 48-49, 145, 145 n.7 146-148, 149 Energy consumption. See also Electricity consumption; cost-effectiveness, 2, 40-41, 49, 82, 148, 154, 155, specific fuels 181 air transportation, 157, 167 and demand for electricity, 32, 44-45, 155, 189 buildings sector, 2, 14, 83, 137, 139, 141-142 drivers of, 84, 88, 154, 155, 175, 189-190 business-as-usual reference case, 2, 21, 36-37 dynamic nature of, 135, 149, 201-202 comparison of sectors, 17, 22, 36-37 economic disincentives, 152-153 current, 2, 17, 135 electricity generation capacity, 154-155 factors affecting, 142 electricity savings, 40-41, 140, 146-147, 150, 154 energy efficiency technologies and, 2, 11-12, end-use and technology approach, 145 137-138 findings, 1-2, 3, 4, 40-49, 50, 154-155, 173-174, by fuel source, 17, 18, 21, 22, 36-37, 139, 332 190-191, 202 historical, 19, 21, 137-138 informational and education needs, 87-88, 153, industry, 14, 15, 17, 22, 36-37, 44, 136-137, 138, 187-188, 191 139, 175-176, 180-183, 186 infrastructure considerations, 86, 88, 156-157, 160, international comparison, 11-12, 20, 135, 138, 140 171, 174 per capita, 19, 20, 138, 140 integrated approaches, 84, 85, 143-144, 145, 149- per dollar of GDP, 19, 20, 137-138, 140 152, 155, 200 projected, 2, 19, 21, 36-37 international comparisons, 157, 170, 175, 176, 190 total, 22 limitations of studies, 143, 155 Energy costs. See Costs natural gas savings, 43, 45 n.8, 48-49, 139, 140 Energy demand. See also Electricity demand 146-147, 148, 154 drivers of, 138 panel report, 31, 81 economic conditions and, 15, 25 payback period, 148, 153, 186 impacts of technology development, 32 potential savings in energy, 1-2, 25, 40-49, 50, 62, potential energy sources relative to, 13 82, 83, 84, 88, 135, 137-138, 140-141, 143- projected, 41, 42 145, 154, 155, 156, 157-169, 173, 192-198, Energy-efficient technologies. See also Appliances; 202 Buildings; Industrial; Light-duty vehicles; price of energy and, 47-48, 82, 83, 84, 88, 148, Lighting; Transportation 149, 152, 156, 157, 165, 176, 186, 188, 189, advanced, 83-84, 149-152, 155 192, 197 availability, 82, 138-139, 140, 155, 191

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702 Index Natural gas. See also Liquefied natural gas; Methane Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 222, 278, 470 access issue, 12, 71, 103, 348, 350-355 Mercury, 149, 152, 249, 369, 408, 425, 482, 533, age of power plants, 23 596-597 attributes, 332 Metabolic and bioprocess engineering, 256, 257-258 buildings sector, 14, 15, 17, 24, 37, 43, 48-49, 139, Methane 146-147, 155, 259, 331 coal-bed, 103, 346, 347, 398, 402, 433, 435, 438 carbon capture and storage, 58, 69, 70, 71, 379- emissions, 11, 19, 259, 359, 368, 671 380, 422-423 greenhouse forcing potential, 258, 260 CO2 emissions, 3, 16, 24, 68, 69, 70, 71, 102, 259- hydrates, 75, 94, 258, 261, 346-347, 416-418 landfill gas power plants, 288 260, 360 natural gas vehicles, 258 combined cycle (NGCC) plants, 23, 57-59, 69, 70, Methanol, 94 105-106, 126, 128, 274, 361, 365, 366, 369- Methanol-to-gasoline technology, 67, 72, 93, 220, 373, 377-378, 378, 380, 385, 387, 388, 389, 226-227, 228, 229, 235, 236-237, 238, 239, 390, 393, 394, 426 240, 252, 258-259, 262, 263 combustion turbine, 273 Micro-grids, 617 competitiveness, 105-106, 273, 314, 379-380, 406 Micro-manufacturing, 179 compressed, 94, 258, 259-261 MicroSun, 163 constraints on production, 338 Micro-turbines, 598, 621 consumption, 17, 18, 21, 22, 37, 139, 146-147, Microwave technologies, 179, 190, 291, 628-829 259, 332-333, 335, 351 Minnesota, 196, 404 n.39, 481 costs, 48-49, 273, 360 Mobius Power, 163 economic importance, 15 Molecular biology, 74 electricity generation, 3, 13, 14, 15, 16, 23, 24, 36, Municipal solid waste, 89, 97, 213-214, 217, 235, 51, 55, 57-58, 59, 68-69, 105-106, 259, 273, 235, 272, 273, 287 314, 358, 365-366, 425-426 energy efficiency savings, 43, 45 n.8, 48-49, 139, 140, 146-147, 148, 154 environmental impacts, 355 exploration and production technology, 336, 343, N 347-348 feedstock for fuel, 94, 258, 261 Nanotechnology and nanomaterials, 179, 184, 185, findings, 3 190, 283, 284, 291, 454, 513, 581 industrial use, 14, 15, 17, 24, 37, 139, 176, 180, Naphtha, 226, 228, 261 183, 184, 259 National Academies, 404 n.38 import dependence (potential), 3, 15, 16, 25, 37, National Energy Technology Laboratory, 362 n.16, 71, 103, 259, 314, 336, 350, 358 368 n.19, 370 methane emissions, 259 National Environmental Policy Act, 26, 352, 405 new plants, 70 National Mining Association, 404 n.37 offshore, 346, 347, 348, 351-352, 353 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, pipelines, 109, 332, 334, 406, 407, 409 403 n.35 potential, 16 National Petroleum Council, 341-342, 343, 344 n.8, prices, 3, 15, 25, 48, 49, 57-58, 59, 71, 103, 188, 345, 349, 354, 404 n.36 260, 261, 348, 349, 350, 360, 372 National Petroleum Reserve, 351, 355 production (domestic), 15, 16, 37, 259, 335, 346- National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 310, 313 350, 351, 357 National Science Foundation, 76

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703 Index federal incentives, 39 n.2, 55, 58, 59, 447, 468- reserves and resources, 2, 3, 15, 37, 102-103, 149, 469, 532 n. 31 259, 332, 335, 336, 346-350, 351-355, 357, findings, 2, 3, 39, 70-71, 494-499 416-418 fossil fuel power plants compared, 467 retrofitted plants with CCS, 70, 71 greenhouse gas emissions, 16, 69, 70-71, 445, 482- safety management, 260, 409, 418 484, 498, 533-536 shales, 15, 103, 105-106, 342, 343, 346, 347-348, improvements to existing plants, 52-53, 110, 448- 349, 350, 355, 358, 385, 405, 426 451, 463-464, 474-475, 497 single-cycle plants, 23 international interest, 446-447 “stranded,” 261 new plants, 3, 51, 53, 445, 467 supply and demand, 103, 106, 354-355, 358, 361, operating license extensions, 53-55, 110, 112, 450- 379-380, 426 451, 463-464, 473, 476, 497, 515, 546, 548 tight gas sands, 15, 103, 346, 347 personnel and parts shortages, 481-482, 498 transportation fuel, 37, 139, 259-260 potential for deployment, 3, 13, 70-71, 112-113, Natural Resources Defense Council, 404 n.7 471-477 NEC, 163 power uprates, 52-53, 110, 449-450, 474-475, 497 New Source Performance Standards, 78, 189, 384 proliferation risk, 111, 458-459, 460, 462, 489, New York, energy efficiency programs, 193, 198, 199, 491-492, 496, 499, 504, 518, 519, 522, 524 200 public concerns, 113-114, 447, 479-481, 497-498 New Zealand, 226 refueling outages, 110, 451 Nickel cadmium batteries, 627 regulatory and legislative issues, 113, 478-479, 498 Nickel metal hydride batteries, 625, 627 R&D, 451, 499 Nigeria, 261 safety and security, 115, 480, 489-492 Nissan, 163 share of electricity generation, 447-448 Nitrogen oxide emissions, 11 n.3, 19, 159, 189, 248, supply of electricity, 3, 14, 49, 51, 52-55, 114, 197, 249, 260, 262-263, 288, 300 n.7, 301, 302, 447, 496-497 313, 333, 359, 363-364, 421 technologies, 110-112, 448-463; see also Nuclear Nixon administration, 26, 458 n.34 reactors Norway, 107, 437, 524 terrorist attacks, 489-491 Nuclear energy water use, 485-486, 539-541 accidents, 446, 453, 480, 489-491, 503, 553-555, Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee, 456 n.27 556-557 Nuclear fuel cycle. See also Uranium aging/retirement of plants, 13, 23, 53-54, 112, alternative, 111, 113, 456-462, 470-471, 491, 499, 447, 448, 472, 473, 474 n.70, 475, 481, 483, 524-525, 551 497 breeding, 111, 456, 458, 507, 508, 510, 517, 518, barriers to deployment, 113-114, 447, 477-482, 521-522, 523 n.19, 524 494-495, 497-498 burning, 456, 457, 458, 459 n.41, 460-461, 462, capacity factor, 54, 445, 448, 528 495, 496, 508, 510-511, 517, 518-519, 520, cogeneration, 452 521-522, 525 consumption, 17, 18, 21, 22, 332 closed, 111, 410, 458-459, 461, 462, 471, 485- costs, 57, 58, 113, 198, 447, 463-471, 496, 486, 510, 517-521, 523-525, 539, 540 526-532 costs, 470-471 demonstration needs and constraints, 55 defined, 458 n.32 downtime decreases, 110, 449, 451 disposal of spent fuel, 60, 486-489, 496 economic barriers, 70-71, 113, 477-478, 497 environmental impacts, 486-489, 536-539 electricity costs, 2, 464-470 full recycle, 461, 496, 519, 521 environmental impacts, 114-115, 482-489

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704 Index evolutionary designs, 2, 5, 6, 39, 49, 68, 70-71, high burn-up fuel, 455, 487, 499, 514, 551 110, 112, 113, 115, 124, 446-447, 448, 452, inert matrix fuel (IMF), 462, 519-520, 521, 525 453, 455, 463, 464-470, 472 n.68, 473, 486, limited recycle, 458 n.14, 461, 462, 470-471, 519, 490, 494, 503-506, 509, 512, 513, 526-532, 520, 521, 525 540 mining and milling impacts, 60, 301, 484-485 fast, 111, 453, 456, 457, 461, 462, 470, 471, 506- mixed-oxide fuel (MOX), 462, 495, 470, 471, 519, 507, 508, 521, 525 520, 521 fuel rods, 454, 455 once-through, 458, 459 n.40, 462, 464 n.52, 470, gas-cooled, 455 n.24, 504 n.5, 507, 508, 509, 511 471, 485, 491, 492, 499, 517, 520, 524, 525, heat transfer materials, 454, 499, 513-514 534 n.35, 539, 540, 542 light water, 452, 453, 455, 456, 457, 459, 461, R&D opportunities, 455, 460-461, 524-525 462, 467, 470, 472, 503, 504, 509, 511, 512, recycling used fuel, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 470- 513, 514, 518, 519-521, 522, 524, 525, 544 471, 491, 495-496, 517, 519, 520, 521-523, neutron moderator, 452, 453 525, 539 pressurized water, 452, 453, 503, 504, 473, 475, separations technologies, 111, 459, 460, 462, 470, 505, 549 471, 491, 495, 520, 522, 531-523 R&D opportunities, 6, 454-455, 457, 512-516 simulation and modeling, 525 readiness for deployment, 39 thorium, 506, 523-524 small modular reactors, 456, 506-507, 509-510 transuranic targets, 458 n.23, 462, 521 sodium-cooled, 455 n.24, 457 n.30, 470, 504 n.5, world capasity, 446-447 506 n.7, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511, 513 Nuclear fusion, 29, 463, 495 technologies, 451-457 Nuclear reactors thermal, 452, 453, 456, 458 n.33, 462, 486, 506- advanced boiling-water reactor, 453, 454 n.20, 474, 507, 508, 519, 521 504, 505-506 U.S. evolutionary power, 453, 454, 474, 503, 504, advanced pressurized water, 453-454, 474, 504, 505 505, 506 very-high-temperature, 456, 506-507, 508, 511-512 advanced simulation codes, 515-516, 525 Nuclear waste management, 60 alternative designs, 111, 452-453, 455-457, 470- burning fuel cycles and, 518-519 471, 503, 504-508, 509-510, 512, 524-525 costs, 528, 551 AP1000, 453, 454 decommissioning wastes, 486-487, 528, 542, 543, boiling-water, 452, 453, 472-473, 475, 505 548, 550-551 coolants and cooling systems, 452, 453, 454, 485- environmental impacts, 486-489 486, 489-490, 499, 503, 506, 508, 512-513, final disposal, 480-481, 545-547 514, 539-540, 553, 554, 556 high-level wastes, 115, 436, 458 n.34, 486, 487- costs, 70-71 488, 496, 518, 545-547, 552 degradation phenomena, 450, 514-515 interim storage, 115, 488-489, 541, 543, 549, demonstration of commercial viability, 5, 6, 68, 547-548 70-71 low-level wastes, 461, 520, 543, 548-550 design certification, 453, 454, 478, 479, 505, 506, other operating wastes, 543, 548-550 507, 509-510, 511 public concerns, 447, 480-481, 498 digital instrumentation and control, 455, 515 used fuel disposal, 455, 542-544 economic simplified boiling-water reactor Yucca Mountain high-level-waste storage, 115, 436, (ESBWR), 453, 474 458 n.34, 486, 487-488, 496, 545-547, 552 European pressurized water, 503, 504 NuScale, Inc., 456, 506, 509

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705 Index Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries O (OPEC), 336, 354 Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, 405 Obama administration, 27, 41 n.4, 45 n.7, 62, 85 n.7, 157 n.18, 166 n.22, 193 n.24, 457 n.31, 458, 488, 492, 496, 510, 511, 545 Oil. See also Gasoline; Petroleum access issue, 12, 344, 345, 350-355 P Alaska production, 343, 351, 353 Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, 344, 345, 351, Pakistan, 452 354, 355 Panasonic/Sanyo, 163 carbon capture and storage, 341, 402 Particulate emissions, 159, 249, 263, 288, 322, 333, CO2 emissions, 341, 342 404, 405, 408, 541 CO2 enhanced oil recovery, 91, 224, 227, 338-340, Passenger transportation 341, 342, 343, 396, 397, 398, 401, 402, 407, air, 86 n.8, 167, 170 424, 435-437 consumption of energy, 156 constraints on production, 338, 341-343 mass transit, 156, 260-261 costs, 152, 338, 339, 341 systemic improvements, 171-172 consumption, 335, 351 vehicular, see Light-duty vehicles crisis, 137 Petroleum. See also Fossil fuels; Oil demand, 15 attributes, 332 environmental impacts/management, 341, 342, 355, buildings sector, 17, 24, 139 408-409 CO2 emissions, 16, 24, 72, 156 exploration and production technology, 336, 337, 343 consumption, 17, 18, 21, 22, 24, 62, 89, 102, 139, heavy oil, 171, 337, 339, 340, 342 137, 138, 155-157, 243, 332 import dependence, 333, 336 demand, 15, 332-333 in situ retorting, 340-341 dependence, xi, 25, 63, 67, 89 light oil, 261, 338-340, 402 economic importance, 14 liquid fuel consumption, 62-65, 171 electricity generation, 36, 360 offshore resources, 339, 343, 344, 345, 347, 349, energy efficiency improvements and, 67 350, 351, 352-353, 354, 355 import dependence, 3, 14, 16, 17, 24, 25, 26, political importance, 14-15 62, 84, 89, 93, 139, 156, 160, 180, 211, 212, prices, xii, 15, 67, 152, 211, 342, 344, 345, 354- 243 355, 360 industrial sector, 17, 24, 139, 175, 176, 180 production (domestic), 14 n.8, 211, 335, 341-342, prices, 25, 156 344-346, 351, 356-357 production rates (domestic), 3, 14, 62-63, 102 projections, 344-346 refining, 86, 87, 175, 176, 178, 180, 182, 186, reserves and resources, 13, 102, 335, 336, 338-346, 188, 254-255, 334, 403, 423, 512 350-355, 415-416 replacement or reduction, 3, 14, 62-67, 73, 160, residual zone EOR, 339, 340 212, 245, 265-266 shales, 75, 102, 108, 109, 339, 340-341, 342, 357, resources and reserves, 332 406, 408-409 transportation fuel, 3, 14, 16, 17, 24, 62, 84, 89, steam injection, 340 108, 139, 156, 180, 211, 243, 331 supply and demand, 354-355, 357-358 Photobioreactors, 253, 258 tar sands, 108, 109, 339, 340, 341, 342, 357, 406, Photovoltaics industry roadmap, 310, 316 408-409 Plutonium, 111, 459, 460, 462, 470, 471, 491, 495, timeframe for recovery, 339 517, 519, 520, 522, 531-523

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706 Index Princeton Environmental Institute, 124, 125, 227-228, Policies and programs. See also Legislation; 369-370, 374-375, 376, 385, 420 Regulations and standards; individual statutes Production of energy, trends, 20. See also individual barriers to adoption of technologies, 6, 76-77, 78, sources 152, 191-192 Public engagement, 29-30 California experience, 191, 193, 196, 198, 199-200 Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, 88, 196, 197, carbon controls, 78, 38 n.1, 189, 244, 393-394, 198 406 Pulp and paper industry, 43-44, 86, 87, 175, 177, 178, combined heat and power systems, 196, 198 181 consumer education, training, and technical PUREX, 111, 459, 460, 462, 470, 471, 491, 495, 520, assistance, 196-197, 200, 201 522, 531-523 costs of, 45 n.8, 148 energy savings estimates, 88, 192-198 energy efficiency, 82, 86, 88, 148, 152, 154, 172- 173, 189, 191-202 ENERGY STAR® program, 88, 142, 150, 151, 154 Q n.13, 196-197, 198 environmental, 350-355 Qatar, 261, 416 federal, 192-198 fiscal, 152, 172, 188, 200, 307 incentives and grants, 6, 38 n.1, 200, 201, 264-265, 273 R investment impacts, 307 land-use management, 86, 172 Reagan administration, 26, 458 n.34 lessons learned, 201 Recycling, 86, 179, 186 New York experience, 193, 198, 199, 200 Regulations and standards. See also Legislation; RD&D, 88, 194-195, 197, 200, 201 individual statutes revision, 201-202 appliance efficiency standards, 88, 154 n.13, 192, state/utility, 88, 154, 191, 192, 193, 194, 196, 198, 193-194, 197, 198, 200, 201 199-200, 273 building energy codes, 38-39 n.1, 40, 50, 88, 146, tax credits, 38 n.1, 51, 95, 99, 101, 144, 188, 192, 152-153, 154, 192, 194, 198, 199, 200, 201, 195-196, 273, 274, 298, 299, 307, 308, 317, 319 447, 468, 530 CAFE, 28, 45 n.7, 46, 85, 157, 166-167, 192-193, Population 197, 198, 267 distribution considerations, 142, 171-172, 291, barriers to technology investments, 152-153, 319, 407, 540, 581, 598, 607 188-189 growth, 11-12, 25, 83, 409-410, 540 energy efficiency, 27, 28, 38-39 n.1, 40, 45, 46, 62, Potential energy sources 78-79, 85, 87, 88, 142, 154, 157, 166-167, 188- defined, 13 189, 191, 192-193, 197, 198, 267 Power grid. See Electricity transmission and environmental, 26-27, 78, 88, 189, 322, 384 distribution systems performance-oriented, 6, 78, 189, 200, 384 Price of energy renewables portfolio standards, 28, 39 n.2, 51, 95, and energy-efficient technology adoption, 47-48, 273, 299 82, 83, 84, 88, 148, 149, 152, 156, 157, 165, utility tariffs and interconnection standards, 176, 186, 188, 189, 192, 197 152-153 environmental and social costs, 152 Remanufacturing of used products for resale, 87, 185 Primary energy sources, 12, 21, 22, 33

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707 Index Renewable Fuel Standard, 245 Renewable energy. See also Biopower; Geothermal; Research, development, and demonstrations (RD&D) Hydropower; Solar; Wind advanced materials, 76 20% electricity generation, 13, 95, 98-99, 305-306, alternative liquid fuels, 74-75, 221, 247, 255, 265, 309-316, 317 267 atmospheric emissions, 300-302, 313 basic research, 75-76 combined energy-waste-and-water plants, 291 battery technologies, 6, 30, 76, 79, 85, 625-626 competitiveness, 97-98, 289, 290, 299 biofuels, 74-75, 90, 221-222, 224 consumption of energy from, 21, 22, 332 biosciences, 74 co-siting of different technologies, 98, 290, 306- buildings sector, 150, 197 307, 308-309, 315-316 CCS demonstrations, 5, 6, 39, 51-52, 65, 66, 68, costs, 33, 51, 99-100, 273, 274, 292-299 70, 73, 74, 91, 92, 107, 108-109, 212, 225, deployment barriers, 12, 97-98, 101 227, 228, 230, 232-233, 250-251, 361, 360, deployment scenarios, 309-317 365, 378, 382-383, 397, 398, 431, 432 development potential, 97-99, 303-309 cellulosic ethanol demonstrations, 6, 64, 74, 90, electricity generation capacity, 2, 31, 51, 94-96, 221-222, 224 271-274, 279-292 climate-related, 75 electricity generation costs, 293-297 CO2 recycling, 75 employment, 304 environmental impacts, 101-102, 299-303 coal technologies, 6, 64, 74, 221-222, 224, findings, 2, 291-292, 297, 299, 302-303, 307-309, 430-441 317 electricity generation, 395-396 greenhouse gas emissions, 16, 101, 300, 302, 313, energy efficiency, 6, 74, 85, 150, 174, 192, 194- 317 195, 197, 200, 201 human and materials resource constraints, 101, evolutionary nuclear reactor demonstrations, 5, 6, 303-304, 308, 323 68, 70-71, 74 industry use, 176 federal support, 76, 194-195, 296 integration in T&D systems, xiii, 3, 27, 34, 57, 58, geoengineering, 75 59, 60, 61, 98, 99, 101, 116, 118, 133, 290, geothermal power, 75 291, 292, 296-297, 298, 305-307, 308-309, industry, 182, 190, 195 314, 316, 322-323, 563, 576, 581-582, 584, investments in, 39, 74, 75-76 597, 604, 614-615, 620, 624, 625 LDV technologies, 6, 74, 75 land-use impacts, 101-102, 300-303, 313 national effort, 28 levelizied cost estimates, 293-297 natural gas from hydrates, 75 market factors, 307 nuclear fuel cycle, 75 non-electricity (distributed), 99-100, 318-322 oil shale extraction technologies, 75 policy setting, 101, 273-274, 279, 302, 307, 317 opportunities for, 6, 30, 73-76, 79, 85, 625-626 production constraints, 304-305 portfolio approach, 5-6, 73, 201, 267, 378-379 R&D, 98, 289-290, 296, 307-308 radioactive waste management, 75 resource base, 95-96, 275-279 solar photovoltaics, 75, 76 speculative technologies, 291-292 scale of demonstrations, 28 status, 271-274 social science research, 75 supply of electricity, 13, 51, 52, 197 urgency of, 5, 30, 71 technology descriptions, 96-97, 280-289 wind energy, 75 timeframes for deployment of technologies, Reserves. See also individual energy sources 289-292 defined, 13

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708 Index spent nuclear fuel processing, 111, 459, 460, 462, Residential buildings. See also Appliances; Buildings; 470, 471, 491, 495, 496, 520, 521-523, 524- Lighting 525, 552 consumption of energy, 17, 22, 36-37, 138, 141, UREX+, 459, 520, 522, 523, 552 146 Shell, 261 electricity, 140 Silicon, 96, 281, 283, 284, 303-304, 305 energy efficiency savings, 40-41, 47-49, 140, 144, SiLyte, 163 147, 150 Smart meters, 9 n.1, 45, 60, 118, 292, 578, 579, 580, energy intensity, 141, 175 589, 591, 598, 603, 605-606, 632 ENERGY STAR® new homes, 142 Sodium-sulfur batteries, 582, 625, 627 heating and cooling, 144 Solar America Initiative, 310, 316 low-energy and zero-net-energy new homes, 84, Solar Energy Industry Association, 296 144, 151 Solar power, general natural gas, 140, 147 consumption, by sector, 17 price of energy, 149 costs, 57, 58, 96 rental units, 50, 87, 136-137, 153 growth, 95, 272 solar power at point of use, 59, 83, 151 resource base, 96, 276-278, 279 tax credits, 144 satellites collectors in space, 291 weatherization assistance program, 198 Solar power, photovoltaic (PV) whole-house approach, 144, 151 backup power, 151 n.10 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 405 competitiveness, 99-100 Resources, defined, 13. See also individual energy costs, 58, 99-100, 101, 281, 283-284, 293, sources 294-295 Resources for the Future, 404 n.38 dye-sensitized solar cell, 283, 284, 292 Russia, 261, 452, 457 n.30, 463, 470, 493, 494, 505, electricity generation capacity, 272, 277-278, 506, 510, 511, 519 n.16, 524, 533, 538 316 Russian Federation, 415, 416 employment, 304 energy savings, 151 environmental impacts, 302 greenhouse gas emissions, 69 S integration in power grid, 3 nanotechnology, 283, 284, 291 Safe Drinking Water Control Act, 407 organic solar cells, 283, 292 Sasol, 226, 261 point-of-use (residential) installations, 59, 96, 272- Saudi Arabia, 345 273, 299 Secondary energy source. See Electricity generation potential of, 13, 151 Sensor development, 87, 176, 180, 183, 185, 190 R&D opportunities, 6, 59 Separation processes and technologies resource base, 277-278 biofuel production, 224, 256, 258 silicon flat-plate arrays, 96, 277-278, 281, 283-284, CO2 separation, 267, 364-365, 378, 397, 422, 423- 303-304, 305 425, 430-431, 434 technology description, 96-97, 281, 283-284, 305 cryogenic, 423, 424, 431 thin-film technologies, 96-97, 283-284, 305 electrochemical, 458-459, 517, 519, 520, 522-523 Solar power, thermal nonelectric, 318-320. See also industry energy efficiency measures, 87, 111, 176, Concentrating solar power 180, 181, 184, 188, 190 South Korea, 20, 190, 453, 504 n.4 PUREX, 111, 456, 459, 460, 462, 470, 471, 491, Spain, 285, 446 495, 520, 522, 531-523

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709 Index Fischer-Tropsch process, 67, 72, 93, 220, 226, 228, Steam heating and process heating, 180, 181, 184 229, 230-231, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, Strontium, 461, 519, 522, 523, 552 242, 252, 261 Sulfur oxides, 189, 249, 288, 301, 313, 333, 369, 408 greenhouse gas emissions, 91-92, 227-228, 232, Superior Graphite, 163 236-237, 239 Supply of energy. See Energy supply indirect liquefaction process, 220, 226-230, 232 Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act, 405 methanol-to-gasoline process, 67, 72, 93, 220, 226- Sweden, 446, 535 227, 228, 229, 235, 236-237, 238, 239, 240, Synthesis gas, 220, 226, 232, 242, 249, 258-259, 261, 252, 258-259, 262 263, 284, 289, 364, 367, 419, 425 RD&D, 74, 231, 247 Synthetic biology, 257-258 siting of plants, 247-248 supply of fuel from, 92, 242-243, 244 water usage, 249 3M, 163 T Townsend Advanced Energy, 163 Toxic Substances Control Act, 405 Taxes Toyota, 163 barriers to technology deployment, 88 Transportation sector. See also Air transportation; carbon, 38 n.1, 244, 406 Alternative transportation fuels; Freight credits, 38 n.1, 51, 95, 99, 101, 144, 188, 192, transportation; Passenger transportation 195-196, 273, 274, 298, 299, 307, 308, 317, barriers to improving energy efficiency, 172-173 447 n.7, 468, 489, 530 baseline case, 141 depreciation deductions, 152, 188, 190 commercial, 156, 159-160 fuel/energy, 157, 192 consumption of energy, 137, 138, 155-157, Technetium, 522, 523, 552 243 Technology. See Critical technologies; Energy- energy efficiency, 2, 3, 4, 38-39 n.1, 40, 41, 43, 44- supply and end-use technologies; Research, 46, 62, 82, 84-86, 88, 141, 155-174 development, and demonstrations; specific energy intensity, 175 technologies findings, 3, 4, 44-45, 173-174 Texas, 338, 339, 397, 398, 401, 436, 567, 568 greenhouse gas emissions, 4, 5, 16, 73, 84, 108, Thailand, 20 156, 160, 211, 212, 333 Thermochemical conversion infrastructure considerations, 86, 156-157, 160, biomass-to-liquid fuel, 91, 226, 227, 228, 229, 171, 174 232, 239-240, 252 intelligent systems, 86, 171-172 carbon capture and storage, 74, 91-92, 226, 227, international comparisons, 157, 170 228, 229-230, 231-233, 239, 250-251 liquid fuel consumption, 36-37, 62-65, 139 co-fed biomass and coal, 3-4, 91-92, 227, 228, 229, petroleum dependence, 3, 14, 16, 17, 24, 62, 84, 230, 231, 232, 235, 237-238, 242, 245-246, 89, 108, 139, 156, 180, 211, 243, 331 247-248, 249 portfolio approach, 4, 5, 68, 71 coal-to-liquid fuel, 91, 92, 220, 227, 228-229, 230- potential for energy savings, 44-46, 62, 82, 84, 231, 249 156, 157-169, 173 commercialization, 226-227 public policies, 86, 172-173 cost analysis, 91, 227-231, 244 regulations, 38-39 n.1 direct liquefaction of coal, 230-231 system-level improvements, 86, 171-172, 174 environmental impacts, 249 TVA, 186, 473 n.68 findings, 231-232

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710 Index New Source Review program, 188-189 U pollutant limits, 322, 404 radiation exposure limits, 546 Underground Injection Control program, 407 vehicle size and weight limits, 46 Union of Concerned Scientists, 404 websites on environmental regulation and United Kingdom, 446, 463, 519, 522, 533 assessments, 403 n.35, 542 n.45 Ukraine, 452 U.S. Geological Survey, 340, 351 Uranium U.S. Maritime Transportation Security Act, 409 demand, 538, 539 U.S. Minerals Management Service, 340, 351, 355, downblending, 538 n.38 403 n.35 enrichment, 483-484, 523 n.32, 536, 538 U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 113, 114 n.18, fuel cycle, 519 445, 449, 450-452, 454, 460, 472, 475, 478- hydride fuel and moderator, 507, 509 479, 481, 487, 488, 490-491, 493, 496, 504, imports, 538 n.39 505, 506, 507, 509-510, 541, 545, 546, 548, mining and milling, 60, 485, 486, 536, 537-538 550, 555, 558, 557 oxide fuel, 520, 521, 514 U.S. Office of Management and Budget, 310 prices, 470, 528 Useful energy sources, defined, 12 radioactive emissions, 541 tailings, 537, 538 resources and reserves, 13, 115, 458, 492-494, 496, 499, 518, 524, 535, 536 U.S. Department of Energy, 219 V 20% wind electricity generation scenario, 13, 95, 98-99, 305-306, 309-316 Vanadium redox, 625, 627 Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, 470, 510, 522 Vermont, 196 employment, 304 FutureGen, 360, 432 Job and Economic Development model, 313 Next Generation Nuclear Plant program, 456, 511 W Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office, 185, 293 Washington state, 196 Office of Nuclear Energy, 522 Waste-heat and waste-materials as energy sources, 86, Office of Science, 76 87, 181, 182 RD&D programs, 194-195, 198, 221-222, 293 Water use, 248, 409-410 Solar America Initiative, 310, 316 Western Governors’ Association, 316 U.S. Department of the Interior, 403 n.35 Western Wind and Solar Integration Study, 314 U.S. Department of Transportation, 219 Windows, 84, 144, 149, 150-151, 155, 194-195, 197 U.S. energy system. See also individual resources Wind power aging of, 13 20% penetration scenarios, 13, 95, 98-99, 100, critical characteristics, 11-13 309-316, 317 current profile, 11-25 capacity, 98-99, 305-306 regional considerations, 31-32 consumption, by sector, 17 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 219, 359 costs, 57, 58, 96, 99, 100, 101, 121, 126, 274, 281, carbon storage regulations, 407, 441 293, 294-295, 296-299, 313-314, 317 Clean Air Interstate Rule, 404 n.39 deployment challenges, 60, 99, 101, 304-305 Clean-Fuel Fleet Program, 261 electricity generation capacity, 17, 27, 36, 51, 57, coal mining standards, 408 95, 128, 272, 275-276, 316

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711 Index siting, 60, 101, 308-309, 315-316 employment, 304 storage and load management, 75, 99, 280, 281, energy flows, 12, 13 297, 308-309 environmental impacts, 101, 301, 302, 313 supply curve, 297, 298 financing, 95, 274 technology description, 96, 280-281, 282 and greenhouse gas emissions, 69, 312 turbines, 95, 96, 100, 276, 279, 280-281, 282, 296, high-altitude kites, 291 304-305, 311-312, 315, 317 integration in power grid, 3, 34, 57, 60, 81, 96, 99, World GTL, 261 100, 101, 133, 280, 290, 296-297, 298, 306- World Resources Institute, 404 n.38 307, 314-315, 317 Worldwatch Institute, 404 n.38 manufacturing, materials, and labor requirements, Wyoming, 339, 397 98, 311-313 offshore, 36, 58, 100, 126, 281, 294-295, 313-314 onshore, 36, 57, 58, 99, 100, 126, 276, 281, 293 n.5, 294-295, 297, 299 potential, 96, 99 Z price of, 273 public policies, 95, 99, 101, 273, 274, 307, 308 ZEBRA battery, 627 resource base, 96, 128, 275-276, 279 Zinc bromide battery, 625, 627 self-erecting towers, 281

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