technical challenges, 225, 251

technology improvement scenarios, 222-225, 251, 256-258

transport and distribution challenges, 90, 221, 223

water use, 248

Biodiesel, 37, 62 n.17, 75, 89, 213, 252-253

Biofuels.

See also Biochemical conversion;

Biomass;

Biomass-to-liquid fuels;

Cellulosic ethanol;

Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuels;

Corn ethanol

advanced, 66, 221, 224-225

algal biodiesel, 75, 89, 252-253

bacteria- and yeast-based direct routes to, 255-256

biobutanol, 89, 213, 220, 221, 253-254

from CO2 feedstocks, 74-75

consumption, 21, 37

greenhouse gas emissions, 212, 213, 224-225

hydrocarbon fuels from biomass, 3-4, 225, 254-255

potential of, 66, 73, 212, 245

production strategy, 247-248

R&D, 74-75, 221-222, 224

Biomass

carbon issues, 72, 221, 229

co-fed coal, see Coal-and-biomass-to-liquid fuel

consumption, 17, 18, 332

cost of energy from, 58

on CRP lands, 89, 214, 215, 218, 234

diesel fuel components, 255

distance from conversion plant, 215-216, 217

electricity generation, see Biopower

environmental impacts of crops, 248

findings, 217-218

food/feed crop displacement, 89, 213, 217, 233, 289, 299

gasification technologies, 226, 227, 228, 229, 232, 361-362 n.15, 386, 422

gasoline blend stock, 254-255

greenhouse gas emissions, 69, 72, 212

hydrocarbon fuels from, 254-255

incentives for growers, 89-90, 216-217, 218

industrial use, 17, 180

non-electricity applications, 32, 321-322

price delivered to conversion plant, 215

supply, 32, 37, 66, 77, 89-90, 211, 213-217, 221, 229-230, 233, 235

sustainable production, 89, 214-215, 217-218

systems approach to production, 216-217

Biomass-to-liquid fuels.

See also Biochemical conversion

competitiveness, 239-240

costs, 67, 91, 217, 222-223, 224, 234, 237-238, 239-240, 241, 251, 252

environmental concerns, 212

feedstock supply, 213-217

greenhouse gas emissions, 71, 91, 212, 227, 234, 237-238, 239

R&D, 217-218

supply of fuel from, 37, 241-242, 243, 244-245

thermochemical conversion, 91, 226, 227, 228, 229, 232, 239-240

Biopower

build time, 128

capacity, 128, 390-391

carbon balance, 69, 288, 386-390

co-firing with coal, 361-362 n.15, 391

cost estimates, 57, 58, 126, 294-295, 390

defined, 287-288

employment, 304

environmental impacts, 101, 288, 302

feedstock supply, 32, 287-288, 289, 299

landfill gas fuel, 97, 272 n.2, 287, 288, 387

land-use values, 301

market share, 304

municipal solid waste fuel, 89, 97, 213-214, 217, 235, 235, 272, 273, 287

oxygen-blown gasification, 288-289, 386, 419, 421

policies, 273

pretreatment step, 221, 222, 224, 288-289, 251, 288

prospects, 299, 385-391

readiness for deployment, 291, 317

sources, 97, 235, 272 n.2

supply of electricity, 36, 51, 271-272, 288, 316, 317, 385-386

technology description, 97, 287-289

wood-based, 97, 272 n.2, 288

Biotechnology, 4, 254, 255-258

Brazil, 20

British Petroleum, 254, 336

Buildings sector.

See also Appliances;

Commercial;

Residential

advanced technologies, 83-84, 149-152, 155

barriers to improving energy efficiency, 77, 152-154, 155



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