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Workshops, Symposia, Meetings of Experts, and Other Special Projects

In 2007, 6 workshops, 2 colloquia (one as part of the public seminar series), and 3 public seminar series lectures and panel discussions were convened, and 2 workshop reports were published. (Projects are summarized below.) The planning committees for these projects do not provide advice and, therefore, are not governed by FACA Section 15.

Also in 2007, planning began for an ad hoc committee to organize the Workshop on Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events.

COLLOQUIUM ON ASTROBIOLOGY AND MARS EXPLORATION

The Space Studies Board convened for NASA a one-day scientific forum, “The Colloquium on Astrobiology and Mars Exploration” on July 8, 2007, to discuss selected aspects of the future robotic and human exploration of Mars, to support NASA’s activities related to the martian component of the Vision for Space Exploration, and to disseminate several recent NRC reports, including An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars, Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System, and The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems.


David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board

Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board

FORGING THE FUTURE OF SPACE SCIENCE: INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC SEMINAR SERIES

The Forging the Future of Space Science international public seminar series commemorates the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and the Space Studies Board, engaging the public and the scientific community in discussions about the advances that have been achieved over the past 50 years in space science, and the discoveries that await us in the next 50 years. In this context, “space science” incorporates space-based astrophysics, heliophysics, Earth science, solar system exploration, and microgravity life and physical sciences.

The seminar series began in September 2007 and includes several regional gatherings featuring afternoon panel discussions and evening lectures, and two all-day colloquia featuring panel discussions and lectures. The events are sponsored by the National Academies, NASA, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Orbital, Northrop Grumman, Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, ATK, and the Aerospace Corporation. A number of co-sponsors have assisted in publicizing the events, including the American Astronautical Society, the American Astronomical Society, the American Institute of Aeronatics and Astronautics, COSPAR, the International Space University, the National Space Society, and the Planetary Society.



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4 Workshops, Symposia, Meetings of Experts, and Other Special Projects In 2007, 6 workshops, 2 colloquia (one as part of the public seminar series), and 3 public seminar series lectures and panel discussions were convened, and 2 workshop reports were published. (Projects are summarized below.) The planning committees for these projects do not provide advice and, therefore, are not governed by FACA Sec- tion 15. Also in 2007, planning began for an ad hoc committee to organize the Workshop on Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events. COLLOQUIUM ON ASTROBIOLOGY AND MARS EXPLORATION The Space Studies Board convened for NASA a one-day scientific forum, “The Colloquium on Astrobiology and Mars Exploration” on July 8, 2007, to discuss selected aspects of the future robotic and human exploration of Mars, to support NASA’s activities related to the martian component of the Vision for Space Exploration, and to disseminate several recent NRC reports, including An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars, Exploring Organic Enironments in the Solar System, and The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems. David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board FORGING THE FUTURE OF SPACE SCIENCE: INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC SEMINAR SERIES The Forging the Future of Space Science international public seminar series commemorates the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and the Space Studies Board, engaging the public and the scientific community in discussions about the advances that have been achieved over the past 50 years in space science, and the discoveries that await us in the next 50 years. In this context, “space science” incorporates space-based astrophysics, heliophysics, Earth science, solar system exploration, and microgravity life and physical sciences. The seminar series began in September 2007 and includes several regional gatherings featuring afternoon panel discussions and evening lectures, and two all-day colloquia featuring panel discussions and lectures. The events are sponsored by the National Academies, NASA, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Orbital, Northrop Grumman, Ball Aero- space & Technologies Corporation, ATK, and the Aerospace Corporation. A number of co-sponsors have assisted in publicizing the events, including the American Astronautical Society, the American Astronomical Society, the American Institute of Aeronatics and Astronautics, COSPAR, the International Space University, the National Space Society, and the Planetary Society. 6

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7 Workshops, Symposia, Meetings of Experts, and Other Special Projects The first three regional events, held in Baltimore, Maryland, Durham, New Hampshire, and Huntsville, Ala- bama, featured lectures by John Mather of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics; Ralph J. Cicerone, President of the National Academy of Sciences; and Wesley T. Huntress, Direc- tor Emeritus of the Geophysical Laboratory at the Carnegie Institution. The first all-day colloquium, held on December 1, 2007, included panel discussions on the search for life, dark energy, and robots in space. It also featured lectures by Roger Launius on Transcendence and Meaning in the First 0 Years of Space Science, Soroosh Sorooshian on Global Climate Change: The Latest News from Space, and Roger Bonnet on The Eolution of International Cooperation in Space Science. On the evening preceding the all- day colloquium, an international roundtable on the role of international cooperation in space science, starting with the IGY, was held. The roundtable included Jacques Blamont, Roger Bonnet, Len Fisk, Takashi Kubota, Antonio Lazcano, and Alexander Pavlov. More information on past and future events, including presentations, webcasts, and podcasts can be found at . ISSUES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY WORKSHOP SERIES An ad hoc committee under the auspices of the Space Studies Board will organize a series of public workshops summarizing space and Earth science and technology issues that will be convened to complement Space Studies Board meetings. The first in the series, “Summary of Space and Earth Science Issues from the Workshop on U.S. Civil Space Policy,” took place on November 29-30, 2007, at a joint event with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board. The workshop was designed as an opportunity to assess where the Vision for Space Exploration and U.S. civil space policy in general, stands today. Planning Committee Membership A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) (chair) Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Molly Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California James Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Charles E. Woodward, University of Minnesota Marcia S. Smith, Director, Space Studies Board Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board WORKSHOP ON DECADAL SCIENCE STRATEGY SURVEYS The ad hoc Planning Committee for the Decadal Science Strategy Surveys Workshop organized a workshop that was held on November 14-16, 2006, in Irvine, California, to promote discussion of the use of NRC decadal surveys for developing and implementing scientific priorities, to review lessons learned from the most recent surveys, and to seek to identify potential approaches for future surveys that can enhance their realism, utility, and endurance. The summary report, Decadal Science Strategy Sureys: Report of a Workshop, prepared by SSB member Jack Fellows and SSB staff, was released in April 2007 and published in final form in June. The Summary is reprinted in Chapter 5; the full report is available at .

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 Space Studies Board Annual Report—007 Planning Committee Membership Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan (chair) Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Suzanne Oparil, University of Alabama, Birmingham Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Warren M. Washington, National Center for Atmospheric Research A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (rapporteur) Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Claudette K. Baylor-Fleming, Administrative Assistant, Space Studies Board WORKSHOP ON OPTIONS TO ENSURE THE CLIMATE RECORD FROM THE NPOESS AND GOES-R SPACECRAFT In late 2006, in response to a request by NASA and NOAA for a follow-on activity to the Earth science and applications from space decadal survey, the Panel on Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft was formed. The panel was charged with organizing a workshop and writing a summary report of the workshop. At its April 23-24, 2007, meeting, the panel received extensive briefings related to its charge. The “Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft” workshop was held on June 19-21, 2007, at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., attracting some 100 scientists and engineers from academia, government, and industry. The workshop gave participants a chance to review and comment on the NASA/NOAA assessments of the climate impacts associated with the instrument cancellations and de-scopes to NPOESS, which occurred following the June 2006 Nunn-McCurdy review, as well as an opportunity to comment on a variety of suggested mitigation scenarios. Presentations from the April 23-24, 2007, meeting and the June 19-21, 2007, workshop were made available at . The workshop summary report, Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Space- craft: A Workshop Report, released in unedited prepublication format on October 2, 2007, does not include any panel findings or recommendations. The workshop sponsors requested the NRC perform a study that will provide findings and recommendations (see “Strategy to Mitigate the Impact of Sensor Descopes and Demanifests on the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft” in Chapter 3). Planning Committee Membership Antonio J. Busalacchi, Jr., University of Maryland, College Park (chair) Philip E. Ardanuy, Raytheon Information Solutions Judith A. Curry, Georgia Institute of Technology Randall Friedl,* Jet Propulsion Laboratory Judith L. Lean, Naval Research Laboratory Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Jay S. Pearlman, The Boeing Company James F.W. Purdom, Colorado State University Christopher S. Velden, University of Wisconsin-Madison Thomas H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State University Frank J. Wentz, Remote Sensing Systems Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Theresa M. Fisher, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board ____________ *Resigned from committee May 2007.

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 Workshops, Symposia, Meetings of Experts, and Other Special Projects WORKSHOP ON RESEARCH ENABLED BY THE LUNAR ENVIRONMENT The ad hoc Planning Committee for the Workshop on Research Enabled by the Lunar Environment was formed to organize a workshop to generate a community exchange of ideas and a discussion of recent research relevant to human space exploration topics. The committee has held two teleconferences to discuss topics for the workshop. The workshop took place on June 14-15, 2007, at the National Academy of Sciences building in Washington, D.C. The workshop focused on capabilities that NASA will need to develop in order to enable future human explora- tion of space, with the intent of obtaining a wide range of inputs on the key scientific and technological questions that can be addressed through research during lunar missions. Sixty-five people participated, including 32 invited speakers. Topics included food supply challenges, challenges in power generation and storage, challenges in in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), challenges in human physiology and performance, life support challenges, and chal- lenges associated with lunar surface operations. The organizing committee briefed NASA on the issues raised at the workshop. A workshop website was created as a resource to the community and included presentations from the workshop and relevant background documents. Planning Committee Membership Mary Jane Osborn, University of Connecticut Health Center (chair) Edward D. McCullough, Boeing Phantom Works Susan C. Doll, Earth Institute at Columbia University Simon Ostrach, Case Western Reserve University Jack Knight, Independent Consultant Sandra Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Maureen Mellody, Senior Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Victoria Swisher, Research Associate, Space Studies Board Carmela Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board WORKSHOP ON SOCIETAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF SEVERE SPACE WEATHER EVENTS The Societal and Economic Impacts of Severe Space Weather Events Workshop will examine the nation’s cur- rent and future ability to manage the effects of space weather events on a wide range of critical infrastructures, and their resulting societal and economic impacts. An organizational meeting will be held on February 19-21, 2008, in Washington, D.C. Sandra Graham, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Theresa M. Fisher, Program Associate, Space Studies Board WORKSHOP ON SPACE SCIENCE ACTIVITIES AND INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS (ITAR) An ad hoc planning committee organized a Workshop on Space Science Activities and International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) to initiate a dialogue among State Department regulators and policymakers; university researchers, ITAR officials, and faculty; NASA officials; and other interested parties to explore concerns about ITAR’s effect on space science activities. The workshop was held on September 12-13, 2007, at the National Academy of Sciences building in Wash- ington, D.C. Approximately 70 individuals, including researchers and administrators from universities and national laboratories and representatives of key government agencies, congressional committees, and the relevant policy com- munity, met to explore concerns about ITAR’s effect on space science activities. The dialogue helped to delineate where ITAR requirements, or uncertainties about the interpretation of those requirements, are creating problems for space science activities and to identify opportunities for near-term actions to help mediate those problems. A summary report of the workshop discussions is being prepared for release in the first quarter of 2008.

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0 Space Studies Board Annual Report—007 Planning Committee Membership Norman P. Neureiter, American Association for the Advancement of Science (chair) Spence M. (Sam) Armstrong, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (retired) Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado at Boulder Reta F. Beebe, New Mexico State University Claude R. Canizares, Massachusetts Institute of Technology John R. Casani, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Jacqueline N. Hewitt, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Margaret Finarelli, George Mason University (rapporteur) Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board Victoria Swisher, Research Assistant, Space Studies Board Sandra Wilson, Program Assistant, Space Studies Board WORKSHOP ON U.S. CIVIL SPACE POLICY The ad hoc Space Policy Workshop Planning Committee was established under the auspices of the Space Studies Board, in collaboration with the Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board, to organize a public workshop for the purpose of encouraging broad national discussion about future directions of the U.S. civil space program. The workshop was held on November 29-30, 2007, concurrent with the SSB meeting at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California. Approximately 60 individuals participated—including members of the SSB and ASEB and other experts from academia, industry, not-for-profit organizations, relevant federal agencies, and Congress. The workshop drew upon invited talks, panel discussions, and general discussions to consider aspects of the question “What are the principal purposes, goals, and priorities of U.S. civil space?” The goal of the workshop was not to develop definitive answers to such questions but to air a range of views and perspectives that will serve to inform public discussion of U.S. space policy. The workshop discussions will be summarized in an NRC report to be issued in early 2008. Planning Committee Membership Lennard A. Fisk, University of Michigan (chair) Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Raymond S. Colladay, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired) Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire George A. Paulikas, The Aerospace Corporation (retired) Warren M. Washington, National Center for Atmospheric Research A. Thomas Young, Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Molly Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. (rapporteur) Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Kerrie Smith, Program Officer, Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board Victoria Swisher, Research Assistant, Space Studies Board Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board Sandra Wilson, Program Assistant, Space Studies Board