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lo CHILDREN AND FAMILIES 509

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/ William H. Johnson P~.~round Scene (ca. 1939-1942) Pen and ink with pencil on paper National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, Gift of the Harmon Foundation

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The major changes in American society during the past five decades have been accompanied by significant alterations in the family lives of men, women, and, most importantly, children. Trends in fertility, marital status, and in patterns of child rearing have had important effects on both social and economic life. In this chapter, our primary objec- tives are to describe those trends, discuss various explanations for them, and to consider the implications of them for the current well-being of children and the status of future generations of adults. CHANGING FAMILY PATTERNS OVE RVI EW Since 1960 the trends in marital status, fertility, marital stability, and child rearing for both blacks and whites have been similar. Those trends include: lower marriage rates and a delayed age at first marriage; higher divorce rates; lower birth rates; earlier and increased sexual activity among adolescents; a higher proportion of births to unmarried mothers; higher percentages of children living in female-headed families; a higher proportion of women working outside the home; and a higher percentage of children living in poverty. The changes, however, have been much more pronounced for blacks than 511

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY for whites. The result is increasingly different marital and family experiences for the two groups. Indeed, in terms of major statistical indicators of marital status, there were far larger differences in the profiles of black and white Americans in 1980 than there were in 1890 (Walker, 1986:25~. While we examine these diverging trends and their possible causes, we stress that both populations have experienced similar changes. A summary of a few important trends in marriage and family patterns for black and white families highlights changes in black-white differences over the past 40 years (see Glick, 1981~. While blacks have traditionally married at younger ages than whites, whites now marry at much younger ages than blacks. In 1986, 39 percent of white women aged 20-24 were married, compared with 17 percent of black women. On average, black women spend 16 of their expected 73 years of life with a husband; white women spend 34 of an expected 77 years of life married. It is estimated that 86 percent of black children and 42 percent of white children will spend some time in a mother-only or other single-parent house- hold (Bumpass, 1984:Table 2~. The rate at which unmarried black women bear children has declined in recent years; this rate has continued to increase among white women. These divergencies, in the context of similar overall trends, suggest possible differences in causal circumstances. And such differences exist. For example, the growth in the number of white and black poor families headed by women results from different behaviors: among whites, disrupted marriages; among blacks a decrease in marriage rates. Other evidence is consistent with _ c~ ~ _ _ ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . the hypothesis that white temale-headed households are likely to become poor as a consequence of marital breakup, while black female-headed house- holds are likely to be formed by women who were poor to begin with (Gaffinkel and McLanahan, 1986~. Historical and comparative studies suggest that nuclear families are most stable when marriage partners have common and overlapping group nffilia- tions and when the family unit is supported by social circles of other families committed to norms and values of solidarity and permanence. For many people, particularly the minority urban poor, these conditions have become less common during the past few decades. For some groups, extended kin- ship ties have weakened, and a husband-wife family often is not strongly supported and constrained by the surrounding social structure. External stresses, such as unemployment, may now have greater effects then formerly on family formation and stability because marriage and family stability are only weakly supported by political and social institutions. The deleterious effects on black families are most apparent in the high percentages of black children being raised under conditions of poverty and environmental depri- vation. 512

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CH I LDREN AN D FAMI Ll ES FERTI LITY TREN DS During the decades after 1939, several changes encouraged lower rates of childbearing among Americans. First, there was the urbanization of the population and a very sharp rise in levels of educational attainment, both of which are associated with family size. Second, there has been an increase in the acceptability and use of contraception, in part because of major devel- opments in technology such as oral contraceptives and more effective intra- uterine devices. Third, there has been an increase in the rate of abortions. Although it is difficult to measure trends over time, abortion is now fre- quently used to terminate pregnancies. In the mid-1980s, there were about 64 abortions per 100 live black births and 30 abortions per 100 white births in a 13-state reporting area (Powell-Griper, 1986:Table A). Fourth, the federal government-as a component of the 1960s War on Poverty-assumed responsibility for providing family planning services to many low-income couples, which was a major change from earlier federal policies. By the mid- 1980s, state and federal governments were spending $340 million annually to provide family planning services, an average of about $8 per year for every woman aged 15-39 (Gold and Nestor, 1985:25-30~. Finally, there have been changes in the social roles of women, most of them probably leading to lower birthrates. These changes include a rise in the age at first marriage as educational attainment has risen; a growing proportion of both black and white women in the labor force; and an increasing proportion of divorce among married women. Fertility rates have not declined monotonically throughout the years since 1939, however. At the end of the Great Depression, birthrates were low and the population grew slowly during the war and immediate postwar years. Birthrates then rose, reaching a high level in the late 1950s, and have fallen sharply since then. These patterns can be illustrated by examining changes in the total fertility rate-an estimate of the number of children a woman will bear in her lifetime if she experiences the birthrates of a given calendar year and survives to age 45. Total fertility rates for blacks and whites are shown in Figure 10-1. In 1939, white women averaged just over 2 births in their lifetimes and black women just under 3. At the peak of the baby boom, white women were bearing about 3.5 children in their lifetimes and black women, 4.5. By 1984, the fertility rate for white women was about 1.7 children; for black women, 2.1. In the decades following 1960, both the black and white populations shifted from high fertility and rapid population growth to low fertility and near zero or negative population growth. The childbearing rates of black women remain above those of whites, although there is evidence of convergence. In 1960, black women averaged about one more child in their lifetime than white women; in 1984, the difference was less than one-half a child. According to the fertility and mortality rates of the early 1980s, the black population-in the absence of international migration-will grow by 513

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4 a: 3 _ LL . - o A COMMON DESTI NY: BLACKS AN D AMERICAN SOCI ETY FIGURE 10-1 Total fertility rates of black and white women, 1940-1984. Black OWhite _ 1940 1 950 1960 1970 1980 1984 YEAR about 3 percent from one generation to the next, while the white population will decline by about 17 percent. Despite numerous studies, it is still not fully understood why fertility rates rose to post-Civil War peaks in the late 1950s and then fell to extremely low levels (Easterlin, 1962, 1980; Westoff, 1978~. Among whites, the change to much earlier marriage during and after World War II and economic prosper- ity helped to account for the shift from the 2-child family of the Depression era to the 3.5-child family of the Eisenhower period. Among blacks, there is agreement that the spread of diseases played a significant role in reducing fertility throughout the period from the 1870s to the 1930s (McFalls and Harvey, 1984; Wright and Pirie, 1984). The impoverished conditions of blacks and their limited access to health care meant that fertility problems were common. Approximately 30 percent of the married black women who reached menopause in the 1940s had borne no children, a rate that cannot entirely be explained by voluntary childlessness (Farley, 1987~. Increases in 514

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CHILDREN AND FAMILIES living standards, the drug treatment of tuberculosis, and the government's fight against venereal disease during World War II minimized fertility prob- lems for blacks, leading to increases in fertility and dramatic declines in childlessness. After the 1950s, married American couples increasingly used contracep- tion, and presumably abortion, to prevent unwanted births. In this era, planned births became the norm among married couples of both races. The development of better birth control techniques, federal and state support for family planning clinics, and the Supreme Court's Roe decision (1973) legal- izing abortion help to explain the declines in fertility. Additional information about these fertility trends is presented in Figure 10-2, which shows birthrates at different ages for 1939, 1959, and 1984. The dramatic rise in fertility at all ages, except the oldest, is clearly seen when the 1939 and 1959 curves are compared. This period was followed by a "birth dearth" so pronounced that the 1984 birthrates for both races and for most ages were at or near their all-time lows. Childbearing by married women represents the clearest case of the disap- pearance of black-white fertility differences. Figure 10-3 shows marital fertil- ity, which is how many children a woman would bear if she married at age 20, remained married through age 45, and had children at the rates observed in the years between 1950 and 1985. At the end of the baby boom in 1960, a black woman would have borne 1.5 more children than a white woman- 5.6 births for a black woman compared with 4.1 for a white woman. By 1980, this racial difference had virtually disappeared. Among married women-indeed, among all women aged 25 and over-there was no longer a black-white difference in fertility rates. Childbearing among younger and unmarried women gives a different pic- ture. The fertility rates of black teenagers have declined sharply in recent years, but they remain more than double the rates of white teenagers. In 1960 there were 156 births per 1,000 black women aged 15-19; in 1985 there were 97, a decline of 59 births per 1,000 women. Among whites, the comparable change was from 70 births per 1,000 teenage women in 1957 to 43 in 1985 (National Center for Health Statistics, 1987:Table 4; Public Health Service, 1980:Table 1, cited in Farley, 1987~. In the mid-1980s, black women by the age of 20 had borne an average of 510 children per 1,000 black women; white women had borne an average of 216 children. In northern European countries, these rates are below 100 children per 1,000 20-year-old women (Hayes, 1987; Westoff et al., 1983~. It is generally accepted that the differences in teenage fertility between the United States and European countries is due to the wide availability of sex education and access to health and contraceptive services in Europe (Hayes, 1987~. One other major aspect of black-white differences in family formation has become much more pronounced since the end of the baby boom: the marital status of women who give birth (see Figure 10~. Between 1939 and 1959, about 18 percent of black infants and 2 percent of white infants 515

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY FIGURE 10-2 Age-specific birthrates for (a) white and (b) black women, 1939, 1959, and 1984. 300 z 250 111 ~ 200 to to to 150 at I 1 00 m 50 300 z 250 o ~ 200 to to to - - 150 T I_ 100 - ~n 50 o 516 10 15 20 25 30 AGE 1: (a) White Women l / /' I \ \ 1 959 ',1984 `~ \ ~\'N ~1 ._ _ 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 AGE (b) Black Women /\ ~ \ / ,' - / .' N~ 1939 I '' ~ ~ _ jK /// /// ~ 1 1 1 1 \ 1 959 \ I, /1 984 ~1 1 1-~ 1 35 40 45 50

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CHILDREN AND FAMILIES FIGURE 10-3 Marital fertility for black and white women, 1960-1985. 6 _ 4 cr o m > rL 3 at 111 C) I O 2 o _, _ Black O White 1~. - _ ,.,, :: :.: :.~::~:::s _ 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 YEAR Note: Marital fertility is the: estimated number of children ever born to women who marry at age 20, remain married to age 45, and briar children according to the marital fertility rates of 1960 to 1985. Sources: Data from decennial censuses and Current Population Surveys. 517

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY FIGURE 104 Births to unmarried women, by race, 1940-1981. 60 I 48 m ct 36 o 111 ~ 24 of lid 1 2 Black or Nonwhite ~ 1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 YEAR Note: Data for years prior to 1969 refer to whites and nonwhites. Sources: National Center for Health Statistics (1978, 1983). White . ____ __ ,'_ __- _ ~ 1965 1970 1975 1980 were born to unmarried women. These percentages subsequently changed rapidly; by the mid-1980s, 6 black births in 10 and 1 white birth in 8 were to unmarried women. This change in the marital status of mothers is not due to increases in the rate at which unmarried women bear children. Rather, it is the result of two fundamental demographic changes. First, the age of women at marriage has risen. As a consequence, women are exposed to the possibility of nonmarital pregnancy for a much longer time and to marital childbearing for a shorter time. In the 1960 census, 64 percent of the black women aged 20-24 had married; in the 1986 population survey, 25 percent of the same age group reported they had married. Among white women, the corresponding change was from 72 percent married in 1960 to 45 percent in 1986 (Farley, 1987~. Second, there has been a much greater decline in the fertility rates of married women than in those of unmarried women, a change that produces an increase in the percentage of total births to unmarried women. In sum, the rapidly rising proportion of babies-both black and white-born to un- married women has resulted from a major shift in the marital status of mothers, not from a higher birthrate among unmarried women. 518

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CHILDREN AND FAMILIES MARITAL STATUS AND LIVING ARRANGEMENTS OF CHILDREN According to the Census Bureau's definitions (in use since 1947), a family consists of two or more people who live in the same household and are related by blood, marriage, or adoption. Families are categorized into three types: those that include a married couple are termed husband-wife families; female-headed families typically include a mother and her children but might also consist of sisters or other relatives who live together; male-headed fami- lies are headed by a man who lives with one or more relatives but not with his wife. At all dates, the distribution of kinds of white families differed substantially from that of blacks. While similar trends are evident for both whites and blacks, the timing and magnitude of change differ. In 1940, husband-wife families made up about 76 percent of all black families and 85 percent of all white families. From 1940 to the late 1950s, the proportion of black families headed by a woman remained roughly constant at 19 percent; by 1960 that proportion had risen only slightly to 22 percent. But during the next 25 years the percentage of black families headed by women doubled, to 44 percent. In 1940, the proportion of white families headed by women was 10 percent; by the mid-1980s, it had increased on,ly slightly, to 13 percent. Two demographic components help to account for the shifting distribu- tion of families by type. First, a decreasing proportion of adults live with a spouse, so a smaller fraction of adults, especially black adults, can be heads or coheads of husband-wife families. Second, the rate at which women head their own families has increased. Since 1960, the proportion of adult women who head their own families rose for both whites and blacks, but the increase was much greater for black women. Among separated and divorced women in 1984, two-thirds of blacks were household heads, compared with one- half of whites. In the past, if a woman experienced divorce, became a widow, or had a child prior to marriage, she was likely to move into the household of relatives. Since 1960, it has become common for such women to head their own families (Ross and Sawhill, 1975~. The proportion of separated or divorced black women who headed families increased from 40 to 66 percent between 1960 and 1984. Similar trends are found among white women: in 1960 35 percent of separated or divorced white women headed families; by 1984 this proportion had increased to 49 percent-higher than the 40 per- cent recorded for black women in 1960. Never-married white women rarely head families; only 5 percent did so in 1984. This was true also of black never-married women in 1960, when 6 percent did so; but by 1984, almost 25 percent of such black women headed families. These changes can be seen in Figure 10-5a and b. This figure is based on the rates of marriage, divorce, remarriage, and death observed in 5-year intervals between 1940 and 1980. It shows the percentage of the total life span that would be spent in each of five different marital statuses by the average woman if the rates of that period continued indefinitely. For com- parative data for men, see Figure 10-5c and d. Of course, not every person 519

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY TABLE 10~ Blacks as a Percentage of Total U.S. Population, by Age Group, 1940-2020 Year All Under 15 25-54 65 and Over 1940 9.7 11.5 9.4 6.8 1960 10.5 12.7 8.7 7.0 1980 11.7 14.8 10.7 8.2 2000 13.3 17.0 13.0 8.5 2020 14.9 18.4 15.3 9.9 Sours: Data Tom decennial censuses (for 1940-1980) and Tom Census Bureau projections (for 2000 and 2020~. TABLE 10-5 Persons Aged 0-14 or 65 and Over per 100 Persons Aged 25-54 Blacks Whites Aged Aged Aged Aged Aged Aged Year 0-14 25-54 65 and Over 0-14 25-54 65 and Over 1940 75 100 12 58 100 17 1960 108 100 18 80 100 25 1980 83 100 23 56 100 32 2000 62 100 20 45 100 32 2020 58 100 29 47 100 49 Sources: Data Tom decennial censuses (for 1940-1980) and Tom Census Bureau projections (for 2000 and 2020). nation's labor market. Other demographic changes, increased immigration and the entry of considerable numbers of women into the labor force, greatly increased the competition for jobs. The 1970s, even without structural shifts . . . . . . . . . . in 1nc sultry ant . greater 1nternatlona . competition against American JUS1- nesses, might have still been a period of difficult labor market adjustment, particularly for less educated black women and men with little work experi- ence. In the late 1980s, the baby-boom cohorts of labor market entrants have subsided and much of the huge increase in labor supply has been absorbed. This suggests that a much tighter job market can be expected in the near future. If so, more employers will have incentives to train and retrain workers. Such an environment will provide great opportunities for public policy to complement and stimulate employers' policies. Many such public policies, in the areas of compensatory education and aid to college students, health care, and employment programs, have been shown to improve the position of blacks. The opportunity for launching a con- certed nationwide effort to ameliorate the problems of poverty and under- achievement may be greater now than they have been in a long time. 548

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CHILDREN AND FAMILIES REFERENCES Abrahamse, A. F., P. A. Morrison, and L. l. Waite 1988 Beyond Stereotypes: Who Becomes a Single Teenage Mother' Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, Califomia. Allen, Walter 1978 The search for applicable theories of black family life. Journal of Mammae and the Family 40:111-129. Anderson, Elijah 1978 Some observations on youth employment. In Bernard E. Anderson and Isabel V. Sawhill, eds., Youth Emit and Public Policy. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice- Hall. 1985 The social context of youth employment programs. In Charles L. Betsey, RDbin- son G. Hollister, Jr., and Mary R. Papageorgiou, eds., Couth Empk~t and Trainin,g Programs: The TEDPA ~ears. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Aschenbrenner, Joyce. 1975 Lifelines: Black Families in Chicago. New York: Halt, Rinehart and Winston. Bane, Mary Jo 1986 Household composition and poverty. Pp 209-231 in Sheldon Danziger and Daniel Weinberg, eds., Fighting Poverty: What Works and What Doesn't. Cam- bridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Bianchi, Suzanne M., and Nancy Rytina 1986 The decline in occupational sex segregation during the 1970s: census and CPS comparisons. Demography 23~1) :79-88. Bianchi, Suzanne M., and Daphne Spain 1986 Amen~an Wo"wn. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Billingsley, Andrew 1968 Black Families in White Amenca. Englewood Cliffs, N.~.: Prentice-Hall. Blau, Francine D., and Marianne A. Ferber 1985 Women in the labor market: the last twenty years. Pp. 19-49 in Laurie Larwood, Ann H. Stromberg, and Barbara A. Gutele, eds., Women and Work, An Annual Review. Vol. 1. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications Inc. Bradbury, Kathanne, and Lynne Brown 1986 Black men in the labor market. New England Economic Renew March/April:32-42. Bronfenbrenner, Urie 1958 Socialization and social class through time and space. Pp. 400-425 in E. E. Maccoby, T. M. Newcomb, and E. L. Hartley, eds., Re~in,gs in Social Psychotics. 3rd ed. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Bumpass, Larry L. 1984 Children and marital disruption: a replication and update. Demography 21~1~[February]: 71-81. Bumpass, forty, and Ronald R. Rind~ss 1979 Children's experience of marital disruption. American Journal of Sociology 85~1)Quly]:49~5. Bureau of the Census 1980 Census of Population: 1980. PC80-2-4C. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Cain, Glenn G., and Douglas A. Wissoker 1987- Do income maintenance programs break up marriages' A reevaluation of SIME; 1988 DIME. incus 10~43[Winter]:1-15. Clark, Kenneth 1965 Dark Ghetto. New York: Harper and Day. 549

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY Coale, Ansley 1955 The population of the United States in 1950 classified by age, sex, and color-a revision of census figures. Journal of the American Statzstical Association 50 (269~: 16- 54. Cox, Oliver 1940 Sex ratio and marital status among Negroes. American Sociological Rechew 5 (6) [December]: 937-947. Cutright, Phillips 1970 AFDC, family allowances and illegitimacy. Family Planning Perspectives 2~4~[0ctober] :4-9. Danziger, Sandra 1986 Breaking the chains: from teenage girls to welfare mothers, or can social policy increase options, Chapter 5 in Jack A. Meyer, ea., Dozers out of Papery. Washing- ton, D.C.: American Horizons Foundation. Davis, Allison, and Robert Havighurst 1946 Social class and color differences in child rearing. American Sociological Renew 11 (6) [December] :698-710. DeLameter, John 1981 The social control of sexuality. Pp. 263-290 in Ralph H. Turner and James F. Short, Jr., eds., Annual Re~v of Sociology' Vol. 7. Palo Alto, Calif.: Annual Reviews Inc. DuBois, William E. B. 1903 The S - is of Black Folk. Reprinted (1965) in Three Ne,gro Classics. New York: Avon Books. Duncan, Beverly 1967 Education and social background. American Journal of Sociology 724January):363- 372. Duncan, Beverly, and Otis Dudley Duncan 1969 Family stability and occupational success. Soczal Problems 16:286-301. Duncan, Greg J., Martha S. Hill, and Saul D. Hoffman 1988 Welfare dependence within and across generations. Science 239Qanuary 29]:467- 471. Duncan, Otis Dudley, David L. Featherman, and Beverly Duncan 1972 Socioeconomic Bac~r~n~;l and Ach~nt. New York: Seminar Press. Easterlin, Richard A. 1962 The American Baby Boom in Historical Perspective. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. 1980 Birth and Fortune: The Impact of Numbers on Personal Welfare. New York: Basic Books. 1982 The impact of demographic factors on the family environment of children, 1940- 1995. Draft paper prepared for the Conference on Families and the Economy, January 1982, sponsored by the Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Ellwood, David T., and Mary Jo Bane 1985 The impact of AFDC on family structure and living arrangements. In Ronald Ehrenberg, ed. Research in Indoor Economics 7. Ellwood, David, and Lawrence H. Summers 1986 Poverty in America: is welfare the answer or the problem? In Sheldon H. Danziger and Daniel H. Weinberg, eds., F,ighti~ Pmer~: What Works ant hat Doesn't. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 550

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CH I LDREN AN D FAMI Ll ES Engerman, Stanley 1977 Black fertility and family structure in the U.S., 1880-1940. Journal of Family History 2~2~[Summer]:117-138. Espenshade, Thomas J. 1985 Marriage trends in America: estimates, implications, and underlying causes. Popes ration and DeDel~n~t Renew 11~2)June]:193-245. Farley, Reynolds 1987 Changes in the Status and Characteristics of Blacks: 1940 to Mid-1980s. Paper prepared for the Committee on the Status of Black Americans, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Farley, Reynolds, and Walter Allen 1987 The Color Line and the Quality of American Life. New York: Russel Sage Founda- tion. Farley, Reynolds, and Suzanne Bianchi 1986 The growing racial difference in marriage and family patterns. Paper presented at the 1986 meeting of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section, Chicago, Illinois. Farley, Reynolds, and Lisa J. Neidert 1986 A Comparison of Racial Differences in Labor Force Participation, Unemployment, Earnings, and Income: 1940 to 1985. Paper prepared for the Committee on the Status of Black Americans, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Featherman, David L., and Robert M. Hauser 1976 Sexual inequalities and socioeconomic achievement in the United States, 1962- 1973. American Sociological Renew 41:462-483. 1978 Opportunity and Chan,ge. New York: Academic Press. Franklin, John Hope 1980 From Skinny to F~m. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Frazier, E. Franklin 1939 The Negro Family in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr. 1976 Unplanned Parenthood: The Social G~n~ of Te~e Childb~n~. New York: Free Press. Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr., Philip Morgan, Dristin A. Moore, and James L. Peterson 1987 Race differences in the timing of adolescent sexual intercourse. Amencan Socio/ - al Reriew 52~43[August]:511-518. Ga~finkel, Irwin, and Sara S. McLanahan 1986 Single Mothers and Their Children: A New AmmcanDibmma. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute. Glick, Paul C. 1981 A demographic picture of black families. Pp. 106-126 in Harnette Pipes Mc- Adoo, ea., Black Families. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications Inc. Gold, Rachel Benson, and Barry Nestor 1985 Public funding of contraceptive, sterilization and abortion services, 1983. Family Planning Pmp~s 17~1) Jan. /Fete .) :25-30. Goldman, Noreen, Charles F. Weston, and Charles Hammerslough 1984 Demography of the marriage market in the United States. Population I-x 50~1~[Spnng| :5-25. Goode, William J., Elizabeth Hopkins, and Helen M. McClure 1971 Social Mums and Family Pots: A Pr~itionatI~ntory. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs- Merrill Company, Inc. 551

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY Goodlad, John I. 1984 A Place Calls School: prospects for the Future. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Com- pany. Goodwin, Leonard 1983 Causes and Cures of Welfare: Mew Enhance on the Social Psychology of the Poor. Lexing- ton, Mass.: Lexington Books/D. C. Heath and Company. Groeneveld, Lyle P., Nancy Brandon Tuma, and Michael T. Hannan 1980 Marital dissolution and remarriage. In Philip K. Robins, Robert G. Spiegelman, Samuel Weinere, and Joseph G. Bell, eds., A Guaranteed Annual Income: Evidence from a Social Experiment. New York: Academic Press. Grove, Robert D., and Alice M. Hetzel 1968 Vital Statures Rates in the United States: 1940-1960. U.S. Center for Health Statis- tics. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Gutman, Herbert G. 1976 The Black Family in Slangy and Freedom, 1750-1925. New York: Vintage/Random House. Guttentag, M., and P. F. Secord 1983 Too Many Women. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications Inc. Gwaltney, John Langston 1981 D'y~ro: A Self-Porrmait of Black America. New York: Vintage Books. Hannan, M. T., N. B. Tuma, and L. P. Groeneveld 1977 Income and marital events: evidence from an income-maintenance experiment. Ammcan Journal of Sociology 82(6)[May]:1186-1211. Hayes, Cheryl D. 1987 Risking the Future: Adolescent Sexuality, Pr~ncy, and Childbearing. Vol. 1. Panel on Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing, Committee on Child Development Research and Public Policy, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Herskovits, Melville I. 1941 The Myth of the Metro Past. Boston: Beacon Press. Hill, Martha S., et al. 1985 Motivation and Economic Mobility. Institute for Social Research, Research Report Series. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Survey Research Center. Hill, Robert B. 1971 The Strength of Black Families. New York: National Urban ~ague. Hogan, Dennis, and Evelyn Kitagawa 1985 The impact of social status, family structure, and neighborhood on the fertility of blade adolescents. American Journal of Sociology 90~4)Uanuary]:825-855. Hutchens, Robert M. 1979 Welfare, remarriage, and the marital search. American Economic Renew 69(3)June) :369-379. Hyman, Herbert 1953 The value systems of different classes. Pp. 426 442 in Rcinhard Bendix and Seymour Martin Lipset, eds., Class, Status, and Pawer: A Rear in Social Stratifsca lion. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press. Irelan, L. M., O. C. Moles, and R. M. O'Shea 1969 Ethnicity, poverty, and selected attitudes: a test of the culture of poverty hypoth- esis. Social Awes 47:4Y)5-413. 552

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CHILDREN AND FAMILIES Jaynes, Gerald David 1985 The Black Family. Memorandum to the Committee on the Status of Black Amer- icans (September), National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Kamili, Constance, and Norma L. Radin 1967 Class differences in the socialization practices of Negro mothers. Journal of Mar- n~e and the Family 29(2):302-310. Kraly, Ellen P., and Charles Hirschman 1987 Racial and ethnic inequality among children in the United States: 1940 and 1950. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association August 17-21, 1987, Chicago, Illinois. Ladner, Joyce 1971 Toma~'s Tamorr~w: The Black Women. New York: Doubleday. Levy, Frank 1987 Dollars and Dreams: The Chan,gin,gAm~ncanIncomeDis~tion. New York: Russell Sage Foundation/Basic Books. Lewis, Hylan 1955 Blackness of Kent. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Lewis, Oscar 1966 Lo Vida: A Photo Riven Family in the Culture of Poverty. New York: Random House. Lieberson, Stanley 1980 A Piece of the Pie: Blacks and White Immigrants Since 1880. Berkeley: University of California Press. Liebow, Elliott 1967 Tally's Car. Boston: Little, Brown. Lightfoot, Sara 1978 Worlds Apart: Relationships ~ Family and Schools. New York: Basic Books. Litwack, Leon F. 1979 Been in the Storm So It: The Afm7nath of Sly. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Macaulay, Jacqueline 1977 Stereotyping child welfare:. Society January/February) :47-51. Matsueda, Ross, and Karen Heimer 1987 Race, family structure, and delinquency: a test of differential association and social control theories. Amcmcan Sociok~ical Review 52(6)[December]:826-840. McAdoo, Harriette Pipes 1986 Strategies used by black single mothers against stress. Renew of Black Political Any 14(2-3):155-166. 1987 Parenting Within Single Parent African-American Families. Paper presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Chicago, Illinois. McAdoo, Harrictte Pipes, and RDsalyn Terborg-Penn 1985 Historical trends in perspectives of Afro-American families. TO in History 3(3/4):97-111. McFalls, Joseph A., fir., and Marguerite Harvey 1984 Disease and Fertiti~. Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press. McLanahan, Sara S. 1985 Family structure and the reproduction of poverty. Amman jroumal of Sociology 90(4)Uanuary] :873-901. Merton, RDbert K. 1968 Social Theory and Social S~ure. New York: Free Press. Miller, S. M. 1964 The new working class. In Arthur Shostak and WIlliam Gomberg, eds., Blue- Collar Worm. Englewood Cliff:s, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 553

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY Moore, Kristin, and Martha R. Burt 1982 Ovate Cnsis, Public Cost: Policy Perspectives on Teenage Chit~earin,g. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute. Morgan, James N., Greg J. Duncan, and staff 1968- Fire Thousand Ammcan Families-Patterns of Economic l~o,g~ess: Analyses and Special 1980 Studies of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Vols. 1-10. Ann Arbor: Institute of Social Research, University of Michigan. Murray, Charles 1984 Losing Ground: American Social Policy: 1950-1980. New York: Basic Books. National Center for Health Statistics 1978 Vital Statics of the United States, 1978. Vol. 1: Natality. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 1983 Monthly Vital Statics Reports, Vol. 32, no. 9, supplement. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Depa~llent of Health and Human Services O'Neill, J., D. Wolf, L. Bassi, and M. Hannan 1984 An Analysis of Time on Welfare. Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Urban Institute, Washington, D.C. Passel, Jeffery, and J. Gregory RDbinson 1984 Revised estimates of the coverage of the population in the 1980 census, based on demographic analysis: a report on work in progress. Pp. 160-165 in 1984 Proceed' inns of the Social Statistics Section. Washington, D.C.: American Statistical Associa- tion. Patterson, lames T. 1981 Am~nca'sStn~leA~ainstPo~, 1900-1980. Cambridge, Mass.: HarvardUniver- sity Press. Plateris, Alexander A. 1978 Dams and Divorce Rates: United States. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. Data from the National Vital Statistics System, Series 21, No. 29 (March). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Pleck, Elizabeth Hafkin 1979 Divorces and Divorce Rates: United States. U.S. National Center for Health Statistics. Data from the National Vital Statistics System, Series 21, No. 29 (March). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Powell-Griner, Eve 1986 Induced terminations of pregnancy: reporting states, 1982 and 1983. U.S. Na- tional Center for Health Statistics. Monthly Vital States R - t 35~3~(July). Preston, Samuel H., and James McDonald 1979 The incidence of divorce within cohorts of American marriage contracted since the Civil War. Demography 16~1~[February]:1-25. Rainwater, Lee 1970 Behind Ghetto Walls: Black Life in a Federal Slum. Chicago: Aldine. Reskin, Barbara F., and Heidi I. Hartmann, eds. 1986 Wom~n's Work, Men* Work. Committee on Women's Employment and Related Social Issues. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Robinson, Brian E 1987 Teenage Fathers. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books/D. C. Heath and Company. RDdman, Hyman 1963 The lower class value stretch. Social Aces 42~2~(December):205-215. Rosenberg, Morris, and Roberta Simmons 1971 Black and White Self-Esteem: The Urban School ChiLls. Washington, D.C.: Ameri- can Sociological Association. 554

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CHILDREN AND FAMILIES ROSS, H. L., and I. Sawhill 1975 Time of Transition: The Growth of Families Headed toy Borneo. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute. Scanzoni, John H. 1971 The Blorck Family in Modern Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Schiller, Bradley R. 1984 The Economics of Poverty and Discrimination. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-HaD. Scott-Jones, Diane 1987 Black Families and the Education of Black Children: Current Issues. Paper com- missioned by the Committee on the Status of Black Americans, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Siegel, Jacob S. 1974 Estimates of coverage of the population by sex, race, and age in 1970 census. Demography 11~1) [February]: 1-23 . Simpson, George E., and J. Milton Yinger 1985 Racial and Cultural Minorities. 5th ed. New York: Plenum. Smeeding, M. David, and T. Smeeding 1985 Horizontal Equity, Uncertainty and Wellbeing. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Spanier, Graham B., and Paul C. Glick 1986 Mate selection differentials between whites and blacks in the United States. Social Forces 58~3~[March]:707-725. Stack, Carol 1974 All Our Kin: S~ate~es for Surreal in a Black Community. New York: Harper & Row. Steinberg, Stephen 1981 The Ethnic Myth: Race, Ethnicity, and Class in Amenca. New York: Atheneum Publishers. Sudarkasa, Niara 1981 Interpreting the African heritage in Afro-American family organization. In Har- riette Pipes McAdoo, ea., Black Families. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications Inc. Sweet, James A., and Larry L. Bumpass 1974 Differentials in marital instability of the black population: 1970. Physic 35 (3~:323- 331. Thornton, Arland 1978 Marital instability differentials and interaction insights from multivariate contin- gency table analysis. Sociology and Social Research 62July):572-595. Udry, J. Richard, and John O. G. Billy 1987 Initiation of coitus in early adolescence. American Sociological Red 52 (6) [December] 841 -855. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means 1987 Background Matenal on Prims Within the Jurisdicuon of the Committee on Ways and Means. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Walker, Henry A. 1986 Racial differences in patterns of marriage and family maintenance: 1890-1980. In Sanford M. Dornbusch and Myra H. Strober, eds., Leninism, Children and the New Families. New York: Guilford Press. Westoff, Charles F. 1978 Mamage and fertility in developed countries. Scienu~c American 239~6) (December) :51-57. 555

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A COMMON DESTINY: BLACKS AND AMERICAN SOCIETY Westoff, Charles F., Gerard Calot, and Andrew D. Foster 1983 Teenage fertility in developed nations: 1971-1980. Family Planning P~rspeci~s 15~3~:105. Williams, Robin M., Jr. 1970 American Society. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Willie, Charles V. 1970 The Family Life of Black People. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill. Wilson, William Julius 1978 The Declining Significance of Ace: Blacks and Changing American Institutions. Chi- cago: University of Chicago Press. 1987 The Truly Di~nta~ed: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Wilson, William Julius, and Robert Aponte 1985 Urban poverty. Pp. 231-258 in Ralph H. Turner and James F. Short, Jr., eds., Annual Renew of Sociology, Vol. 11. Palo Alto, Calif.: Annual Reviews. Wilson, William Julius, and Kathryn M. Neckerman 1986 Poverty and family structure: the widening gap between evidence and public policy issues. Pp. 232-259 in Sheldon H. Danziger and Daniel H. Weinberg, eds., F~hun,gP~: What Works and What Doesn't. Cambndge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Wright, Paul, and Peter Pirie 1984 A False Feruli~ Transition: The Case of Amencotn Blacks. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 90. Honolulu: East-West Population Institute. 556 ,, ,

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APPEN DICES 557

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