ferent policy measures discussed, as well as their roles in their specific innovation system and policy contexts. In addition, innovation policies and programs that address important challenges must be scaled in relation to the entire system or parts of the system they address. Innovation policies and the resources devoted to them often suffer from a “tyranny of small scale.” Even well-conceived programs cannot make a meaningful contribution to innovation performance unless the program and resources allocated are adequate to the task.

Taking into consideration these caveats, policymakers in the United States can find instructive lessons in the broad goals, multiple instruments, significant funding, sustained activity, and regional branding found in the Flanders experience. Such a comparative perspective is essential if we are to respond manfully to this century’s innovation imperative.



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