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7 THE SCHOOLING OF BLACK AMERICANS 329

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Ill ' 7.le ~ i row ._ __ ~_ MAYA Jacob Lawrence Graduation (1948) Gouache on paper The Evans-Tibbs Collection, Washington, D.C.

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Black Americans have followed two major strategies to try to improve the educational opportunities made avail- able to their children. At times, they have pursued high-quality schooling by insisting that segregated schools be provided equal educational resources. At other times, convinced that equal-quality education and segregated schools were incompatible, they have fought to integrate schools. At all times, blacks have sought educational excellence and equal educational opportunity. These goals are the principal concerns of this chapter. By educational excellence we mean high standards of academic performance for teachers and students (see Carnegie Forum, 1986; Holmes Group, 1986~. By equal educational oppor- tunity we mean that the support-both financial and in human resources- and the encouragement provided for education are equal for all students. Equal educational opportunity is a complex concept. Prior to the mid- 1960s, equality of educational opportunity was defined in terms of quantifi- able resource inputs, such as physical facilities, teacher credentials, and racial mixture within the schools. But the Coleman-Campbell (1966) report Equals ity of Educational Opportunity shifted conceptions of equal educational oppor- tunity to the achievement results produced by the schools. Equality came to be measured by school outputs, generally student scores on tests of achieve- ment (see Coleman, 1968; Gordon, 1972; Mosteller and Moynihan, 1972~. Implicit in this measure are the basic requirements for equal educational opportunity: equivalent resources for the education of all students, including equal curricular opportunities, teacher quality, and encouragement and ex- pectation of learning. Missing from both measures are such factors as treat- ment within schools and the economic and social returns to schooling (see 331

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY Brookover and Lezotte, 1981; Ogbu, 1978~. Because of the difficulty of finding direct measures for these factors, however, in this chapter we focus primarily on evidence about equal educational outcomes and changes over time in differences in these outcomes. Many different indicators of educational status can be used. Examples include average years of school completed, average performance on achieve- ment tests, representation in the population as a whole as compared to representation in institutions of higher learning, and group differences in attainment or achievement. We use a variety of such indicators to discuss how far the United States has moved from a society providing low-quality, unequal, and segregated schooling to blacks to a society providing excellent, equal, and integrated schooling. Our answer to this broad, evaluative ques- tion is based on an examination of four topics. First, the chapter details changes in the basic outcomes of schooling such as levels of enrollment and attainment. Second, it describes changes in school performance, using achievement test scores and other indicators. Third, the chapter deals with factors internal to the schools that affect educational outcomes. It focuses on those aspects of the schooling process that are most important for achievement levels. Fourth, factors external to the schools that influence students' attainment and achievement are assessed: these include family, neighborhood, peer group influences, and the social and academic effects of desegregated schooling on blacks and whites. ENROLLMENT AND ATTAINMENT Trends in the enrollment and attainment status of blacks can be summa- rized by three important findings. First, there has been a substantial reduc- tion in black-white inequality in the basic amount of schooling received. Second, noteworthy gaps between blacks and whites remain, especially in terms of high school completion and rates of college attendance. Third, there was a drop in college attendance by blacks from 1977 through 1982 and a divergence in the college enrollment chances of blacks and whites that has persisted through the mid-1980s. EARLY CH I LDHOOD EDUCATION In the cohort of black males born in 1925, school enrollment rates ex- ceeded 90 percent only when the cohort was between the ages of 10 and 12; but in the cohort born in 1965, the rates were greater than 90 percent from ages 7 to 14 and were greater than 95 percent from ages 9 to 12. Figure 7-1 shows the ratios of black/white school enrollment rates in the cohorts of black men who were 5 years old in 1930, in 1950, and in 1970. Black enrollment was less probable at every age than white enrollment in these 332

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THE SCHOOLING OF BLACK AMERICANS FIGURE 7-1 Black/white age-specific school enrollment rate ratios for boys aged 5 in 1930, 1950, and 1970. 1.00 oh LL ct 0.95 cr Z 0.90 :E o by 111 111 I by 0.85 0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 O 0.60 o 0.55 O Born in 1965 Or _ / ,, "` Born in 1945 / / / ~ NNx - I ~`` I -/ / t / I / l \Bornin1925\ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 \ 5 7 9 11 13 15 AGE Sources: Data from decennial censuses and Current Population Surveys. 17 19 cohorts, but approached those of whites in a wider range of ages in each successive cohort. The growth in formal schooling at younger ages continues as nursery school, Head Start, and kindergarten attendance has increased throughout the nation. Although the effects of participation in early schooling on aca- demic achievement are mixed, the correlation of early school entry with later school leaving does point to continuing growth in educational attainment. Figure 7-2 shows age-specific school enrollment rates of cohorts of black and white children at ages 3, 4, and 5 from 1968 to 1985. During this period, for the first time, rates of participation in early schooling have not only grown dramatically among black and white children, but they have often been greater among blacks. The growth in schooling is most impressive at the youngest ages: among black children, participation between 1968 and 1985 grew from 69 percent to 93 percent at age 5, from 30 percent to 52 percent at age 4, and from 10 percent to 34 percent at age 3. The sensitivity of participation in early schooling to general social conditions and public policy is suggested both by the overall increase in participation since the late 333

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY FIGURE 7-2 School enrollment of black and white children aged 3-5, 1968-1985. Whites, Aged 5 80 111 o of Lid z 50 Lid o _/ _ - Blacks, Aged 5 70 60 Blacks Aced 4 Blacks, Aged 3 /~ Whites, Aged 3 Whites, Aged 4 me' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1968 1970 1972 1974 976 1978 1980 1982 1984 YEAR Sources: Data from decennial censuses and Current Population Surveys. 1960s and by the leveling off of growth in the late 1970s; there may even have been a decline in school participation of 3- and ~year-olds after 1978. HIGH SCHOOL ATTAINMENT AND DROPPING OUT The median years of schooling for young blacks has risen sharply since before World War II, narrowing the gap between blacks and whites almost completely. In 1940, the median schooling for young black men was 6.5 years and for young white men it was 10.5 years, leaving a gap of 4 years; for black women it was 7.5 years and for white women it was 10.9 years, a gap of 3.4 years.) By 1980, the overall gap in median years of schooling had declined to less than one-half year: 12.6 years for blacks and 13.0 years for 1. It is more difficult to measure and interpret trends in schooling among people in their late teens and early 20s than among those at younger ages. The difficulty is partly because age and grade in school are not so tightly linked and partly because it is far more difficult to sample relevant populations by the later teen years (especially black males, who are missed by census enumerators at relatively high rates). Consequently, we rely on reports of schooling at ages 25- 29 as our main source of information about high school completion. This age range is especially useful for comparisons of schooling because by age 25 most people have completed both secondary schooling and military service. 334

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THE SCHOOLI NG OF BLACK AMERICANS FIGURE 7-3 Schooling of adults aged 25-29, by race and sex (in median years), 1940-1980. 13 9 12 of - o o I C) oh in 10 o co ~ 9 _ Z 8 _ 7 _ 11 6 _ o L Hi/"? _~' - - - 1 1 1 ,, 1 White Men ,' White Women Blacks/ / ~/ Black Men 1940 1950 1960 YEAR Sources: Data Tom decennial censuses and Current Population Surveys. 1970 1 980 whites (see Figure 7-3~. While useful, however, median years of education can be misleading as an indicator of group differences because educational attainments of blacks and whites have become so concentrated at several transition points in the schooling process, especially at high school gradua- tion. Therefore, we also examined changes in the share of the population that has completed major schooling transitions. In 1940, more than 70 percent of young black adults and fewer than 40 percent of whites had completed no more than 8 years of schooling. The percentage of adult Americans with this minimal level of schooling had declined markedly by 1980 (see Figure 74~. Although there were still more blacks than whites with 8 or fewer years of schooling, fewer than 7 percent of blacks-or whites-were in this group. For the next transition, as recently as 1940, only 11 percent of black men and 14 percent of black women had completed high school, while white completion rates were at or near 40 percent. By 1980, high school completion had become almost universal among white men and women: more than 87 percent reported that they had completed high school (see Figure 74~. Although there was very rapid growth in high school completion among blacks, by 1980, about one 335

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY FIGURE 74 Adults aged 25-29 with (a) 8 or fewer, (b) 12 or more, or (c) 16 or more years of schooling, by race and sex, 1940-1980. 100 (a) 8 or Fewer Years 90 80 70 60 By LL O 50 IL ILL 40 30 20 10 o 100 90 _ 80 he IL () 50 IL 40 20 o Black Women Black Men [21 White Women White Men _* 1940 1950 1960 YEAR (b) 12 or More Years 60 Black Women ~ ~ Black Men 70 _ ~ White Women ~ white Men 1 1970 1 980 1940 1 950 1960 1970 1980 YEAR Sources: Data Mom decennial censuses and Current Population Surveys. 336

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THE SCHOOLING OF BLACK AMERICANS FIGURE 7-4 (Continued) 30 25 20 ' 1 5 cr LL CL 10 5 O _ (c) 16 or More Years Black Women Black Men [~ White Women White Men ALL 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 YEAR quarter of young black adults still did not complete high school: 76 percent of black women and 74 percent of black men reported high school comple- tion. It is difficult to reconcile estimates of 75 percent of blacks completing high school by ages 25 to 29 with common reports of black high school dropout rates approaching 50 percent. Such discrepancies may occur for many rea- sons. For example, there is significant variation in dropout rates from place to place. More important, there is little standardization of concepts or methods for the measurement of high school "dropout" or even of high school completion. For example, reports of high school completion by ages 25 to 29 may refer to certification by examination or the completion of other forms of high school equivalence. About 450,000 people each year achieve the equivalence of high school graduation by completing the GED (General Educational Development Test), and about 60 percent of these people are less than 24 years old. Blacks are overrepresented among those taking the GED; 18 percent of those taking the GED examination in a 1980 sample were black. If blacks are represented in this proportion among those taking and passing the GED at younger ages, then more than 40,000 young black adults could be completing high school in this way each year. Finally, some members of relevant populations just do not appear in social 337

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY surveys. By age 18, substantial numbers of youth with high school diplomas, as well as some without, have entered military service, and they are far less likely to be covered in the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS), which is the most standardized source of dropout measurements. Dropouts are defined as those who are not enrolled in high school or college and have not already completed grade 12. At the same time, after age 16, there are very serious, and perhaps growing, problems of surveying the black population, especially black men. The CPS data show the dropout rate as relatively low at age 16 among whites and blacks, with somewhat higher dropout rates among blacks (around 10 percent) than among whites (7-8 percent) in 1970-1971. They show a precipitous fall in the dropout rates among black men through 1978-1979 (with a very small rise subsequently) and among black women from 1974-1975 through 1982-1983. By the close of the period, the reported dropout rates of blacks of less than 6 percent are more than a percentage point below those of whites. It is fair to say that these reported trends are not credible, unless one is willing to disregard most common knowledge about high school completion. The rapid downward slide in reported dropout rates among blacks may reflect decreasing survey coverage of dropouts, rather than actual decreases in dropout rates. Dropout rates at ape 18~ which range from about 13 percent for white women to ~ 1 . _ 1 1_ 1 _ ~ ~ about 18 percent tor black men, appear somewhat more crease, crux Envy also show a sharp decline among blacks and substantial convergence with rates among whites. For blacks and whites alike, there are essentially no sex differences in rates of high school completion. From the mid-1960s to the late 1970s, high school graduation grew from just over 70 percent to just under 90 percent among whites, and it has since leveled off. Among young black adults aged 25-29, high school graduation has grown dramatically and almost continu- ously, from about 50 percent in 1965 to nearly 80 percent in the early 1980s. Still, among young adults, high school graduation rates of whites exceed those of blacks by about 10 percent, so blacks are about twice as likely as whites not to graduate from high school. COLLEGE ENTRY AND COMPLETION Since 1977 there has been a marked decline in college entry among black high school graduates. No definitive explanations of this decline have been found. Little notice was taken of the decline until 7 years after it had begun; public interest increased in the wake of visible declines in black enrollment on the campuses of major universities and of occasional incidents of racial conflict. Black college entry declined during a period of unprecedented growth in the chances of white high school graduates to attend college (see Figure 7-5). The rate of black high school graduates attending college rose from about 39 percent in 1973 to about 48 percent in 1977-when it was virtually equal 338

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THE SCHOOLI NO OF BLACK AMERICANS FIGURE 7-5 Odds of college entry among recent black and white high school graduates, 1969-1984. -0.2 -.< 3: cn -0.4 He o m Z 0 6 x ~ ~ -0.7 _ O O -0.8 -0.9 _\ Blat \ Whites 'it' - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 / 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 YEAR Note: Data are adjusted for family income, sex, region, and metropolitan location. Sources: Data Tom decennial censuses and Current Population Surveys. to those of whites-and then fell continuously to about 38 percent through 1983. In 1986, the latest year for which national data are available, 36.5 percent of black high school graduates entered college in the fall after high school graduation. In comparison, for 1973-1984, the college entry rate of whites rose almost continuously from about 48 percent to 57 percent. College entry rates rose most rapidly among whites after 1979, when blacks had experienced a sharp drop in their rate of college entrance. Among blacks and whites, the odds of college entry declined from the late 1960s to the early 1970s. After 1973 college entry chances rose, especially among blacks, for whom they peaked in 1977. Among whites, college entry leveled off between 1975 and 1979, but it has risen continuously since then. Among blacks, a precipitous decline in college entry began in 1978. It appears to have leveled off after 1981, with black college entry chances lower than they were in the late 1960s. In terms of college completion, blacks lagged far behind whites in 1940, and the gap has not been closed. In 1940, fewer than 2 percent of black women or men had completed college, compared with 5 percent and 7.5 percent of white women and men, respectively. By 1960, more than 5 percent of blacks had completed college; growth was slow between 1960 and 339

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY Baratz, Joan C. 1986 Black Participation in the Teacher Pool. Paper prepared for the Task Force on Teaching as a Profession, Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy, New York. Baratz, Stephen S., and Joan C. Baratz 1970 Early childhood interventions: the social science base of institutional racism. Har- vard Educational Review 40:29-50. Barr, Rebecca, and Robert Dreeben 1983 How Schools Work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Berry, Mary Frances 1983 Blacks in predominantly white institutions of higher learning. Pp. 295-318 in James D. Williams, ea., The State of Black America 1983. New York: National Urban League. Bidwell, Charles E., and John D. Kasarda 1980 Conceptualizing and measuring the effects of school and schooling. American Journal of Education 88~4) :401-430. Blau, Zena S. 1981 Black Children-White Children: Social Competence, Socialization and Social Structure. New York: Free Press. Bobo, Lawrence, ed. 1987 Manuscript prepared for the Committee on the Status of Black Americans, Na- tional Research Council, Washington, D.C. Bond, Horace Mann 1934 Education of the Negro in the American Social Order. New York: Prentice-Hall. Bossert, Steven T. 1979 Tasks and Social Relationships in Classrooms. New York: Cambridge University Press. Bowles, Samuel, and Henry H. Levin 1968 The determinants of scholastic achievement-an appraisal of some recent evidence. Journal of Human Resources 3~1) :3-24. Boykin, A. Wade 1986 The triple quandary and the schooling of Afro-American children. Pp. 57-92 in Ulric Neisser, ea., The School Achievement of Minority Children: New Perspectives. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Boykin, A. Wade, Anderson J. Franklin, and J. Frank Yates, eds. 1979 Research Directions of Black Psychologists. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Brackbill, Y., and P. L. Nicholls 1982 A test of the confluence model of development. Developmental Ps~holo,gy 18:192- 198. Bradley, L., and G. Bradley 1977 The academic achievement of blacks in desegregated schools. Revs of Educational Research 47:399-499. Brookover, W. B., and Lawrence Lezotte 1981 Educational equality: a democratic principle at a crossroads. Urban Review 1342~:65- 71. Brookover, Wilbur, Charles Beady, Patricia Flood, John Schweitzer, and Jose Wisenbaker 1979 School Social Systems and Student Achievement: Schools Can Make a Difference. New York: Praeger. Brophy, Jere, and Thomas L. Good 1986 Teachers behavior and student achievement. Pp. 238-375 in Merlin C. Wittrock, ea., Handbook of Research on Teaching. New York: Macmillan. 1 380

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THE SCHOOLI NG OF BLACK AMERICANS Brown, Shirley Vining 1987 Minoritiesin the Grad?~ateEd?~cation Pipeline. Princeton, N.J.: EducationalTesting ~ . service. 1988 Increasing Minority Faculty: An Elusive Goal. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. Bullock, Henry A. 1967 A History of Negro Education in the South from 1619 to the Present. New York: Praeger. Carnegie Forum 1986 A Nation J~epared: Teachersfor the Twenty-First Century. New York: Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy. Carter, Launor F. 1984 The sustaining effects study of compensatory and elementary education. Ed?~ca- tional Researcher 13(7~:4-13. Chaikind, Stephen 1987 College Enrollment Patterns of Black end white Students. Washington, D.C.: Decision Resources Corporation. Clark, Kenneth B. 1963 Educational stimulation of racially disadvantaged children. Pp. 142-162 in Harry Passow, ea., Education in Depressed Areas. New York: Teachers College Press, University of Columbia. Clark, Reginald M. 1983 Family and School Achievement: Why Poor Black Children Succeed or Fail. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cole, Michael, and Jerome S. Bruner 1971 Cultural differences and inferences about psychological processes. American Psy- chologist 26:867-876. Coleman, James 1968 The concept of equality of educational opportunity. Harvard Educational Renew 38~1~:7-22. Coleman, James S., Ernest Q. Campbell, and others 1966 Equality of Educational Opportunit;:y. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Comer, James P. 1980 School Paver. New York: Free Press. 1984 Home-school relationships as they affect the academic success of children. Ed?~ca- tion and Urban Society 16:323-337. Congressional Budget Office 1986 Trends in Educational Achievement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Congressional Printing Office. Cook, Stuart W. 1979 Social science and school desegregation: did we mislead the Supreme Court? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 5~4~:420-437. Crain, Robert L., and Rita E. Mallard 1978 Desegregation and black achievement: a review of the research. Law and Contem- pora~y problems 42(Summer):17-56. 1983 The effect of research methodology on desegregation-achievement studies: a meta- analysis. American Journal of Sociology 88~5):839-854. Davis, Josephine D. 1986 The Effect of Mathematics Course Enrollment on Racial/Ethnic Differences in Secondary School Mathematics Achievement. Draft report. Princeton, N.J.: Ed- ucational Testing Service. 381

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY DeBord, Larry W., Larry J. Griffin, and Melissa Clark 1977 Race and sex influences in the schooling processes of rural and small town youth. Sociology of Education 50C(April):85-102. Dingerson, Michael R., John A. Podman, and Debra Burns 1985 The hiring of underrepresented individuals in academic administrative positions: 1972-1979. Research in Higher Education 23~2~:115-134. Dreeben, Robert, and Adam Gamoran 1986 Race, instruction, and learning. American Sociological Re~v 5140ctober3:660-669. Edmonds, Ronald 1979 Effective schools for the urban poor. Educational Leadership 37~0ctober) :15-24. 1986 Characteristics of effective schools. Pp. 93-104 in Ulric Neisser, ea., The School Achievement of Minority Children: New Perspectives. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Educational Testing Service 1985 The Reading Report Card. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. Elmore, Charles l., and Robert T. Blackburn 1983 Black and white faculty in white research universities. Journal of Higher Education 54~1~:1-15. Epps, Edgar G. 1975 Impact of school desegregation on aspirations, self-concept, and other aspects of personality. Law and C~mtempora~ oblems 39: 300-313. 1978 The impact of school desegregation on the self-evaluation and achievement ori- entation of minority children. Law and Contemporary Problems 42: 57-76. Epps, Edgar G., and Kenneth W. Jackson 1985 Educational and Occupational Aspirations and Early Attainment of Black Males and Females. Atlanta, Gal: Southern Education Foundation. Epstein, Joyce L. 1980 A Longitudinal Study of School and Family Effects on Student Development. Report No. 301. Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. Exum, William H. 1983 Climbing the crystal stair: values, affirmative action, and minority faculty. Social J~otolems 30~4~:383-399. Falk, William W. 1978 School desegregation and the educational attainment process: some results from rural Texas schools. Sociology of Education 51~0ctober):282-288. Farley, Reynolds 1984 Blacks and Whites: Narrowing the Gap? Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Fleming, Jacqueline 1984 Blacks in College: A Comparative Study of Students' Success in Black and in White Institutions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Fordham, Signithia, and John U. Ogbu 1986 Black students' school success: coping with the burden of 'acting white.' Urloan Re~v 18(3):176-206. Fox, Richard N. 1986 Application of a conceptual model of college withdrawal to disadvantaged stu- dents. American Educational Research Journal 23~3~:415-424. Gay, Geneva, and Roger D. Abrahams 1973 Does the pot melt, boil, or brew? Black children and white assessment procedures. Journal of School Psychology 11~4):330-340. 382

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THE SCHOOLI NO OF BLACK AMERICANS Getzlaf, Shelly B., Gordon M. Sedlacek, Kathleen A. Kearney, and lane M. Blackwell 1984 Two types of voluntary undergraduate attrition: application of Tinto's model. Research in Higher Education 20(3):257-268. Gibbs, Jewell Taylor 1973 Black students/white university: different expectations. Personnel G~zdance Journal 51~7~:463~69. Gifford, Bernard R. 1986 Excellence and equity in teacher competency testing: a policy perspective. Journal of Negro Education 55(3):251-271. Glazer, Nathan 1986 Education and training programs and poverty. Pp. 152-173 in Sheldon H. Dan- ziger and Daniel H. Weinberg, eds., Fighting Poverty. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Gordon, Edmund W. 1972 Toward defining equality of educational opportunity. Pp. 423-434 in Frederick Mosteller and Daniel P. Moynihan, eds., On Equality of Educational Opportunity. New York: Random House. Gosma, Erica J., Betty A. Dandridge, Michael T. Nettles, and A. Robert Thoeny 1983 Predicting student progression: the influence of race and other student and insti- tutional characteristics on college student performance. Research in Higher Edz~ca- tion 1842~:209-236. GottEredson, Denise C. 1981 Black-white differences in the educational process: what have we learned? Emery can Sociological Renew 46~0ctober):542-557. Hale-Benson, Janice E. 1982 Black Children: Their Roots, Cz~ltz~re, and Learning Styles. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. Hailer, Emil J., and Sharon A. Davis 1981 Teacher perceptions, parental social status and grouping for reading. Socioto,gy of Education 54:162-174. Hallinan, Maureen 1984 Summary and implications. Pp. 229-240 in Penelope L. Peterson, Louise Cherry Wilkinson, and Maureen Hallinan, eds., The Social Context of Inspection. New York: Academic Press. Hallinger, Philip, and Joseph F. Murphy 1986 The social context of effective schools. American Journal of Education 94~3~:328 355. Hanushek, Eric ~ ~ A A t r . 1 ~ t . 1 ~ 1 ~ ~ _ __ Ad_ _ L I __ 1972 Edz~catzon and Face: An Analysis of the L~z~catzonal ltoa~z~ctzon process. camonage, Mass.: Heath-Lexington. 1986 The economics of schooling: production and efficiency in the public schools. Joz~rnat of Economic Literature 24(September): 1 141-1 177. Hare, Bruce H. 1985 Reexamining the central tendency: sex differences within race and race difference within sex. Pp. 139-155 in Harriette Pipes McAdoo and John Lewis McAdoo, eds., Black Children: Social, Educational, and Parental Environments. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications Inc. Hare, Bruce R., and Louis A. Castenell , , ~ 1986 No place to run, no place to hide: comparative status and future prospects of black boys. Pp. 201-214 in Margaret B. Spencer, Geraldine K. Brookins, and Walter R. Allen, eds., Beginnings: The Social and Affective Devel~pfnent of Black Children. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. 383

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A COMMON DESTI NY: BLACKS AN D AMERICAN SOCI ETY Hauser, Robert M., and William H. Sewell 1985 Birth order and educational attainment in full sibships. American Educational Research~o?~rnal 22(1):1-23. Hauser, Robert M., William H. Sewell, and Duane F. Alwin 1976 High school effects on achievement. Pp. 309-341 in William H. Sewell, Robert M. Hauser, and David L. Featherman, eds., Schooling and Achievement in American Society. New York: Academic Press. Hayes, Donald P. 1988 Speaking and writing: distinct patterns of word choice. Journal of Memory and Late 27:572-585. Heyns, Barbara 1974 Pupil selection and stratification within schools. American Journal of Sociology 79(6): 1434-1451. Holmes Group 1986 Tomorrow's Teachers: A Report of the Holmes Group. East Lansing, Mich.: Holmes Group, Inc. Hout, Michael, and William R. Morgan 1975 Race and sex variations in the causes of the expected attainments of high school seniors. American Journal of Sociology 81(2):364-394. Howell, Frank M., and Wolfgang Frese 1979 Race, sex, and aspirations: evidence for the 'race convergence' hypothesis. Sociology of Education 52(January):34~6. Hueftle, S. J., S. J. Rakow, and W. W. Welch 1983 Images of Science: A S?~mma~y of Res?vltsirom the 1981-82 National Assessment in Science. Minneapolis: Minnesota Research and Evaluation Center. Jaynes, Gerald D. 1986 Gramm-Rudman and black education. Black Ent~rtnse (May):39. Jencks, Christopher 1986 Comment. Pp. 173-179 in Sheldon H. Danziger and Daniel H. Weinberg, ads., Fighting Poverty. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Johnson, Martin L. 1984 Blacks in mathematics: a status report. Journalfor Research in Mathematics Education 15(2):145-153. Johnson, Sylvia T. 1987 Extra-School Factors in Achievement, Attainment, and Aspirations Among Junior and Senior High School-Aged Black Youth. Paper prepared for the Committee on the Status of Black Americans, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Jones, Lyle V. 1987 The influence on mathematics test scores, by ethnicity and sex, of prior achieve- ment and high school mathematics courses. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 18:180-186. Jones, Lyle V., Nancy Burton, and Ernest C. Davenport 1984 Monitoring the mathematics achievement of black students. Jo?~rnalfor Research in Mathematics Education 1 5 (2): 1 54- 1 64. Kar~veit, Nancy 1983 Time-on-Task: A Research Review. Report No. 332. Center for Social Organiza- tion of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 1986 Elementary Education and Black Americans: Raising the Odds. Paper prepared for the Committee on the Status of Black Americans, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 384

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THE SCHOOLING OF BLACK AMERICANS Kerckhoff, Alan C., and Richard T. Campbell 1977a Black-white differences in the educational attainment process. Sociology of Ed?~ca- tion 50(January):15-27. 1977b Race and social status differences in the explanation of educational ambition. Social Forces 55(3):701-714. Kirsch, Irwin S., and Ann Jungeblut 1986 Literacy: Bob les of American's Found Adults. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing ~ . service. Klitgaard, Robert E., and George R. Hall 1974 Are there unusually effective schools? Journal of Human Resources 10~1) :90-106. Leacock, Eleanor 1970 Education, socialization, and the 'culture of poverty.' In Annette T. Rubinstein, ea., Schools Against Children: The Case for Community Control. New York: Monthly Review Press. Levin, Henry M. 1986 The educationally disadvantaged are still among us. Educational Leadership 44(6): 19-21. Lezotte, Lawrence, and Beverly A. Bancroft 1985 Growing use of the effective schools model of school improvement. Educational Leadership (May):23-27. Lightfoot, Sara Lawrence 1983 The Good High School: Portraits of Character and Culture. New York: Basic Books. Linn, Robert L., George F. Madaus, and Joseph J. Pedulla 1982 Minimum competency testing: cautions on the state of the art. Amman Journal of Education 91: 1-35. Longshore, Douglas, and Jeffrey Prager 1985 The impact of school desegregation: a situational analysis. Annual Renew of Sociology 11:75-91. Madaus, George F., and Vincent Greaney 1985 The Irish experience in competency testing: implications for American educa- tion. American Journal of Education 93 :268-294. Marrett, Cora Bagley 1987 Black and Native American students in precollege mathematics and science. Pp. 7-32 in Linda S. Dix, ea., Minorities: Their Underrepresentation and Career Differ- entials in Science and Engineering, proceedings of a Workshop. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Massey, Grace C., Asa G. Hilliard, and Jean Carew 1982 Test-taking behaviors of black toddlers: an interactive analysis. Pp. 163-179 in L. Feagans and D. C. Farran, eds., The Lang~e of Children Reared in Poverty. New York: Academic Press. Matthews, Westina 1984 Influences on the learning and participation of minorities in mathematics. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 1 5 (2~: 84-95 . McDermott, R. P. 1974 Achieving school failure: an anthropological approach to illiteracy and social stratification. Pp. 82-118 in George O. Spindler, ea., Education and Cultural process. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Menges, Robert J., and William H. Exum 1983 Barriers to the progress of women and minority faculty. Journal of Higher Ed?~ca- tion 54~2~:123-144. 385

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