Cover Image

Not for Sale



View/Hide Left Panel

2
Board and Standing Committees: Activities and Membership

During 2007, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had five standing committees representing various disciplines: the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy), the Committee on Earth Studies, the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (jointly with the Board on Life Sciences), the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study committees (see Chapter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific community. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), Sec. 15.

SPACE STUDIES BOARD

HIGHLIGHTS OF SPACE STUDIES BOARD ACTIVITIES

First Quarter

The Space Studies Board held its 152nd meeting at the National Academies’ Main Building in Washington, D.C., on March 5-7, 2007. The meeting time was devoted to reviewing the status of selected ongoing SSB studies, planning near-term consultations with government officials regarding potential future studies and planning the next SSB meeting. One major topic for discussion was the administration’s FY2008 budget proposal. Guest speakers included Colleen Hartman, NASA Science Mission Directorate; Carl Walz, NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate; Mary Kicza, NOAA-NESDIS; Wayne van Citters and Robert Robinson, National Science Foundation; Robie Samanta Roy, Office of Science and Technology Policy; Paul Shawcross and Amy Kaminski, Office of Management and Budget; and three congressional staff—Jeff Bingham, Senate Commerce Committee; Dick Obermann, House Science and Technology Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics; and Ed Feddeman, House Science and Technology Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics.

Special guest, S. Alan Stern, Executive Director, Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, joined us via teleconference and provided his views as the incoming NASA Associate Administrator for Science.

Finally, NRC staff officer Tim Meyer, Board on Physics and Astronomy, provided an illuminating, and very enjoyable presentation on his experience teaching science policy to high school students.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 9
2 Board and Standing Committees: Activities and Membership During 2007, the Space Studies Board (SSB) had five standing committees representing various disciplines: the Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (jointly with the Board on Physics and Astronomy), the Committee on Earth Studies, the Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (jointly with the Board on Life Sciences), the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration, and the Committee on Solar and Space Physics. The Board and its standing committees provide strategic direction and oversee activities of ad hoc study committees (see Chapter 3), interact with sponsors, and serve as a communications conduit between the government and the scientific commu- nity. They do not provide formal advice and recommendations, and therefore are not subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), Sec. 15. SPACE STUDIES BOARD HIGHLIGHTS OF SPACE STUDIES BOARD ACTIVITIES First Quarter The Space Studies Board held its 152nd meeting at the National Academies’ Main Building in Washington, D.C., on March 5-7, 2007. The meeting time was devoted to reviewing the status of selected ongoing SSB studies, planning near-term consultations with government officials regarding potential future studies and planning the next SSB meeting. One major topic for discussion was the administration’s FY2008 budget proposal. Guest speakers included Colleen Hartman, NASA Science Mission Directorate; Carl Walz, NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate; Mary Kicza, NOAA-NESDIS; Wayne van Citters and Robert Robinson, National Science Foundation; Robie Samanta Roy, Office of Science and Technology Policy; Paul Shawcross and Amy Kaminski, Office of Man- agement and Budget; and three congressional staff—Jeff Bingham, Senate Commerce Committee; Dick Obermann, House Science and Technology Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics; and Ed Feddeman, House Science and Technology Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics. Special guest, S. Alan Stern, Executive Director, Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute, joined us via teleconference and provided his views as the incoming NASA Associate Administrator for Science. Finally, NRC staff officer Tim Meyer, Board on Physics and Astronomy, provided an illuminating, and very enjoyable presentation on his experience teaching science policy to high school students. 

OCR for page 9
0 Space Studies Board Annual Report—007 Second Quarter The Space Studies Board held its 153rd meeting at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, CA, on June 27-28, 2007. The first day of the meeting was devoted to an overview of JPL and its projects, including a tour of the ATHLETE lunar robot laboratory and the Mars Science Laboratory projects among others. The second day focused on sounding rockets, launch vehicle options, small satellites, and independent cost estimating. The Board was also given updates from ad hoc committee chairs and staff on completed, ongoing, and new projects, and the SSB seminar series Forging the Future of Space Science. Guest speakers included JPL Director Charles Elachi and a number of JPL experts. The Board also heard from Phil Eberspeaker, Chief, NASA Sounding Rockets Program Office; Bill Wrobel, Assistant Associate Administrator for Launch Services at NASA Headquarters; Pete Worden, Director of NASA’s Ames Research Center; Joe Hamaker, Senior Cost Analyst at SAIC; and David Bearden, Principal Director for NASA programs at the Aerospace Corporation. Third Quarter The Space Studies Board did not meet during this quarter; however, the SSB executive committee (XCOM) did meet on August 20-22, 2007, at the J. Erik Jonsson Woods Hole Center in Woods Hole, MA, for its annual strategic planning session. The XCOM received a visit from Dr. Alan Stern, Associate Administrator for Science at NASA. Dr. Stern shared his thoughts and received input from the XCOM members on several topics, including PI Mission modes, the Mars program, Earth science missions, a restructured Navigator Program, and the Lunar Science program and community. In addition to the discussion with Dr. Stern, the XCOM spoke with congressional staff from the Senate Com- merce, Science and Transportation Committee and the House Committee on Science and Technology on the outlook from Capitol Hill. The committee continued general discussion on the roles and operations of the Board and its standing com- mittees, ad hoc committees, the financial status of the Board, the NRC efforts to streamline internal processes, and planning for the November SSB meeting and Space Policy Workshop. Fourth Quarter The Space Studies Board held a half-day meeting at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on November 29, 2007. The Board meeting was followed by a one and a half day Board-sponsored workshop on U.S. civil space policy, discussed in Chapter 4. The Board chair and vice-chair reported on discussions held at the Board’s Executive Committee meeting in August 2007. Board members were presented with the status of several SSB activities, including a study entitled “Critical Issues in U.S. Space Policy” which is being funded by the National Academies; the ongoing seminar series “Forging the Future of Space Science—The Next 50 Years” (discussed in Chapter 4); and the James A. Van Allen Lectureship, which will be presented on June 26, 2008. The annual balance and composition discussion was also held. The Board ended the meeting with a brief discussion of the objectives for the Workshop on U.S. Civil Space Policy.

OCR for page 9
 Board and Standing Committees SPACE STUDIES BOARD MEMBERSHIP July 1, 2006–June 30, 2007 July 1, 2007–June 30, 2008 Lennard A. Fisk (chair), University of Michigan Lennard A. Fisk, (chair) University of Michigan A. Thomas Young (vice chair), Lockheed Martin A. Thomas Young, (vice chair) Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Corporation (retired) Spiro K. Antiochos,* Naval Research Laboratory Spiro K. Antiochos, Naval Research Laboratory Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado at Boulder Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Steven J. Battel, Battel Engineering Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Judith A. Curry, Georgia Institute of Technology Elizabeth R. Cantwell, Los Alamos National Laboratory Jack D. Farmer, Arizona State University Alan Dressler, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Jack D. Fellows, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Atmospheric Research Jacqueline N. Hewitt, Massachusetts Institute of Fiona A. Harrison, California Institute of Technology Technology Tamara E. Jernigan, Lawrence Livermore National Tamara E. Jernigan, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Laboratory Klaus Keil, University of Hawaii at Manoa Klaus Keil, University of Hawaii, Manoa Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California California James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University Norman P. Neureiter, American Association for the Soroosh Sorooshian, University of California, Irvine Advancement of Science Richard H. Truly, National Renewable Energy Suzanne Oparil, University of Alabama, Birmingham Laboratory James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University Joan Vernikos, Thirdage LLC Ronald F. Probstein, Massachusetts Institute of Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Technology Warren M. Washington, National Center for Harvey D. Tananbaum, Smithsonian Astrophysical Atmospheric Research Observatory Charles E. Woodward, University of Minnesota, Richard H. Truly, National Renewable Energy Minneapolis Laboratory Gary P. Zank, University of California, Riverside Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Warren M. Washington, National Center for Atmospheric Research Gary P. Zank, University of California, Riverside __________________ *Term ended December 31, 2007. Ex Officio and Liaison Members Raymond S. Colladay, Lockheed Martin Astronautics (retired) (ex-officio, Chair, NRC Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board) Jean-Pierre Swings, Institute d’Astrophysique (liaison, Chair of the European Space Science Committee) Frank E. Muller-Karger, University of South Florida (ex-officio, member of the NRC Ocean Studies Board) Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology (liaison, U.S. representative to COSPAR)

OCR for page 9
 Space Studies Board Annual Report—007 Membership of the 2006 SSB Executive Committee July 1, 2006–June 30, 2007 July 1, 2007–June 30, 2008 Lennard A. Fisk (chair), University of Michigan Lennard A. Fisk (chair), University of Michigan A. Thomas Young (vice chair), Lockheed Martin A. Thomas Young (vice chair), Lockheed Martin Corporation (retired) Corporation (retired) Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder Daniel N. Baker, University of Colorado, Boulder Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire Molly K. Macauley, Resources for the Future, Inc. Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern Berrien Moore III, University of New Hampshire California Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern Suzanne Oparil, University of Alabama, Birmingham California Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University James A. Pawelczyk, Pennsylvania State University Joseph F. Veverka, Cornell University Staff Marcia S. Smith, Director Joseph K. Alexander, Senior Program Officer Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer and Interim Associate Director (from October) Robert L. Riemer, † Senior Program Officer David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer Brian D. Dewhurst,† Program Officer Dwayne A. Day, Program Officer Victoria Swisher, Research Associate Barbara S. Akinwole, Information Management Associate Tanja Pilzak, Administrative Coordinator Christina O. Shipman, Financial Associate Catherine A. Gruber, Assistant Editor Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate Theresa M. Fisher, Program Associate Claudette K. Baylor-Fleming, Administrative Assistant (through July) Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant __________________ †Staff from other NRC Boards who are shared with the SSB. Consultants Diana Alexander (from March) Johannes Loschnigg (from October) Harvey Meyerson (February through July) Ian Pryke (from July) Space Policy Interns Stephanie Bednarek, Summer Abigail Fraeman, Summer Amanda Purcell, Autumn

OCR for page 9
 Board and Standing Committees U.S. NATIONAL COMMITTEE FOR COSPAR The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) held several business meetings at its headquarters in Paris dur- ing the first quarter. These included the COSPAR Publication Committee (March 18-19), the Scientific Program Committee (March 19-20), the COSPAR Scientific Advisory Committee (March 21), and the COSPAR Bureau (March 22). The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) did not meet for the remainder of the 2007. The next COSPAR business meetings will take place in Paris, France on March 25-28, 2008, and the next COSPAR Scientific Assembly will take place in Montreal, Canada, on July 13-20, 2008. Edward C. Stone, California Institute of Technology (U.S. Representative to COSPAR) David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (Executive Secretary for COSPAR) Carmela J. Chamberlain, Program Associate, Space Studies Board STANDING COMMITTEES COMMITTEE ON ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS The Committee on Astronomy and Astrophysics (CAA), which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the Board on Physics and Astronomy (BPA), did not meet during the first quarter. At CAA’s meeting in Washington, D.C., at the Keck Center on May 22-23, 2007, the committee heard presen- tations from Jon Morse and Yvonne Pendleton of NASA’s Science Mission Directorate on the status of NASA’s Astrophysics Program and the associated Individual Investigator grants. The committee also heard from the Depart- ment of Energy’s (DOE’s) High Energy Physics program and the National Science Foundation’s (NSF’s) Astronomy program. Finally, the committee discussed the SOFIA mission with the program’s project manager. CAA, on a hiatus until the completion of the next astronomy and astrophysics decadal survey, did not meet for the remainder of 2007. BPA held a planning meeting for the decadal survey on April 28, 2007, and has submitted proposals for supporting the study to NASA, NSF, and DOE. The BPA and SSB have also held several joint town hall meetings at meetings of the AAS and APS. A historical summary of reports from CAA and related committees is presented in Figure 2.1. Membership July 1, 2006–June 30, 2007 July 1, 2007–June 30, 2008 Charles L. Bennett (co-chair), Johns Hopkins Charles L. Bennett (co-chair), Johns Hopkins University C. Megan Urry (co-chair),† Yale University University C. Megan Urry (co-chair), Yale University Michell C. Begelman, University of Colorado, Boulder Donald Backer, University of California, Berkeley Adam S. Burrows, University of Arizona Michell C. Begelman, University of Colorado, Lynne Hillenbrand, California Institute of Technology Boulder Charles McGruder III, Western Kentucky University Thomas J. Bogdan, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Adam S. Burrows, University of Arizona Alexei Filippenko, University of California, Berkeley Timothy M. Heckman, Johns Hopkins University Lynne Hillenbrand, California Institute of Technology Charles McGruder III, Western Kentucky University Stephan S. Meyer, University of Chicago Scott D. Tremaine, Princeton University Jean L. Turner, University of California, Los Angeles __________________ †Term ended December 31, 2007

OCR for page 9
14 Space Studies Board Annual Report—2007 A Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1979) Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s (1982) Institutional Arrangements for the Space Telescope (1976) Institutional Arrangements The Explorer Program for Long-Lived Space Space Science in the Twenty- for the Space Telescope: A Astronomy and First CenturyAstronomy and Observatories for Astronomy Mid-Term Review (1985) Astrophysics (1986) and Astrophysics (1987) Astrophysics (1988) The Decade of Discovery in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1991) A Strategy for Ground-Based A Scientific Assessment of Review of Gravity Optical and Infrared a New Technology Orbital Probe B (1995) Astronomy (1995) Telescope (1995) Federal Funding of Failed Stars and Super A New Science Strategy for Space Astronomy Ground-Based Solar Astronomical Planets (1998) and Astrophysics (1997) Research (1998) Research (2000) Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium (2000) Review of Science U.S. Astronomy and The Atacama Large Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos (2002) Requirements for the Astrophysics: Managing Millimeter Array (ALMA): Terrestrial Planet Finder: an Integrated Program Implications of a (2001) Letter Report (2004) Potential Descope The Review of Progress in (2005) Astronomy and Astrophysics toward the Decadal Vision Portals to the Universe: The NASA Astronomy The Astrophysical (The Mid-Course Review)” (2005) Science Centers (2007) Context of Life (2005) NASA’s Beyond Einstein Program: An A Performance Assessment of NASA ’s Architecture for Implementation (2007) Astrophysics Program (2007) FIGURE 2.1 SSB-NRC advice on astronomy and astrophysics (1979-2007). 2-1

OCR for page 9
 Board and Standing Committees Staff Brian D. Dewhurst, Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board COMMITTEE ON EARTH STUDIES The Committee on Earth Studies (CES) continued to stand down as work continued on the decadal survey “Earth Science and Applications from Space: A Community Assessment and Strategy for the Future” and the follow-on decadal survey activitythe Panel on Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft and the ad hoc Committee on A Strategy to Mitigate the Impact of Sensor Descopes and Demanifests on the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft. Resumption of committee activities is anticipated in late 2007 or early 2008. During the fourth quarter committee formation began for the appointment of a new chair, vice chair, and addi- tional committee members. CES will meet late in the first quarter of 2008. A historical summary of reports from CES and related committees is presented in Figure 2.2. Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Theresa M. Fisher, Program Associate, Space Studies Board COMMITTEE ON THE ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF LIFE The Committee on the Origins and Evolution of Life (COEL), which operates under the joint auspices of the SSB and the Board on Life Sciences, held its first meeting of 2007 at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Wash- ington, D.C., on February 19-20. The majority of the meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions relating to the status of, and future prospects for, astrobiology in light of NASA’s budget for FY2007 and the President’s proposed budget for FY2008. Following the committee’s discussions, a short presentation was drafted for use at the March 5-7 SSB meeting. During the second quarter, COEL met at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on May 14-15. The committee continued its discussion from the February meeting on the status of, and future pros- pects for, astrobiology in light of NASA’s budget for FY2007 and the President’s proposed budget for FY2008. The committee also discussed several potential study activities including an astrobiology strategy for the exploration of the outer solar system, an assessment of the status of current theories on the origin and early evolution of life, and a review of NASA’s astrobiology roadmap. COEL did not meet during the third quarter. The committee is in the process of appointing seven new members to replace those whose terms have ended The committee held its final meeting of 2007 at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, on November 7-9. In addition to briefings on various aspects of NASA’s astrobiology programs and science pre- sentations, the committee devoted time to discussing future study activities. The future projects discussed included reviewing and updating the planetary protection requirements for Mars sample-return missions and the drafting of an astrobiology strategy for the exploration of the outer solar system. A historical summary of reports from COEL and related committees is presented in Figure 2.3.

OCR for page 9
6 Space Studies Board Annual Report—007 NASA’s Plans for Post-2002 Earth Observing Missions (1999) "On Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission" (2000) The Role of Small Satellites in NASA and NOAA Earth Observation Programs (2000) Ensuring the Climate Record from the NPP and NPOESS Meteorological Satellites (2000) Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Research Strategy for 2000-2010 (2000) Issues in the Integration of Issues in the Integration of Research and Operational Satellite Research and Operational Satellite Systems for Climate Research—I. Systems for Climate Research—II. Science and Design (2000) Implementation (2001) Transforming Remote Sensing Data into Information and Applications (2001) Toward New Partnerships in Remote Sensing: Government, the Private Sector, and Earth Science Research (2002) Using Remote Sensing in State and Local Government :Information for Management Review of NASA’s Earth and Decision Making (2003) Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan (2002) Review of NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Applications Program Plan (2002) Satellite Observations of the Earth’s Environment: Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations (2003) “Assessment of NASA’s Draft 2003 Earth Science Enterprise Strategy” (2003) Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions (2004) Utilization of Operational Environmental Satellite Data: Review of Goals and Plans for Ensuring Readiness for 2010 and Beyond (2004) NASA’s Space and Earth Sciences (2005) Extending the Effective Lifetimes of Earth Observing Research Missions (2005) “A Review of NASA’s 2006 Draft Science Plan: Letter Report” (2006) Earth Science and Applications from Space: Urgent Needs and Opportunities to Serve the Nation (2005) Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond (2007) Options to Ensure the Climate Record from the NPOESS and GOES-R Spacecraft: A Workshop Report (2007) FIGURE 2.2 SSB-NRC advice on Earth science and applications in space (1979-2007). 2-2

OCR for page 9
7 Board and Standing Committees Planetary Protection Mars Conference on Hazard of Planetary Contamination Due to Microbiological Contamination in the Interior of Spacecraft Components (1965) Biology and the “Study on the Exploration of Mars (1965) Biological Quarantine of Venus ” (1967) “Review of the Extraterrestrial Life—An Sterilization Anthology and Bibliography, Parameter Probability Supplementary to Biology and “Review of Planetary Astrobiology of Growth (Pg)” the Exploration of Mars (1966) Quarantine Policy” (1970) (1972) “On Contamination of the Life Sciences in Space (1970) Outer Planets by Earth Organisms” (1976) Post-Viking Biological “Recommendation on Quarantine Policy for Investigations of Mars (1977) Uranus, Neptune, and Titan” (1976) Origin and Evolution of Recommendations on Quarantine Policy for Mars, Jupiter, Life—Implications for the Planets: A Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Titan (1978) Scientific Strategy for the 1980s (1981) “On NASA Policy for Planetary “On Categorization of the The Search for Life’s Strategy for the Protection” (1985) Mars Orbiter Mission” (1985) Origins: Progress and Detection and Study of Future Directions in Other Planetary Planetary Biology and Systems and Extrasolar “Recommendation on “On Categorization Chemical Evolution (1990) Planetary Materials: Planetary Protection of the Comet 1990-2000 (1990) Categorization of the Comet Rendezvous— Aste Biological Contamination Rendezvous-Asteroid Flyby roid Flyby Mission” of Mars: Issues and Mission and the Titan- (1986) Recommendations (1992) Cassini Mission” (1988) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Mars Sample Return: Issues Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) and Recommendations Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned (1997) from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies: Framework for Decision Making (1998) Size Limits of Very Small Microorganisms: Proceedings of a Workshop (1999) Preventing the “On Scientific Forward Assessment of Options Contamination of for the Disposition of the The Quarantine and Certification Europa (2000) Galileo Spacecraft” of Martian Samples (2002) (2000) Signs of Life: A Report Based on the April 2000 Workshop on Life Detection Techniques (2002) Preventing the Forward “Assessment of Planetary Life in the Universe: An Assessment of U.S. and Contamination of Mars (2006) Protection Requirements for International Programs in Astrobiology (2003) Venus Missions” (2006) An Astrobiology Strategy for The Astrophysical Context of Life (2005) the Exploration of Mars (2007) Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (2007) The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (2007) Assessment of the NASA Astrobiology Institute (2007) 2-3 FIGURE 2.3 SSB-NRC advice on astrobiology and planetary protection (1965-2007).

OCR for page 9
 Space Studies Board Annual Report—007 Membership July 1, 2006–June 30, 2007 July 1, 2007–June 30, 2008 Kenneth H. Nealson (co-chair), University of Kenneth H. Nealson (co-chair), University of Southern Southern California California Bruce M. Jakosky (co-chair), University of Colorado, Bruce M. Jakosky (co-chair), University of Colorado, Boulder Boulder Jan P. Amend, Washington University Jan P. Amend, Washington University Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey (retired) Stanley M. Awramik, University of California, Santa Harry Y. McSween, Jr., University of Tennessee, Barbara Knoxville Michael H. Carr, U.S. Geological Survey (retired) Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto Paul G. Falkowski, Rutgers, The State University of Andrew Steele, Carnegie Institution of Washington New Jersey, New Brunswick Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University Antonio Lazcano, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Ralph D. Lorenz, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory Harry Y. McSween, Jr., University of Tennessee, Knoxville John C. Priscu, Montana State University Sara Seager, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Barbara Sherwood Lollar, University of Toronto Everett Shock, Arizona State University Andrew Steele, Carnegie Institution of Washington Meenakshi Wadhwa, Arizona State University Staff David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Robert L. Riemer, Senior Program Officer, Board on Physics and Astronomy Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board COMMITTEE ON PLANETARY AND LUNAR EXPLORATION The Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) met at the National Academies’ Keck Center in Washington, D.C., on April 11-13. In addition to status reports on NASA’s solar system exploration and Mars exploration activities, the bulk of the meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions relating to two topics: (1) studies of primitive solar system bodies, including the results from the Stardust mission, the current status of near-Earth object search programs and future prospects for radar studies; and (2) New Frontiers missions, including a status report on the New Horizons mission to Pluto and the scientific results from the spacecraft’s recent flyby of Jupiter, and the managerial and programmatic lessons learned from the New Horizons and Juno missions and the applicability of these lessons to the third planned New Frontiers mission. The committee’s discussions were moti- vated by NASA’s recent request that the SSB undertake a study to address several issues relating to the drafting of the Announcement of Opportunity for the third New Frontiers mission. As a result of the committee’s discussions, COMPLEX drafted a list of potential candidates who could serve on the New Frontiers study committee. COMPLEX also discussed the possibility of organizing a meeting of experts for NASA to assess the new results from recent missions to primitive solar system bodies and discuss prospects for future missions. In addition, the committee heard a science presentation on the results from the high-resolution camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and were briefed on the developing plans for the Colloquium on Astrobiology and Mars Exploration held on July 8 in Pasadena, California. COMPLEX did not meet in the second quarter and during the third quarter met at the J. Erik Jonsson Woods Hole Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, on July 23-25, 2007.

OCR for page 9
 Board and Standing Committees At their December 6-8, 2007, meeting at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, California, the com- mittee heard updates regarding NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, including the Mars Exploration Program. Other presentations included updates on the status of the Arecibo Radar and Comet Surface Sample Return. The committee held a preliminary discussion on the planning needed for the next decadal study. A historical summary of reports from COMPLEX and related committees is presented in Figure 2.4. Membership January–June 2007 July–December 2007 Joseph F. Veverka (chair), Cornell University Joseph F. Veverka (chair), Cornell University W. Bruce Banerdt, Jet Propulsion Laboratory W. Bruce Banerdt, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Penelope J. Boston, New Mexico Institute of Mining Penelope J. Boston, New Mexico Institute of Mining and and Technology Technology Donald E. Brownlee, University of Washington Donald E. Brownlee, University of Washington Bonnie J. Buratti, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Bonnie J. Buratti, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Roger N. Clark, U.S. Geological Survey Roger N. Clark, U.S. Geological Survey Michael R. Combi, University of Michigan Michael R. Combi, University of Michigan John Grant, Smithsonian Institution, National Air and John Grant, Smithsonian Institution, National Air and Space Museum Space Museum Timothy J. McCoy, Smithsonian Institution, National Timothy J. McCoy, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History Museum of Natural History Alfred S. McEwen, University of Arizona Alfred S. McEwen, University of Arizona Francis Nimmo, University of California, Santa Cruz Francis Nimmo, University of California, Santa Cruz Louise M. Prockter, Johns Hopkins University, Louise M. Prockter, Johns Hopkins University, Applied Applied Physics Laboratory Physics Laboratory Darrell F. Strobel, Johns Hopkins University Darrell F. Strobel, Johns Hopkins University Dawn Y. Sumner,† University of California, Davis __________________ †Term began November 2. Staff Sandra J. Graham, Senior Program Officer (from October) David H. Smith, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board (through September) Rodney N. Howard, Senior Program Assistant, Space Studies Board (through September) Celeste A. Naylor, Senior Program Assistant (from October) COMMITTEE ON SOLAR AND SPACE PHYSICS The Committee on Solar and Space Physics (CSSP) did not meet during the first quarter; however, members were active in preparation for an April 2-3, 2007, meeting. During this quarter, the committee also prepared a brief- ing to the SSB on the implications of NASA’s FY2008 budget for heliophysics. Highlights of CSSP’s April 2-3, 2007, meeting in Washington, D.C., included briefings from Richard Fisher, NASA HQ, and Barbara Giles, NASA GSFC, on the NASA Heliophysics Program and a detailed look at the state of the NASA sounding rocket program courtesy of Phil Eberspeaker, Sounding Rocket Project Office, NASA WFF, Rob Pfaff, NASA GSFC, and Mary Mellot, NASA HQ. An update on the solar-terrestrial research sponsored by the NSF was provided by Richard Behnke, acting head of the Atmospheric Sciences Division. The committee continues to discuss plans for a workshop on the economic impacts of severe space weather events and was very interested in a presentation by Bill Murtagh from NOAA’s Space Environment Center that summarized the results of a space weather customer needs survey. The committee also received an update by Pat Mulligan of NOAA NESDIS on the status of the DSCOVR spacecraft, whose payload includes a solar wind monitor, and the ongoing attempts to secure the requisite commercial and agency support to adapt the spacecraft to an expendable launch vehicle and send it to an orbit at L-1.

OCR for page 9
0 Space Studies Board Annual Report—007 INNER PLANETS OUTER PLANETS PRIMITIVE BODIES Lunar Exploration—Strategy for The Outer Solar System: A Research: 1969-1975 (1969) Program for Exploration (1969) Venus: Strategy for Outer Planets Exploration: Exploration (1970) 1972-1985 (1971) “Report of the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration,” Section II of Report on Space Science—1975 (1976) Strategy for the Exploration of Strategy for Exploration of the Primitive Solar-System Inner Planets: 1977-1987 (1978) Bodies—Asteroids, Comets, and Meteoroids: 1980-1990 A Strategy for Exploration (1980) Update to Strategy for of the Outer Planets: 1986-1996 (1986) Exploration of the Inner Planets (1990) An Integrated Strategy for the Planetary Sciences: 1995-2010 (1994) Assessment of Mars A Science Strategy for the Exploring the Trans- Exploration of Europa (1999) Science and Mission Neptunian Solar Priorities (2001) System (1998) The Quarantine and Certification of Martian The Exploration of Samples (2001) Near-Earth Objects (1998) New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (2002) Priorities in Space Science Enabled by Nuclear Power and Propulsion (2005) Assessment of NASA’s Mars The Scientific Context for Architecture 2007-2016 (2006) Exploration of the Moon (2007) Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System (2007) The Limits of Organic Life in Planetary Systems (2007) Grading NASA’s Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Review (2007) An Astrobiology Strategy for the Exploration of Mars (2007) 2-4 FIGURE 2.4 SSB-NRC advice on solar system exploration (1969-2007). Origins of life topics are covered in Figure 2.3.

OCR for page 9
 Board and Standing Committees During this quarter the committee also prepared a summary of a briefing given to the SSB in March on the implications of NASA’s FY2008 budget for heliophysics. Committee chair Dan Baker and CSSP member Spiro Antiochos published a summary of this briefing in the SSB’s first quarter newsletter and in the May 1, 2007, edi- tion of the newsletter of the AGU Solar Physics and Aeronomy section. The themes in these summaries were also repeated in testimony by Dr. Baker at a May 2, 2007, hearing, “NASA’s Space Science Programs: Fiscal Year 2008 Budget Request and Issues,” before the House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Space and Aeronautics (see full testimony in Chapter 6). While the committee did not meet during the third or fourth quarters, staff have been working on reconstituting the committee. The committee’s first meeting of 2008 may include discussions about ground-based neutron moni- tors, guest investigator programs, and new topics such as the general state of health of the NASA Explorer program (particularly in the FY 2008 budget), the NASA R&A budget and the suborbital program. In addition, the committee will discuss support for an ad hoc committee being formed for the congressionally-mandated NASA Heliophysics Performance Assessment. A historical summary of reports from CSSP and related committees is presented in Figure 2.5. Membership July 1, 2006–June 30, 2007 July 1, 2007–June 30, 2008 Daniel N. Baker (chair), University of Colorado, Daniel N. Baker (chair), University of Colorado, Boulder Boulder Joseph F. Fennell, The Aerospace Corporation Joseph F. Fennell, The Aerospace Corporation Jack R. Jokipii, University of Arizona Krishan Khurana, University of California, Los Angeles Krishan Khurana, University of California, Los Kristina A. Lynch, Dartmouth College Angeles Richard A. Mewaldt, California Institute of Technology Paul M. Kintner, Cornell University Ronald E. Turner, ANSER Corporation William S. Lewis, Southwest Research Institute Dana W. Longcope, Montana State University Kristina A. Lynch, Dartmouth College Richard A. Mewaldt, California Institute of Technology Howard J. Singer, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Leonard Strachan, Jr., Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Niescja Turner, Florida Institute of Technology Ronald E. Turner, ANSER Corporation Thomas H. Zurbuchen, University of Michigan Staff Arthur A. Charo, Senior Program Officer, Space Studies Board Johannes Loschnigg, Consultant, Space Studies Board (from October) Theresa M. Fisher, Program Associate, Space Studies Board SPACE RESEARCH DISCIPLINES WITHOUT STANDING COMMITTEE REPRESENTATION Although there are no longer standing committees representing microgravity research or space biology and medicine, a life and microgravity decadal survey is being planned. A historical summary of NRC-SSB advice in space biology and medicine is presented in Figure 2.6, and a historical summary of NRC-SSB advice microgravity research is presented in Figure 2.7.

OCR for page 9
 Space Studies Board Annual Report—007 Solar System Space Physics in the 1980’s: A Research Strategy (1980) An International Discussion on A Strategy for the Explorer Solar-Terrestrial Data Access, The Physics of the Research in Solar and Space Program for Solar and Space Sun (1985) Distribution, and Archiving (1984) Physics (1983) Physics (1984) An Implementation Plan for Priorities in Solar-System Space Physics (1985) Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Imperatives for the Decades 1995 to 2015Solar and Space Physics (1988) Assessment of Programs in Solar and Space Physics1991 (1991) A Space Physics Paradox (1994) A Science Strategy for Space Physics (1995) Scientific Assessment of NASA’s Space Weather: An Assessment of the Solar and Space Physics Aspects of SMEX-MIDEX Space Physics A Research NASA’s Space Science Enterprise Strategic Plan (1997) Mission Selections (1997) Perspective (1997) Astronomy and Radiation and the Readiness for the Ground-Based Solar Research: Astrophysics in the International Space Station: Upcoming Solar An Assessment and Strategy for New Millennium Recommendations to Maximum (1998) the Future (1998) (2000) Reduce Risk (1999) The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics (2002) The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: Panel Reports (2003) Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos (2004) Exploration of the Outer Distributed Arrays of Small Solar and Space Physics Instruments for Solar- Heliosphere and the Local and Its Role in Space Terrestrial Research: Report Interstellar Medium: A Exploration (2004) Workshop Report (2004) of a Workshop (2006) Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration: Report of a Workshop (2006) FIGURE 2.5 SSB-NRC advice on solar and space physics (1980-2007). 2-5

OCR for page 9
 Board and Standing Committees Materials Processing in Space (1978) Space Science in the Twenty-First Microgravity Science and Century: Applications: Report on a Imperatives for the Workshop (1986, Board on Decades 1995 to Physics and Astronomy) 2015. Fundamental Physics and Chemistry (1988) Toward a Microgravity Research Strategy (1992) “On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program” (1994) “On the Utilization of the Space Station” (1994) Microgravity Research Opportunities for the 1990s (1995) “On Archiving An Initial Review of Clarification of Microgravity Microgravity Research in Issues in the Flight Data and Support of Human Exploration Opportunities Samples and Development of Space Report” (1995) (1996) (1997) “On Research Facilities Planning for the International Space Station” (1997) Future Biotechnology Research on the Microgravity Research in Support of Technologies for the Human International Exploration and Development of Space and Planetary Bodies (2000) Space Station (2000) Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and The Mission of Microgravity and Physical Physical Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Sciences Research at NASA (2001) Assessment of Directions in Microgravity and Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station Physical Sciences Research at NASA (2003) for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) FIGURE 2.6 SSB-NRC advice on microgravity research (1978-2006). 2-6

OCR for page 9
 Space Studies Board Annual Report—007 SPACE BIOLOGY HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT STUDIES Science in Space: Biological Science and Space Research (1960) Report on NASA Biology Program (1968) Physiology in the Space Radiobiological Factors in Environment , Vol. 1 and 2 Manned Spaceflight (1967) Space Biology (1970) (1968) Radiation Protection Infectious Disease Life Sciences in Space: Report Guides and in Manned of the Study to Review NASA Constraints for Spaceflight: Life Sciences Programs (1970) Space-Mission and Probabilities and Vehicle-Design Countermeasures Studies Involving (1970) Priorities for Space Research: Nuclear Missions 1971-1980 (1971) (1970) HZE-Particle Effects in Manned Scientific Uses of the Life Beyond the Earth’s Spaceflight (1973) Space Shuttle (1974) Environment (1979) A Strategy for Space Biology and Medical Science for the 1980s and 1990s (1987) “On the Space Science in the Twenty-First Century: Life Sciences (1988) Extended Duration Orbiter Assessment of Programs in Space Biology and Medicine1991 Medical (1991) Research “On Several Issues in the Program” (1989) Space Life Sciences” (1993) “On Continued Operation of the BEVALAC Facility” (1992) “On Life and Microgravity Sciences and the Space Station Program” (1994) Radiation Hazards to Crews of Interplanetary Missions: Biological Issues “On the Planned and Research Strategies (1996) “On Peer Review in National Space NASA Life Sciences Biomedical Programs” (1995) Research Institute” (1996) A Strategy for Research in Space Biology and Medicine in the New Century (1998) Review of NASA’s Readiness Issues Related to Research in the Biological and Physical Biomedical Research Sciences on the International Space Station (2001) Program (2000) Factors Affecting the Utilization of the International Space Station for Research in the Biological and Physical Sciences (2003) Review of NASA Plans for the International Space Station (2006) FIGURE 2.7 SSB-NRC advice on space biology and medicine (1960-2006). 2-7