• The full range of energy efficiency technologies in the buildings, transportation, and industrial sectors.

  • Coal and natural gas with CCS (see Finding 6 and Chapter 7 for details).

  • Evolutionary nuclear power (see Finding 6 and Chapter 8).

  • Integrated gasification combined cycle, ultrasupercritical pulverized coal, and oxyfuel plants to improve the efficiency and performance of coal-generated electricity, pursued in coordination with research, development, and demonstrations on advanced materials and CCS technologies (see Chapter 7).

  • Thermochemical conversion of coal and coal-and-biomass mixtures to liquid fuels, integrated with CCS, at commercial scale. If decisions to proceed with such demonstrations are made soon, and if CCS is shown to be safe and viable by about 2015, these technologies could be commercially deployable within a decade under favorable economic conditions (see Chapter 5).

  • Research and development on cellulosic-conversion methods, followed by demonstration of cellulosic ethanol production at commercial scale, to achieve proof of principle and prepare this technology for wide-spread deployment (see Chapter 5).

  • Advanced LDVs, including plug-in hybrids and battery-electric and fuel-cell vehicles. Demonstrations of on-the-road vehicles are critical to getting real-world data on performance and service lives (see Chapter 4).

R&D will help to ensure the success of future new-technology deployments and especially to ensure that the technology pipeline remains full in the decades ahead. Significant investments in R&D over the next decade, by the public and the private sector alike, will be required for bringing some of the technologies described in this report to the point that they are cost-effective and ready for widespread deployment. The needed areas of R&D include:

  • Advanced biosciences—genomics, molecular biology, and genetics—to develop biotechnologies for converting biomass to lipid, higher-alcohol, and hydrocarbon fuels that can be integrated directly into existing transportation infrastructures.

  • Advanced technologies for producing alternative liquid fuels from renewable resources—such as fuel production from CO2 feedstocks

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