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Index A Abolitionist movement, 91 Ir, A - ham's Bosom' 99-100 Academic achievement changes in levels of, 342 classroom organization and, 357-358 and college entry, 340, 342 compensatory education and, 350, 355 356 cooperative learning experiments and, 357 358 course enrollment patterns and, 350 family factors and, 356, 358-359, 369 371, 525 literacy study, 352-354 in mathematics, 347 measures of, 346 peer group influences and, 372-373, 378 preschool education and, 19, 333, 346 348 racial similarities and differences in factors in, 366-367 school desegregation and, 19, 80, 350 351, 373-374, 379 school factors in, 19, 354-365, 378 socialization of blacks and, 356-357, 369 371 socioeconomic status and, 19, 351, 355, 365-366, 368, 369-370, 378 standards, 19, 331 teacher expectations, characteristics, and behavior and, 19, 356-357, 359, 378 teacher qualifications and, 355-356 verbal skills and, 351 Achievement test performance age and, 349 and college attendance, 342 community type and, 352 compensatory education and, 347-348 course enrollment patterns and, 350-351 589 improvements in, 348-352, 361, 379 mathematics, 347-349, 361 and military services participation, 73-74 racial differences in, 20, 346, 348, 378 reading, 347-349, 352, 359, 361, 379 regional differences in, 349 Scholastic Aptitude Test, 350 science, 348, 349 slippage in, 352-354 teacher expectations, characteristics, and behavior and, 356-357 Activism, see Protest activities Adams, John Hurst, 176 Addison, Adele, 100 Adolescents and young adults academic achievement of, 10, 372-373, 413 access to health care, 434 criminal activities of, 51, 308 n.5, 460, 462, 471, 476-477 educational attainment of, 26, 51, 320, 404, 412 employment of, 320-322, 412, 413 expectations of, 10 health of, 51, 411-417, 434, 440, 471 homicides, 23, 411, 413-417, 440, 462, 498 inner-city life, 10, 167, 308 n.5, 320 labor force participation rates of, 26, 320 peer group influences on, 51, 372-373, 378 population size, 411 In poverty, 320, 412-413 pregnancy and reproductive health of, 23, 26,401,403,410-413,434,440, 515-516, 526, 532 stereotyping by prospective employers, 49, 321-322, 454, 498 substance abuse by, 26, 51, 411, 413-415, 434, 462 5= alio Children

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INDEX Affirmative action policies attitudes of whites toward, 150, 153-154, 376-377 in colleges and universities, 376-377 effectiveness of, 316-317 in government contracting, 227, 316-317 quotas, 376-377 see also Equal employment OCR for page 589
INDEX and extent of intergroup contact, 11, 81, 83, 116, 117, 121, 137, 142-143, 148, 374 on federal spending policies, 13, 122, 212 213, 215, 246 on housing desegregation, 118, 119, 121, 122, 126, 127, 130-131, 140-144, 151, 152, 200 on implementation of equality policies, 5, 11, 42, 116, 117, 122, 125-127, 130-131, 148-152, 153-155 individualism and, 13, 150-151, 153-154, 155, 214 individual change in, 117, 118, 120 on integration, 116, 211 on intelligence of blacks, 60, 118-119, 120, 123 on intermarriage, 122, 125, 130, 137-138, 152, 194 on job discrimination, 60, 122, 126, 130, 132, 135, 137-138, 156, 223 on meaning of racial equality, 152-153 in military services, 63-64, 66, 74 political candidacy of blacks, 122, 130, 138-139, 199, 219 political contexts of, 136, 155, 196, 209 219 and political participation, 137, 223, 231, 236-237 regional differences in, 59-60, 64, 117, 118, 119, 121, 127, 128 on religion and morality, 95, 137, 176, 198, 215 residential integration, 11-12, 120, 121 124, 126, 130-131, 133, 137-138, 140-144, 151, 155-156, 194 on school desegregation, 11-13, 84, 118, 119, 121-122, 125, 126, 127, 130, 131, 137-138, 194 on segregation during 1930s, 59-60 social conditions and, 118-119, 127 on social contact/distance, 11, 95, 116, 117, 121-124, 125, 151, 152-153, 155, 198-199 on social issues, 215, 246 on socialization of children with regard to race, 197-198 on South African sanctions, 187, 215 transportation desegregation, 118, 119, 120, 137 on violence, 133, 144, 199, 219 on welfare policies, 150, 212-214, 216, 254-255 see also Stereotypes B Baldwin, James, 101, 167 Baraka, Amiri, 192 (Imamu, 101) Barthe, Richmond, 166, 192 Baseball, see Sports Basic, Count, 100, 168 Basketball, see Sports 591 Battle, Kathleen, 100 Bearden, Romare, 2, 166, 192 Behavior attitudes and, 120, 153-154, 155 harassment of blacks in public establish- ments, 140 in military services, 73 standardized test scores and, 73 Belafonte, Harry, 102 Beloved, 101 Berry, Chuck, 102 Black Boy, 167 Black community activism during World War II, 64, 86 autonomy of, 166 business and professional associations, 245 church role in, 173-176 class structure and, 164, 165, 186 costs of crime to, 464~72, 498 cultural cohesion and identity, 14, 164, 165 drug use and trafficking in, 461-463 economic development in, 176 influence on federal government, 86 leadership structure, 14, 168, 169, 171, 187, 244-248 loss of higher status blacks from, 164, 168 mutual aid societies, 47, 245 Nation of Islam strategies for development of, 193-194, 463 post-1960s developments in, 186-191, 222-223 priorities of, 294 248 problems of, 45, 193, 461-463 residential segregation and, 164 strains on, 14, 163-164 support of black businesses, 180 voluntary associations, 47, 171 Black identity African-American duality in, 194-196 in arts and entertainment, 101, 167 attitudes of blacks and, 9-10, 30-31, 47, 134, 195, 196-200, 214 cultural traditions and, 30, 191-192 economic conditions and, 195 educational attainment and, 237 group identity and consciousness, 13, 30- 31, 47, 193-194, 196-200, 236-237 labels, 196-197 measures of, 196 Nation of Islam and, 193-194, 463 in organizations and institutions, 14, 166, 188-189 in religion, 95, 166 socialization of children with regard to race, 197-198 status changes and, 9-10, 14, 164, 191, 195-196 and voter participation, 236-237 Black nationalism, 30, 101, 195, 211, 218- 219 Black pride, 14, 191, 196, 197-199, 218 Blackwell, David H., 68

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INDEX Blake, Eubie, 100 Blood on the ~e, 166 Bluefield State College, 178 Bluesfor Mr. Charlie, 101 Bontemps, Arna Wendell, 167 Bowling, see Sports Bradley, Thomas, 69, 139 Brice, Carol, 100 grimmer, Andrew F., (i8, 465 Brooke, Edward W., 68 Brooks, Gwendolyn, 66, 68, 101, 166 Brown, Claude, 167 Brown, Lloyd, 101 Brown, Sterling, 166, 191-192 Brown, Wesley, 66, 68 Bunche, Ralph J., 68 Burgess, John M., 69 Businesses, black-owned black organizational support of, 186 church support of, 176 282, 404 competition trom white enterprises, 182 183 crimes against, 465-466, 467-468 expansion outside black markets, 181 factors contributing to growth of, 182 government policies supporting, 182, 255 257 growth in, 315 mergers and acquisitions of, 182 personal services and retailing, 179-181, 314-315 prior to civil rights movement, 166, 179 180 promotion of, by black elected officials, 250-251 sales revenues, 181 self-employment, 169, 288-289, 314-315 top 100, by industry, 181-182 by women, 314 Businesses, white-owned discrimination in, 139 equal employment training programs, 139 joint ventures with black corporations, 182 layoffs of blacks during corporate restruc- turing, 248 management/executive positions of blacks in, 139, 170-171, 247-248, 251 penetration of black markets, 183 recruitment of blacks, 139, 168, 183 segregation in, 60 Busing, 75, 82, 83, 84, 121, 122, 126-129, 131, 149, 152-153, 226-227 C Carson, Clayborne, 194, 195 Carter administration appointment of blacks during, 241-244 foreign policy influence of blacks during, 252 , - . . Caucus orgamzatlons Afro-American Museums Association, 188 189 592 and black identity, 188 church role in establishing, 175 Concerned Black Foreign Service Officers, 189 Congressional Black Caucus, 187, 190, 245, 255, 258 diversity of, 188 institutional participation in, 188-190 loyalty and allegiance of, 189-190 national ad hoc committee of black steel- workers, 88 Chapoton, John E., 257 Charles, Ray, 102 Cheyney University, 176 Chicago Commission on Race Relations, 165 Children of adolescent parents, 412-413 dental care, 409-410 in female-headed families, 23, 25, 276, growth, development, and learning in, 406-411, 413, 434 health of, 50, 394, 404 408, 413, 416, 420 health protection for, 283, 430, 439-430 immunization of, 408-409 living arrangements of, 23, 25, 36, 404, 512, 519-523, 527, 528 mortality rates of, 396, 404, 405 neglect and abuse of, 410-411, 419 in poverty, 8-9, 23, 24, 50-51, 186, 279, 281, 394, 404, 405, 408, 512, 523 526, 533 socialization of, with regard to race, 197 198 see also Adolescents and young adults Children's Defense Fund, 186-187 Churches and religious life African Methodist Episcopal Church, 95, 166, 174, 176 African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 95, 174, 176 American Lutheran Church, 92, 93 attitudes of blacks on, 95, 176 Baptist churches, 94-95 black identity in, 166, 193-194 black leadership/membership in white de nominations, 11, 69, 92-93, 176 Catholic Church, 91-93, 94 Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, 95, 174, 176 Church of God in Christ, 174, 176 civil rights activities of, 165, 172, 173, 187 Colored Methodist Episcopal Church, 174 Congregational-Christian churches, 93 Disciples of Christ, 93 Episcopal Church, 69, 92 interactions at denominational level, 94-95 Lutheran Church in America, 92-94 membership in major black denominations, 174 mixed services, 93-94

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INDEX Nation of Islam, 193-194 National Baptist Convention of America, 95, 174, 175 National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., Inc., 95, 174, 175 National Primitive Baptist Convention, 174 occupational distributions in, 170-171 political role of, 91-92, 95, 175, 190, 245, 246 Progressive Baptist Convention, Inc., 95, 175 Progressive National Baptist Convention, 174 role in black society, 173-176, 177, 190 segregation in, 92, 95 Southern Baptist churches, 93 and subordination in race relations, 95, 176 United Methodist Church, 92-93, 95 United Presbyterian Church of North America, 92 Citizenship Education Fund, 187 Civil Rights Act of 1957 enforcement of, 225, 232 voting rights under, 65, 225 Civil Rights Act of 1960 congressional resistance to, 65 enforcement of, 225, 232 powers of civil rights commission under, 65 Civil Rights Act of 1964 congressional support for, 216 enforcement of, 224-229 job desegregation under, 65 protest activities and passage of, 223 public accommodations desegregation un- der, 65, 84, 208, 229 school desegregation under, 75, 377 Title VII, 87, 227-229, 316, 318, 319, 394 Civil rights movement alternatives to, 193 antecedents to, 14, 220-221 and attitudes of blacks and whites, 119 123, 318-319 and black identity, 191 church role in, 91 community role in, 14, 172-173 and economic status of blacks, 7, 28, 36 169, 274 leadership, 14, 171 literature on, 167 media coverage of, 87 middle-class development and, 63 military desegregation and, 67, 70 and opportunities for blacks, 4-5, 7, 10, 35-36, 42, 168, 318-319 political effects of, 35-36, 42, 222 relationship to white radicals and liberals, 167 social structure following, ~5, 6, 36, 168- 171, 45.4 socioeconomic structure prior to, 16~168, 221-222 593 strains imposed on black institutions and organizations by, 164 white organizations involved in, 172-173 during World War II, 63-64 see also Litigation of discrimination cases; Protest activities Clark, Kenneth, 84, 168 Class structure, family structure and, 275- 276; see Middle class; Poverty; Social structures Upper class Cleaver, Eldridge, 101 Cole, Nat King, 102 College education academic majors, 178, 345-346, 436-437 achievement test performance and, 340, 342 advanced degrees, 177, 379 completion of, 20, 38, 39, 42-43, 44 339-340, 345-346, 365, 378 and earnings, 275, 276, 298, 301, 304, 320, 343, 365 economic status and, 340-343 and employment, 304, 306, 320, 365 expectations of returns from, 343 financial aid and, 19, 29, 177, 179, 340 343, 345, 379, 437 and labor force participation, 304, 306 odds of, for blacks, 339, 341, 378, 379 residential segregation and, 144-145 school desegregation and, 80, 168 sex differences in, 340, 436 trends in, 3, 39, 42-43, 44, 177, 178, 338-340, 378 at two-year versus four-year institutions 340-341, 343 and wealth, 292 Colleges and universities admission standards, 227 attrition rates, 178-179 black faculty, 364-365, 375-377 436 black institutions, 176-177, 437i38 black presidents of, 69 causes of declines in black enrollments, 340-345 current patterns at, 178-179 discrimination at, 364-365, 378 enrollments of blacks in, 19, 20, 45, 177, 178-179, 338-339, 340-345, 437 438 federal aid to, 179, 377 fraternity/sorority activism, 172, 190, 245, 253 graduate programs at black institutions, 177 indices of segregation in, 85 institutional climate, 364-365 recruitment of blacks by, 227 role of students in civil rights movement, 173 scholarships, 98 social adjustment at, 364-365 sports participation of blacks in, 95-98

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INDEX teacher training and education programs, 383 violence at, 365 white student enrollments in black colleges, 178 see also specific colleges and unzvers~i~es The Color Purple' 101 Coltrane, John, 100, 168 Committee on Equal Employment Opportu- n~ty, 65 Community Action Program, 188 Community associations, segregation in, 60; see also Black community; Organiza . . . . tlons anc mstltutlons Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, 254 Conelly, Marc, 100 Congress of National Black Churches, 175 176 Congress of Racial Equality, 172 Congressional Black Caucus, 187, 190, 245, 255, 258 Conroy, Jack, 167 Cooke, Sam, 102 Cooper, Chuck, 66, 68 Cosby, Bill, 102 Crime and criminal activities of adolescents, 51, 308 n.5, 460, 462, 471, 476-477 alcohol use and, 462 costs of, to black communities, 23, 464 472 drug use and trafficking and, 51, 413, 461 463, 464 handgun possession and, 457, 461, 463 464, 479 homicide, 21, 23, 396-397, 397, 411, 413-416, 418-420, 427, 440, 457 460, 462, 463-464, 478, 486, 498 rates of, 456, 457, 485, 487 residential segregation and, 141, 464, 465, 467, 471, 472 school desegregation and, 80 socioeconomic status and, 11, 23, 453 454, 459, 464, 465, 467, 471, 48 485, 498 trends in serious crimes, 3, 456-461 victimization of blacks, 23, 455, 464 472, 474, 475, 488, 497, 498 Criminal justice system arrest rates of blacks and whites, 22, 456- 460, 464, 474-477, 482, 496-497, 498 brutality in, 455 death penalty, 215, 474, 488 discrimination in, 13, 22, 23, 31, 46, 137, 185, 188, 258, 453-456, 473-474, 481-484, 487, 496-498 incarceration rates, 455, 460-461, 483- 487, 498 juvenile arrest patterns, 476-477 personnel, 22, 48, 454, 455, 474, 480, 489-498 594 police behavior and organization, 473-475, 477-482, 496-497 prejudice in, 23, 473-477, 488, 497 pretrial bargaining and prosecution, 455, 480-483, 485, 489, 497 prisoner treatment, 455-456, 491 probation and parole decisions, 484, 485, 497 sentencing, 11, 22-23, 483-489, 496, 497, 498 see also Election and appointment of blacks; Police Cullen, Countee, 101 Culture and academic achievement, 370-373 African-Amencan duality in, 19~196, 526-527 arts and entertainment, 99-100 and attitudes of blacks, 136 and black identity, 10, 14, 191-196 religion and, 95 rural-urban migration and, 166 see also Arts and Entertainment; Black ., . Sentry Culture of poverty, see Public assistance D Dance Theater of Harlem, 69 Davidson, Frederick E., 69 Davis, Arthur P., 191-192 Davis, B. O., Jr., 68, 71 Davis, Miles, 100, 168 Davis, Sammy, Jr., 102 Davis, Willie, 182 Dawson, William L., 63, 66, 68 de Tocqueville, Alexis, 150 Defense industries desegregation of, 86 discrimination in, 63, 86, 315 participation of blacks in, 63 Desegregation attitudes of blacks and whites on, 42, 70, 116, 118, 122, 127, 155, 196-197 defined, 51, 57 federal support of, 223 governmental authority and, 58 In the military, 58 social stresses created by, 195-196 union responses to, 86 see also Housing desegregation; Public ac- commodations desegregation; School desegregation Desmond, Binga, 166 Digress, Charles C., 63 Discrimination in arts and entertainment, 58, 99, 103, 139 attitudes of blacks and whites on, 60 80, 116, 132-134, 151, 195 in defense industries, 63, 86 in military services, 63, 64, 6~67, 74 in public accommodations, 84-85 reverse, 151, 182 in schools, 82-83, 366

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INDEX second-generation, 82-83 in sports, 97-98 by unions, 85-88 see also Antidiscrimination legislation and orders, Job discrimination and segre- gation, Protest activities Dixon, Dean, 100 Dobbs, Mattiwilda, 100 Dole, Bob, 255 Douglass, Frederick, 66 Drug abuse by adolescents, 413-414 and AIDS, 414 extent of, 3 mortality rates, 414 DuBois, W. E. B., 183, 194-195, 210 Dukemejian, George, 139 Dumas, Henry, 101 Dunbar, Paul Lawrence, 101 Dvorak, Anton, 101 Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment program, 406, 410 Earnings annual, 28, 295, 297, 299 calculation of, 53 discrimination, attitudes of blacks and whites on, 132, 134 economic growth and, 294-297 educational attainment and, 44, 62, 147, 275, 276, 298, 299, 301, 320, 365 and employment status, 297-299 family structure and, 276 lifetime expected, 37, 39, 43~4, 53, 298 299, 300 per capita, 297, 298-299, 307 racial differences in, 43~4, 275, 295, 297, 438 regional differences in, 298 of self-employed blacks, 314 sex differences in, 7, 17, 28, 39, 294-295, 297-298, 299, 438 trends in, 7, 37, 39, 43, 295, 297, 323, 438 Economic conditions and growth black identity and, 195 civil rights movement and, 4, 221-222 and economic status of blacks, 6-9, 16, 28, 29, 36, 44 15, 275, 279, 283, 294, 323, 324 and labor market experiences of blacks, 294-297 migration to northern and urban areas and, 60, 221-222 political participation and, 238, 246 and unemployment, 296 Economic Opportunity Loan Program, 255 Economic status assessment of, 46 and attitudes of blacks and whites, 136, 212, 219 595 and college education, 341 economic conditions and, 6-9, 16, 28, 29, 36, 11 45, 275, 279, 283, 294, 323, 324 educational attainment and, 287 and infant mortality rates, 10 pre-World War II, 271 and social stresses, 195-196 trends in, 4, 6, 16-18, 23-25, 272-277 wealth of black households, 276, 291-294 see also Income; Middle class; Poverty; Soci- oeconomic status; Upper class Education and schooling Baldwin-Kings schools project, 361-362 black organizational support of, 186, 187 black teachers, 363 classroom organization, 357-358, 363 compensatory programs, 19, 29, 30, 323, 346-348, 356, 377 cooperative learning experiments, 357-358, 363 early childhood, 332-334; see also Preschool education effective schools, 358-362 enrollment trends, 332-346 equality of opportunities in, 19, 331-332, 377 federal spending on, 348 instructional materials and techniques, 19, 358, 361, 378 measures of equality in, 331, 378; see also Academic achievement; Achievement test performance minimum competency testing, 362-363 parental involvement in, 363, 369 per-pupil expenditures in southern states, 58-59 policy contexts of, 377-379 quality of, 3, 10, 19, 80, 84, 227, 354, 377-378 social context of, 365-377 teacher testing, 363-364 see also School desegregation Educational attainment and attitudes of blacks and whites, 118, 120, 121, 124, 125, 127, 136, 153, 200, 219, 237, 366-369 and earnings, 44, 62, 147, 275, 276, 298, 299, 301, 320, 365 economic status and, 287, 288 employment and, 8, 274, 296, 297, 304, 306,315,365,526,535 family structure and, 525-526 and growth of black businesses, 182 and health status, 40, 400, 404 406 indicators of, 332 and military service participation, 71, 74 and political values, 214, 237 pre-civil rights movement, 39, 164 preschool education and, 333 process of, 367-368 and residential segregation, 144-145, 315, 378

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INDEX school desegregation and, 80, 81, 84, 168, 315 of self-employed blacks, 314, 315 sex differences in, 334-338 and socialization of blacks, 356-357, 378 trends in, 7, 18, 37, 42, 44, 332, 334- 337, 518 wealth and, 292 and welfare dependence, 290 Eisenhower administration, antidiscrimina- tion measures during, 65, 70, 223, 232 Elderly blacks barriers to health care, 22, 428-429, 432, 435 demographic characteristics of, 425-427 health status of, 425-427, 432-433 mortality and morbidity, 427-428 poverty among, 22, 282 public assistance for, 282 Election and appointment of blacks agency heads, 68, 69 ambassadors, 244 benefits of, 250-251 cabinet members, 68 before civil rights movement, 166 delegates at national political conventions 16, 217-218 districting procedures and, 239 elected officials, 63, 66, 68, 69, 138-139, 218, 231, 233-234, 237, 239-242, 246, 247, 249-251, 253, 255-257, 491 and hiring and appointments of blacks, 15 16, 250, 491 growth since civil rights movement, 3, 171 judges, 22, 170-171, 241-243, 258, 455, 474, 496-498 number of, 35, 238, 258 organizations of, 190-191 partisan municipal ballots and, 239, 241 party leadership positions, 241 and political power in policy making, 245 246, 249-251 protection of opportunities for, 233-234 racial composition of districts and, 239 241-242 socioeconomic conditions and, 249 in southern county government, 239 spending outcomes of, 250 supreme court justices, 69 and voter participation, 247 see also Government jobs Elementary schools ability groupings in, 82-83 Baldwin-Kings schools project, 361-362 black enrollments in, 76 effects of desegregation in, 80 Elks, 172 Ellington, Duke, 100, 168 Ellison, Ralph, 101, 167, 168, 195 Emancipation Proclamation of 1863, 3 596 The Emperor Jones, 99 Employment of adolescents, 320, 412 age and, 302-306 antidiscrimination measures, 65, 227-229; see also Equal employment opportunity of black migrants in northern cities, 62, 272 blue-collar, 8, 272, 294, 296, 310, 312 321 after civil rights movement, 169, 274 before civil rights movement, 35, 37, 164 165 defined, 301 discrimination in, 49, 85-88; see also Job discrimination and segregation; Occu pational distributions economic growth and, 294-297 education and, 8, 274, 296, 304, 306 365, 526 geographic shifts in jobs and, 296, 320-321 government, 165, 169, 170, 227; see also Government jobs Humphrey-Hawkins full-employment bill, 253 Job Corps, 254 job search techniques and, 321 in management positions, 3, 17, 49, 169 171, 312-313, 319, 490, 492-493 of men, 28, 49, 275, 302-303, 306, 307 312, 324, 534 part-time, 297 population ratios, 18, 301, 302, 304, 306 professional and technical, 170-171, 436 438 rates, 17, 301 self-employment, 169, 170 sex differences in, 7, 272, 302 structural changes and, 310, 312 trends in, 3, 7-8, 37, 279, 302-306, 323 white-collar occupations, 17, 169-171 275, 312 of women, 7, 17, 272, 299, 302, 303-306, 312-314, 320-321 see also Labor force participation Entertainment, see Arts and entertainment Equal employment opportunity compliance with, 490, 494 195 enforcement of, 315-319, 324, 491 195 effectiveness of, 316-318 social networks and, 319-323 see also Affirmative action policies Equal Employment Opportunity Commission creation of, 316 data on segregation, 85 enforcement powers of, 227-229, 316 functions of, 227-229, 316 management positions of blacks in, 244 Equal employment training programs corporate attitudes on, 139 Erving, Julius, 182

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INDEX F Fair Employment Practices Committee, 65, 86-87, 315 Family structure adolescent pregnancy and, 412 causes of changes in, 25, 518, 526-544 changing patterns of, 23, 24, 511-519 and child-rearing practices, 25, 369, 511, 523 and crime, 413, 476-477, 484 and cognitive development, 369-370 culture-of-poverty hypothesis and, 527, 540-544 and earnings, 276, 525, 534-537 fertility trends and, 24, 26, 412, 413, 513 518, 528 and outcomes for children, 525-526 and poverty, 277 n.2, 279-282, 284-285, 287, 323, 523-526 resilience of black families and, 527-528 social supports and, 512 socioeconomic status and, 527-530 and welfare dependence, 289, 290-291, 531-533 see also Marital status; Single-parent (female-headed) households Federal contracting, minority set-asides, 256 257, 314, 316 Federal Works Agency, 227 Female-headed families, see Single-parent (fe male-headed) families Fences, 101 Fertility trends, 9-10, 23, 24, 26, 411, 460, 511, 513-518, 528; see also Pregnancy and childbearing Fifth Dimension, 102 Fisk University, 173 Food Stamp program, 253, 254, 255, 277 n.2, 283, 289, 308, 531, 533 Football, see Sports Foreign policy, black participation on, 187, 251-253 Frazier, E. Franklin, 173 Friedman, Milton, 152 G Gershwin, George, 100 Gibson, Althea, 68 Gibson, Kenneth, 218 Gillespie, Dizzy, 100 Gillespie, John Birks, 168 Go Tell It on a Mountain, 167 Goldwater, Barry, 216, 218 Golf, see Sports Goode, Mal, 85 Goode, Wilson, 138 Gordy, Berry, 102, 180 Government agencies appointment of blacks executives in, 15, 243-244, 258 discrimination by, 131 see also specific Fancies and d~par~nts 597 Government jobs antidiscrimination measures for, 227, 256, 318 discrimination in, 131, 189 foreign service, 189, 244 growth in, 169-171 management/executive roles of blacks, 15- 16, 169, 243-244, 258, 490 occupational distributions of blacks in, 244 segregation in, 60 state and local level, 244, 489-491 see also Federal contracting Gravely, Samuel L., Jr., 69 Green, Paul, 99-100 Gutman, Herbert, 528 H Hamburg State Opera, 101 Hampton University, 182 Hansberry, Lorraine, 101, 167 Harlem Apollo Theatre, 171 black elected officials in, 63 Dance Theater of Harlem, 69 Renaissance of 1920s, 101, 192 Harvey, William, 182 Hastie, William H., 241 Hatcher, Richard G., 69 Hawkins, Coleman, 168 Hayes, Roland, 100 Haynes, Eugene, 100 He Who Would DO, 166 Head Start, see Preschool education Health Carl, 166 Health care in hospitals, 431~36, 439 immunization of children, 408-409 preventive, 22, 402, 404, 406, 408, 410 412, 414, 424, 433-434, 439, 440 professions, employment of blacks in, 21, 170-171, 394-395, 401, 436-439 quality of, 425, 429, 430, 432-433, 435 436, 439 sources of, 402, 430, 431-435, 439, 440 Health care access barriers to, 428-431, 434, 439~40 black church contribution to, 176 black organizational support of, 186, 187 of children, 430 of elderly blacks, 22, 425, 432, 433, 435, 440 election of blacks and, 250 equality in, 16, 394, 429 family planning services, 513 insurance coverage and, 21, 29, 421, 429, 430-431, 432, 439 Medicare/Medicaid and, 21, 253, 254, 272, 283, 290, 394, 396, 410, 425, 427, 429, 430, 431, 435, 436, 439, 523, 533 in 1930s, 58 prenatal care, 21, 29, 393, 400-404, 412, 430, 434, 439, 440, 514-515

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INDEX residential segregation and, 11 segregated hospitals, 58, 394 of working poor, 283, 290 Health risks and status accidents, 405, 411, 413, 415, 427 of adolescents and young adults, 51, 397, 411-417, 440, 462 of adults, 53, 397, 417-425 AIDS and, 22, 51, 396, 403, 413, 414, 418, 420-421, 440 anemia, 407, 408 cancer, 397, 396, 405, 411 415, 418 423-425, 427, 428, 440 cerebrovascular disease, 427, 428 of children, 397, 404 113, 419, 420, 430, 439 410 cirrhosis, 396, 397, 414, 421 congenital anomalies, 405 dental disease, 409-410 educational levels and, 40, 400, 404-405, 412 of elderly blacks, 21, 425-429, 440 family structure and, 412, 413 glaucoma, 411, 416-417 heart disease, 396, 397, 419, 427, 428 homicides, 21, 23, 396-397, 411, 413 416, 418-420, 427, 440, 457-460, 462-464, 478, 486, 498 hypertension, 396, 418, 422-423, 428 429, 440 . . , Improvements In, ~ infant mortality rates, 10, 21, 50, 393, 397, 401-404, 412, 526 infectious diseases, 399, 400, 408-409 418, 427, 440 injuries, 405, 411, 414, 415-416, 467, 469-470, 498 lead poisoning, 407-408 life expectancy of blacks, 21, 35, 40, 41 43, 44, 53, 395, 418, 427, 428 low birthweight infants, 399-404, 412, 440, 526 nutrition, 402, 406-408, 412, 526 poverty and, 26, 40, 394, 400, 401, 404 406, 408, 412-413, 439, 526 in pregnancy and infancy, 21, 22, 397 404, 411-413, 514 sexually transmitted diseases, 22, 413, 434, 440, 514, 515 sickle cell anemia, 418 substance abuse, 21-22, 26, 51, 400 403 410, 411, 413-415, 418, 419i22, 424, 434, 440, 462-463, 476 suicides, 396, 411, 413, 415-416, 419 Herring, James, 192 High school dropouts earnings and occupations of, 8, 320 measurement of, 337 minimum competency testing and, 362 rates, 8, 20, 26, 50, 337-338, 378, 379 residential segregation indices of, 144 sex differences in, 26, 338 socioeconomic status and, 10, 366, 368, 378 598 High school education/graduation and earnings, 276 and family income levels, 343-344 General Educational Development Test, 337 mathematics enrollment patterns, 350-351 military service by, 344 minimum competency testing for, 362-363 school desegregation and, 80, 168 trends in rates of, 20, 38, 39, 42, 44, 334- 338, 340 Higher Education Amendments of 1965 179 Highlander Folk School, 173 Himes, Chester, 101, 167 Hinderas, Natalie, 100 Hispanics AIDS risk in, 420 black support of cultural aspirations of, 214, 251 high school dropout rates, 50 political affiliation of, 216 political attitudes on government spending, 214 protection of election opportunities for, 233-234 residential segregation of, 13, 27, 50, 89- 90 Hooks, Benjamin, 69 Horton, Miles, 173 Housing access to, 49-50, 103 depreciation rules for, 257 low-income, 176, 257, 405 outmigration of whites and availability of, 89 and socioeconomic status, 144 146 substandard, 405 406 Housing desegregation attitudes of blacks and whites on, 118, 119, 121, 122, 126, 127, 130-131, 140-144, 151, 152, 200 effectiveness of, 258 governmental authority and, 58 legal measures for, 65, 70, 89, 208, 229 for military personnel, 70 see also Residential segregation .. . .. . . . blouse alscnmmatlon contemporary, 13, 49-50, 140 litigation, 185 during 1930s, 58 racial attitudes and, 49, 140-144 see also Residential segregation Houston, Whitney, 102 Howard University, 177, 438 Hughes, Henry, 101 Hughes, Langston, 101 If He Hollars Let Him Go, 167 Income and attitudes of blacks and whites, 136

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INDEX after civil rights movement, 7, 28, 40, 169, 274 before civil rights movement, 37, 164-165, 271, 272 and college education, 341-343 from criminal activities, 308 n.5 family, 17, 23-25, 169, 274-277, 282, 323, 341-343, 405, 426, 525, 535 and growth of black businesses, 182 and marital status, 529-530 middle class standards, 276 and mortality rates, 396, 405, 416 per capita, 17, 271, 272, 274, 287-288, 323 personal, 287-289 in professional sports, 98 regional differences in, 298 and residential segregation, 144-145 self-employment, 288-289 sources of, 287-289, 426 structure of family and, 25, 282, 525, 534 535 trends in, 3, 17, 23-25, 28, 42, 54, 274 275, 298, 323, 426 unearned, 289, 536 and wealth, 292 see also Public assistance programs; Socioec onomic status; Wages and salaries Infant mortality rates, 10, 21, 50, 393, 397 402, 404, 412, 526 Institute for Social Research, 122-124, 196 Institute of Medicine, 400 Institutions, see Organizations and institu tions; and specific instimnons Integration attitudes on, 116, 199 in classrooms and extracurricular activities, 81 defined, 51, 57, 81, 195 extent of, 57 Intermarriage, 31, 59, 122, 125, 130, 137 138, 152 194 Interstate Commerce Commission K antidiscnmination measures, 65 first black chairman, 69 Invisible Man, 101, 167 Jackson, Jesse, 153, 187, 214, 218, 246, 247, 252 Jackson, Joseph, 175 Jackson, Michael, 102 James, Daniel, Jr., 69' Jim Crow era, 58-60, 96 n.1, 168 Job Corps, 29, 254, 322-323 Job discrimination and segregation attitudes of blacks and whites on, 60, 122, 126, 130, 132, 135, 137-138, 156, 223 defined, 146 detection of, 147-148 earnings and, 146 147 extent of, 13, 146-148, 315 599 forms of, 146 in government jobs, 189 litigation, 147, 185, 227-229 measures of, 85, 146 in 1930s, 58 numerical remedies for, 227, 228; see also Affirmative action policies in professional sports, 58, 96-98, 139, 147-148 protest activities against, 187 seniority or merit systems and, 229, 319 trends, 147 against women, 146 see also Employment; Equal employment opportunity Job opportunities, social networks and, 49, 319-323 Job training Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, 254 effectiveness of, 16, 30, 322 Job Corps, 29, 254, 322-323 short-term, on-thejob programs, 322 Foe Turner's Come and Gone, 101 Johnson administration antidiscrimination measures during, 223 antipoverty policies of, 253, 255, 272, 309-310 minority business policies of, 256 Johnson, Charles, 166 Johnson, George E., 180 Johnson, James Weldon, 101 Johnson, John, 180 Johnson, William H., 392, 510 Johnson Products (hair care), 180 Johnson Publishing, 180 Joint Center for Political Studies, 190, 216 217 Joplin, Scott, 100 Jordan, Barbara, 69 Jordan, Vernon, 185, 210 Kennedy administration antidiscrimination measures during, 65, 70, 190, 223, 315-316 antipoverty policies, 153 Kentucky State University, 178 Kerner Commission, 4, 85, 89, 274 King, B. B., 102 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 175, 187, 229, 247 Knights of Peter Claver, 172 Korean War military desegregation during, 70 rates of participation in, 71 Ku Klux Klan, 65, 123, 231 Labor force participation of adolescents, 320 educational attainment and, 306, 307

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INDEX of men, 10, 26, 28, 304, 307-310, 534 public assistance and, 10 racial differences in, 302, 304 rates, defined, 301 trends in, 302, 307-310, 323 unemployment rates and, 307 of women, 276, 304, 306, 513, 535 Labor unions, see Unions/unionization Laue, James, 192 Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, 460 Lawrence, Jacob, 162, 206, 270, 330 Laws and legislation, see Antidiscnmination legislation and orders Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, 188 Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, 187 Lee, Ulysses, 191 Legal system differential treatment during 1930s, 58, 59, 453-454 employment of blacks in, 22, 48, 247-248, 454, 489-498 see also Criminal justice system Lewis, Henry, 69 Lewis, John, 173 Lewis, Reginald F., 182 Lincoln, C. Eric, 92-93 Lincoln Center Festival, 101 Lincoln University, 176, 178 Literature, see Arts and entertainment . . . ~ . . . . . _ltlgatlon ot c lscr~mmatlon cases Alexander v. Holmes, 75 Bakke decision, 227 Bob Jones University case, 226 Brawn v. Board of Education of Topeka, 65, 75, 80, 184, 208, 216, 225, 226, 366, 377, 394 City of Richmond v. J. A. Croson CO7 257 n.4 consent decrees, 319, 494 195 Fighters Local Union No. 1784 v. Stotts, 229 Green v. New Kant CO7 75 Gig v. Duke Paver CO7 228 Keyes v. Denver School Didn't No. 1, 75-76, 226 McClesky v. wimp, 474, 488 Millikin v. Brad~y, 80 Mor,gan v. Virginia, 220 by foreign service officers, 189 by multiracial coalitions, 187-188 by NAACP Legal Defense Fund, 184-185 pattern or practice suits, 228 Smith v. Allwn~ht, 183 standards of proof in, 224-229, 232-233 Swann v. Charlotte-Meckl~ur,g, 75 White v. Regester, 232-233 Llewellyn, J. Bruce, 182 Lloyd, Earl, 68 Locke, Alain, 192 Lucy, William, 88 600 M Magnet schools, 82 Malcolm X, 101 Manchild in the Raised Land, 167 Manpower Development and Training Pro gram, 182 Marine Corps, 71-72 Marital status age and, 512-514, 518, 521-522 childbearing and, 512, 515-518, 522, 528 529, 532 income and, 25, 529-530, 536, 537 and living arrangements of children, 519 523, 527 racial differences in, 25, 512, 519, 529-530 and scarcity of marriageable men, 25, 527, 537-540 sex differences in, 530 trends in, 23, 511, 512, 519-521 welfare dependence and, 531 Marriage, see Intermarriage; Marital status Marsalis, Wynton, 102 Marshall, Thurgood, 69, 241 Mass media bias in, 60, 131 coverage of civil rights movement, 87, 220, 223 job discrimination in, 85, 98 sportscastin~, 98 Maternity an] Infant Care projects, 402 Mathis, Johnny, 102 Matnor, Dorothy, 100 Mays, Benjamin, 84 McGovem, George, 255 McKay, Claude, 101 Medical Committee on Human Rights, 394 Medicare and Medicaid, 21, 253, 254, 272, 283, 290, 394, 396, 410, 425, 427, 429-431, 435, 436, 439, 523 Mehany Medical School, 173, 401, 438 Men absent fathers, 25, 291, 537 earnings of, 17, 26, 28, 53, 275, 294-297, 299-300, 307, 534, 536, 537 employment of, 26, 28, 275, 302-303, 306, 307-312, 324, 534, 537 labor force experiences of, 10, 26, 28, 304, 307-310 marital stability/status of, 25, 309, 519, 521, 529-530, 534, 537 with no earnings, 307-309, 311 special problems of, 26, 307-312 underground economy of, 307-308 n.5 wages of, 28, 275, 279, 296-297, 320-321 welfare dependence of, 307-310 Merchant Marine, treatment of blacks in, 66 Middle class black local governance and, 251 civil rights movement and, 7, 9, 63, 164, 168, 169 crimes against, 471 growth of, 3, 7, 9, 26, 36, 63, 164, 168, 169, 245, 324

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INDEX incomes of, 8, 17, 276-277 occupations of, 169 political participation by, 169, 214-215, 237, 245 racial consciousness and group identity in, 237 social stresses of, 7, 195-196 Migration and urbanization of blacks and artistic expression, 167-168 black literature on, 167 characteristics of migrants, 60-62 church response to, 174-175 and civil rights movement, 18, 35, 63, 221' 272 and crime rates, 459-460 economic conditions and, 18, 48, 294 and educational opportunities and attain- ments, 221, 518 effects of, 7, 18, 35, 42, 48, 222, 528 and employment, 272, 296 rates of, 60, 272, 279 and residential segregation, 88, 89 and wages, 221, 296-297 Military services Armed Forces Qualification Test, 73-74 attitudes of soldiers about race relations 63-64, 66, 74 attrition rates, 73-74 black literature on racism in, 167 combat casualties, 72-73 desegregation in, 11, 58, 64-65, 67, 70-71 discrimination in, 63, 64, 66-67, 74 female participation in, 71, 73-74, 311 345 leadership by blacks in, 68-69, 70-72 occupational roles in, 72 participation during World War II, 63-64 promotion rates, 73, 74 rates of participation in, 71-74, 311 345 resegregation of, 74 schooling entitlements through, 345 see also specific Ranches of she Miller, Kenneth Hayes, 56 Mills, Kerry, 100 Mills, Lev, 114 Minority Business Development Administra- tion, 256 Minority Enterprise Small Business Invest- ment Company, 182, 255 Mitchell, Parren, 255, 256, 257 Monk, Thelonious, 168 Montgomery, bus boycotts in, 222 Montgomery Improvement Association, 172 Morris, Aldon, 172 Morrison, Toni, 101 Mortality rates by causes of death, 396-397, 404, 405, 411,412,414,421,423,424,471 health care access and, 58 infant, 10, 21, 50, 393, 397-401, 412 maternal, 403 404, 412 of prisoners, 456 sex differences in, 395-396, 418 601 socioeconomic status and, 394, 424 Morton, Jelly Roll, 100 Motley, Willard, 102 Motown Industries, 180 Muhammed, Elijah, 193 My People, 166 Myrdal, Gunnar, 4, 195, 271, 456 N Nashville Christian Leadership Conference, 173 Nation of Islam, 193-194, 463, 464 National Advisory Commission on Civil Dis- orders, 489-490 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 348, 349, 352-354 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) cooperation with churches in community work, 175 financial resources of, 186 Legal Defense Fund, Inc., 184-185, 186 origin, purpose, and leadership of, 183 184 protest activities, 63, 221 repression of, by white organizations, 183 184 role in civil rights movement, 172, 183 184, 221 voter registration activities of, 190 National Bar Association, 172 National Black Health Providers' Task Force on Blood Pressure Education and Control, 423 National Black Leadership Forum, 187 National Black Leadership Roundtable, 187, 190 National Bureau of Economic Research, 320 National Coalition on Black Voter Participa- tion, 190 National Committee of Black Churchmen, 175 National Defense Education Act, 377 National Dental Association, 172 National Institute Against Prejudice and Vio- lence, 365 National Lawyers Guild, 172 National Medical Association, 166, 172, 394 National Opinion Research Center, 59-60, 118, 122-124 National Urban League community role of, 175, 185-186 financial resources, 186 leadership of, 185, 210, 255 Marshall Plan for the cities, 255 minority business support by, 255 role in civil rights movement, 172, 185- 186 voter registration activities of, 190 National Welfare Rights Organization, 254 Nairve Son, 101, 167 Navy, 68, 69, 71-72 Neal, Larry, 192

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INDEX The Negro Caravan, 166, 191-192 New York Stock Exchange, 69 Newspapers The Amsterdam News> 171 black-owned, 63, 166, 171-172 The Chino Defender, 171 circulation declines, 171-172 employment of blacks by, 85 The National Af~ro-A~ncan, 171 Pittsio?~r,gh Vintner, 63, 171 role in civil rights movement, 172 Niagara movement, 183 Nighthawk, Robert, 167 Nixon administration support of black businesses, 182, 256 No Day of Tnumph, 166 Nobel Peace Prizes, 68 Norman, Jessye, 100 o Occupational distributions before civil rights movement, 271 self-employment, 314-315 sex differences in, 273 trends in, 35, 273, 312-314, 438 of upper-class blacks, 169-171 see also Employment; Labor force participation Occupational segregation before civil rights movement, 165 in health occupations, 438 of middle and upper classes, 165, 169-171 in public service jobs, 165 see also Job discrimination and segregation Office for Civil Rights, 76, 83 Office of Contract Compliance Programs, 316-318 Office of Economic Opportunity, 255 Office of Minority Business Enterprise, 182, 255 Oliver, King, 100 O'Neill, Eugene, 99-100 Operation Big Vote, 190 Operation Breadbasket, 187 Operation PUSH, 187 Organizations and institutions authority and representation in, 103 and black identity, 191 freedmen's societies, 177 instruments of change in, 171-191 leadership structural changes, 14, 164 and military desegregation, 67 multiracial coalitions, 187-188 parallels to white organizations, 166, 171, 189 post-1960s, 186-191 of public officials, 190-191 recruitment and retention of black talent by, 14, 164, 168 role in civil rights movement, 172-173, 175, 245 strains on, 163-164 voluntary and professional associations, 29- 30, 172 see also Arts and entertainment, Black com- munity; Businesses; Caucus organiza- tions; Churches and religious life; Col- leges and universities; Sports; arid specific or,ganizat~s and institutions Ottley, Roi, 101 The Outsider, 167 p Parker, Charlie, 100, 168 Perry, Ann, 101, 167 Pierce, Joseph, 179-180 Poitier, Sidney, 68, 102 PoUce arrest decisions and patterns, 473-474, 496, 497 black officers, 480, 489-498 brutality and harassment, 14, 131, 185, 250, 258, 455 management positions of blacks in, 492 493 organization and strength of, 477-480 racial bias, 473-474, 478-479 review boards, 479 shootings of civilians, 477-478 Political participation and allocational status of blacks, 6, 13, 44, 48-49, 207-209, 214, 244-259 on antipoverty policy, 208, 246, 253-255 and candidacy of blacks, 122, 130, 138 139, 237, 247 and civil status of blacks, 13-14, 207, 221, 258, 259; see also Civil rights movement by coalitions of community leaders, 31, 187, 246 as convention delegates, 15, 217-218 Democratic Party, 16, 69, 216-218, 231, 252 democratic status of blacks and, 15, 48, 207, 208, 230-244, 258, 259; see also Election and appointment of blacks; Voter participation; Voting rights in federal policy process, 251-258 leadership training for, 188 and left-right labeling, 210 lobbying groups, 187, 218, 245, 247-248, 252; see also Caucus organizations local level, 222-223, 246-247, 249-251 of middle-class blacks, 169 on minority business policy, 255-257 by multiracial coalitions, 31, 187, 251 party affiliation, 16, 69, 216-218 political environment and, 237 pragmatism in, 209-215 pre-1960s, 37, 48, 194 presidential candidacy, 187 and race consciousness, 30-31, 194 Republican Party, 16, 216-218 on tax reform, 257-258 urbanization of blacks and, 48, 63 602

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voter registration organizations, 187, 190 see also Black nationalism; Caucus organiza- tions; Election and appointment of blacks; Litigation of discrimination cases; Protest activities Political values, 209-219; see also Attitudes of blacks and whites Population distributions in 1930s, 58 1939-1979, 35, 37, 42, 61, 426 of poor people, 283-284, 286-287 projected, 5-6, 425, 426, 547-548 racial composition of largest U.S. cities 62-63, 78-79, 89 racial composition of prison populations, 461 see also Migration and urbanization of blacks Porgy and Bess, 100 Poverty age and, 288, 404, 413; see also Children after civil rights movement, 168, 274 before civil rights movement, 164, 271, 272 culture-of-poverty hypothesis and, 10, 25, 540-544 current conditions, 35, 282-287 demographic factors in, 282, 288 economic conditions and, 8, 25, 296 educational attainment and, 26, 50, 288, 523, 526 employment and, 26, 50, 283, 288, 319 523, 526 family structure and, 17, 25, 275-275, 279-282, 284-285, 287, 323, 512, 523-526, 529 geographic factors in, 35, 50, 283-287 288 and health status and risks, 26, 50, 283, 394, 400, 401, 404-406, 408, 412 413, 439, 523 odds of being in, 278-280 and opportunities, 3, 4, 9, 27, 29, 50-51, 91, 319-321, 523 and political participation, 208, 234-235 246, 253-255 and public assistance, 169, 254; see also Public assistance, Welfare dependence and residential segregation, 144, 286-287, 288 strains on black community, 163 thresholds, 8, 275, 277 n.2, 426 trends in rates of, 3, 8, 17-18, 23-24, 26 28, 36, 45, 50, 274-275, 277-282 287, 319, 323, 394 working poor, 283, 288 Powell, Adam Clayton, 63 Powell, Bud, 168 Pregnancy and childbearing by adolescents, 23, 26, 401, 403, 410-413, 434, 440, 515-516, 526, 532 age-specific rates of, 26, 515-516 marital status and, 515-516, 517-518 and maternal mortality, 403-404, 412 603 INDEX prenatal care during, 400, 402-403, 433- 434, 514-515 see also Fertility trends Preschool education and academic achievement, 19, 333, 346- 348, 355, 377 Chapter I programs, 346, 347-348, 377 and educational attainment, 333, 347, 377 enrollment trends, 332-334 growth in, 333 Head Start program, 19, 29, 254, 332, 346, 347-348, 356, 377, 439 and IQ gains, 347-348 longitudinal studies of, 347 social conditions and, 333-334 Sustaining Effects Study of Compensatory and Elementary Education, 347 teacher expectations, characteristics, and behavior and, 356-357 Title I, see Chapter I programs President's Committee on Equality of Treat- ment and Opportunity in the Armed Services, 67 President's Committee on Fair Employment, 63 President's Committee on Government Em- ployment Policy, 65 Price, Leontyne, 100 Prince Hall Masons, 166, 172 Pritchard, Robert, 100 Private clubs, segregation of, 84, 229 Protest activities anti-eviction campaigns, 220 on apartheid in South Africa, 187 arts and entertainment as media for, 100- 101, 166-167 and attitudes of whites on race, 153 boycotts and picketing, 187, 190, 214, 220-221, 222 civil disobedience campaign against the church involvement in, 91 freedom rides, 91, 173 growth during World War II, 63-64 importance of, 247 "Jobs for Negroes" campaign, 220 litigation of demonstration rights, 185 local level, 222-223, 246-247 marches and demonstrations, 63, 86, 91, 173, 223 nationalist sentiments in, 218 political effects of, 70, 222-223 rent strikes, 220 sit-ins, 91, 173, 190, 222 training as civil rights organizers, 173 unionization of tenant farmers and share- croppers, 220 can welfare cutbacks, 247, 254 see also Litigation of discrimination cases Public accommodations desegregation airport facilities, 65 antidiscrimination measures, 65, 70, 84 139, 208

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INDEX attitudes on, 122, 126, 127, 137, 140, 223 bus terminals, 65 congressional support for, 223 effectiveness of, 13, 258 and harassment of blacks, 13, 140 litigation and protest and, 185, 221 for military personnel, 70 Public assistance benefit levels, 289, 310, 531, 533 and culture of poverty, 10, 540-544 disability payments, 30, 310 effectiveness of, 254, 258, 283, 309-310 eligibility standards, 289, 310 human capital development programs, 29, 253-254, 258, 309 means-tested cash assistance, 16, 30, 253, 254, 258, 531-533 means-tested in-kind benefits, 16, 253, 254, 258, 277 n.2, 402, 406, 531 labor supply effects of, 290, 309-310 and marital instability, 310, 531 negative income tax, 30, 290, 531-533 participation in, 283, 309-310; see also Wel fare dependence social insurance, 30, 253 working poor's participation in, 283 see also Job training; and specific programs Public Health Service, national health objec tives, 397 Public Works Administration, 227 Pulitzer Prizes, 66, 68, 101 R Race, meaning of, 564-566 Race relations and antiamalgamation doctrine, 137 busing and, 84 changes over time in, 40-41, 57, 219, 318-319 contemporary, 138-148, 186 defined, 47 and growth of black businesses, 182 historical legacy for, 5, 42 migration and urbanization and, 48, 60-63 in military services, 6~67 preferences of blacks and white for, 5, 42, 136-138, 194, 196-200, 219; see also Attitudes of blacks and whites resistance to social change and, 6 school desegregation and, 19, 48, 80-81, 84, 103 socioeconomic status and, 3, 5, 11, 40-41, 47-48 World War II and, 60 Racism in attitudes of whites, 59-60, 148-149, 155 black attitudes on, 197-199 dulling impact on blacks, 167 meaning of, 566 567 Rainbow Coalition, Inc., 187 A Raisin in the Sun, 101, 167 Randolph, A. Philip, 63, 70 Randolph, Bernard P., 71 Rangel, Charles, 253, 257 Reagan admin~smtion antipoverty program cuts during, 254 appointment of blacks during, 241-244 attitudes of blacks on, 136, 210, 218 minority business policies, 256-257 South African policies, 252, 253 tax reforms, 257 Reconstruction era, 210 Redding, Saunders, 101, 166 Reed, Ishmael, 101 Religion, see Churches and religious life R~de270us ninth America, 166 Research needs, 567-569 Residential segregation attitudes of blacks and whites on, 12, 120, 121-124, 126, 130-131, 133, 137 138, 140-144, 151, 155-156, 194, 200 changes since 1960, 58 and church/worship segregation, 92, 94 and educational attainment, 11, 14~145, 315 explanations for, 50, 140-141 governmental authority and, 58 and health care, 11 indices of, 13, 27, 85, 89, 144 legal enforcement of, 88 in metropolitan areas, 12-13, 27, 78-79, 89-91, 103, 144 migration of blacks and, 88-89 by municipal ordinances and restrictive cov enants, 88 in neighborhoods, 90-91 open housing laws and, 89 and opportunity structure for blacks, 9, 27, 29, 50-51, 91, 319-321 of other minorities compared to blacks, 13, 27, 50, 89-90, 144-146 and racial isolation, 13, 90-91, 164 regional differences in, 89, 90-91 and school desegregation, 11, 76-80, 83, 225, 226-227 and socioeconomic status, 26, 111 146, 164, 283-284, 286-287 suburbanization of blacks and, 89 unwritten rules for, 49-50, 88, 141 Retail establishments, harassment of blacks in, 140 Reverse discrimination, 151, 182 Richard, Little, 102 Richards, Lloyd, 101 Richie, Lionel, 102 Riots attitudes of blacks about, 199 by blacks (1960s), 4, 31, 131, 186, 199, 477, 479, 489 distrust and suspicion of whites and, 31, 131 following King's assassination, 229 police shootings of blacks in Miami (1980s) and, 49, 479 by whites, 99 604

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INDEX Roach, Max, 168 Robeson, Paul, 100 Robinson, Jackie, 66, 68 Robinson, Roscoe, Jr., 69 Roosevelt administration antidiscrimination measures during, 63 86-87 antipoverty policies, 153 political participation of blacks during, 216, 241 Roosevelt, Eleanor, 100 Rustin, Bayard, 245 S Savannah, school desegregation in, 226 School desegregation and ability grouping, 82-83, 356 and academic performance, 19, 80, 351 352, 373-374, 379 attitudes of blacks and whites on, 11-13 80-81, 83-84, 118, 119, 121-122, 125, 126, 127, 130, 131, 137-138 194, 195-196 and black participation at decision-making levels, 83 busing and, 75, 82, 83, 126, 226 and categorical aid programs, 82 and discipline practices, 82, 83, 103 and educational attainment of blacks, 80, 81, 84, 168, 315 effects of, 80-81, 83-84, 168, 321, 379 elementary schools, 76 enforcement of, 225-227 on federal property, 70-71 financial sanctions and, 75 freedom-of-choice plans, 75, 82, 225 and integration, 11, 13, 81 and interracial contacts, 82 governmental authority and 58 litigation, 65, 75-76, 184, i85, 225-227 magnet schools, 82 metropolitan area plans, 76, 80, 226 military desegregation and, 70-71 and minority enrollments, 77 private or church-affiliated schools, 226 proportionate pupil assignments, 75, 226 rates of, 75-76, 103 redistricting, 82 regional differences in, 75-77, 126, 225, 226 and resegregation, 81-83, 378, 379 residential segregation and, 76-80, 83, 225-227, 321 resistance against, 75 school pairings, 82 and social stresses, 195-196 suburban migration of whites and, 76 and tracking of students, 82, 103, 356 trends in, 76-80 School segregation indices of, 85 in 1930s, 3, 37, 58-59 and quality of education, 3, 80, 366 605 residential segregation and, 88 in sports, 95-96 Schuller, Gunther, 101 Searles, Joseph L., 69 Second Morrill Act, 179 Secondary schools black enrollments in, 76 desegregation of, 76, 80 sports participation of blacks in, 95-97 see also High school dropouts; High school education /graduation Segregation pervasiveness during 1930s, 37, 58-60 social structure prior to civil rights move- ment, 35, 48, 164-166 Self-identity, see Black identity Sifford, Charlie, 68 Simply Heavenly' 101 Single-parent (female-headed) families causes of, 512, 528, 537 crime by adolescents in, 476-477 earnings of, 25, 276, 426, 525 living arrangements of, 25, 531, 532 outcomes of children in, 525-526 political participation of, 235 poverty in, 10, 16, 17, 26, 275-277, 279- 282, 284-285, 287, 512, 523-526, 529 prevalence of, 23, 36, 45, 404, 512, 523 proportion of blacks in, 280-281, 512, 524 support from absent fathers, 25, 30, 291, 525, 537 welfare dependence of, 10, 26, 30, 289, 290, 310, 531 Slavery/slaves, 5, 37, 94-95, 220, 526-527 Small Business Administration, 255, 256 Social life, black participation since 1945, 91 103; see also Arts and entertainment; Churches and religious life; Sports Social relations attitudes on social contact/distance, 95, 116, 117, 121-125, 151-153, 155 close personal contacts, 49, 58, 116, 123, 136, 137, 139, 148, 155 extent of intergroup contact and attitudes, 49, 81, 83, 116, 117, 121, 137, 142- 143, 148 identity tensions created by, 195-196 under Jim Crow, 58-60 since 1945, 64-88 school desegregation and, 80-81, 103 see also Attitudes of blacks and whites; Race relations Social Security, 16, 30, 253, 282, 289, 425, 426, 439, 536-537 Social structure and church/worship segregation, 92 after civil rights movement, 36, 168-177 before civil rights movement, 40, 16~168 and cultural life, 163, 166-168; see also Culture Nation of Islam and, 193 and political participation, 245

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INDEX residential segregation and, 164 segregated society, 164-166 see also Churches and religious life; Middle class; Poverty; Upper class Socioeconomic status and academic achievement, 19, 351, 355, 365-366, 368-370, 378 assessment of, 45 and attitudes of blacks and whites, 136, 155, 200, 371-373 and crime, 11, 23, 453, 454, 459, 464, 465, 467, 471, 481 486, 498 determinants of, 47-48 and educational attainment, 10, 19, 366, 368, 371-373 family structure and, 527-530 and health, 40, 401, 413, 428 housing and, 50, 144-146; see also Residen tial segregation improvements in, 4, 6, 36-37, 43 and literacy, 352-353 and mortality rates, 394 and socialization of children, 371-372 and voter participation, 10, 216-217, 230 231, 235-236, 249 see also Economic status South Africa, apartheid protests by U.S. or- ganizations, 187, 252, 253 Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 172, 173, 175, 187 Southern Poverty Law Center, 188 Southern Regional Council, 187-188, 190- 191 Sports authority and control positions of blacks in, 96-97, 103 black baseball leagues, 171 desegregation of, 96, 171 discrimination in, 58, 95-98, 139, 147- 148 entrance requirements to major leagues, 98 female participation in, 96 high school and college, 95-97 income differences in, 98 institutional changes in, 171 -occupational trends in, 171 professional, 96-97 segregation in, 95-96 stereotypes in, 97-98 Status, meaning of, 560-561; see also Eco- nomic status, Social structure; ~ . . ~oaoeconomlc status Stepp, Marc, 88 Stereotypes/stereotyping of adolescent blacks, 49, 321-322, 454 attributions of criminality, 454 in entertainment, 99, 102 in sports, 97-98 by teachers, 357 Stokes, Carl B., 69 Stravinsky, Igor, 101 The Stat, 167 A Start in Brooklyn, 166 Strode, Woody, 66, 68 Student National Medical Association, 394 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commit tee (SNCC), 173 Supplemental Food Program for Women, In fants, and Children, 402, 406 Supplemental Security Income, 426 Supremes, 102 Survey Research Center, 343 Surveys Current Population Survey, 38, 40-41, 234, 294, 333-338, 430 focus on whites, 115-116 Gallup, 122-124, 176, 216, 223 General Social Surveys, 93-94, 127, 132, 134-136, 152, 196-197 High School and Beyond Survey, 342, 351, 368 Higher Education General Information Survey, 177 Institute for Social Research, 122-124, 196 Joint Nutrition Monitoring Committee, 407 Korn/Ferry International, 248 National Access Survey, 411 National Black Election Study, 219, 234, 237, 255 National Crime Survey, 466 National Dental Caries Prevalence Survey, 409 National Health Survey, 421 National Opinion Research Center, 118 121, 122-124, 463 National Survey of Black Americans, 132, 136, 196-197 Nutrition Surveillance Annual Summary, 407 Occupational Changes in a Generation, 71 Scientific American reports on, 118-121, 124, 125-126 social pressures for "correct" answers, 120 see also Attitudes of blacks and whites T Taconic Foundation, 190-191 Tax reform, 257-258 Tennessee State College, 172 Tennis, see Sports They Seek a (pity, 167 Thriller' 102 Tolson, Melvin, 166 TransAfrica, 187, 252 Transportation antidiscrimination measures in, 65 desegregation, 118, 119, 120, 137 see also Public accommodations desegregation Transportation segregation attitudes on, 118, 119, 120, 137 Jim Crow laws, 58-59 litigation and protest of, 221 Trayes, Edward, 85 606

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INDEX Trotter, William Monroe, 183 Truman administration, antidiscrimination measures dunng, 64-65, 67, 70, 315 Tubman, Harriet, 66 U Uncle Tom* Children, 101 Unemployment age and, 320 and child abuse and neglect, 410 economic trends and, 296 homicide and, 419 insurance benefits, 283, 308 and medical indigency, 283 and migration and urbanization of blacks, 272 and military services participation, 74 periods of joblessness, 8, 320 and poverty, 283 sex differences in, 7, 299, 306 structural, 253 trends in, 7, 17, 35, 45, 302, 323 and voter participation, 238 vulnerability of blacks to, 283, 343 Unions/unionization American Federation of Labor (AFL), 86, 87 American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees, 88 apprenticeship programs, 87 auto workers, 88, 296 auxiliaries for blacks, 86 Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, 63 building and construction trades, 86, 88 Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), 86, 87, 172 desegregation of, 86-87 leadership/governance by blacks in, 87-88 machinists, 85-86 percentage of blacks in, 88 railroad brotherhoods, 86 role in civil rights movement 175 . . . . segregation and d~scr~rrunation in, 60, 85 88 steelworkers, 296 of tenant farmers and sharecroppers, 220 United Auto Workers, 88 United Negro College Fund, 179 Universities, see Colleges and universities Upper class group identity and racial pride in, 164 growth of, 23, 164, 186 migration to suburbs, 14, 163 occupational distribution of, 169-171 participation in black community, 14, 164 political participation of, 214, 230-231 wealth in assets, 293-294 Urban Coalition, 186 U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 49, 65, 232, 244 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development enforcement powers of, 229 . . ~ . mvestlgatlon ot housing discrimination, 141-143 Objectives for the Nation, 440 participation of blacks in, 68 U.S. Department of Justice antidiscrimination measures, 65 efforts to end busing, 226 see also Criminal justice system U.S. Department of State, Concerned Black Foreign Service Officers, 189 U.S. Supreme Court, 69; see also Litigation of discrimination cases V Vietnam War casualties rates, 72-73 rates of participation in, 71 Violence attitudes on, 133, 144, 219 Birmingham crisis, 223 collusion of legal authorities in, 59, 65, 67, 131, 185 in military service, 67 in 1930s, 59 1955-1970, 65, 223, 274 protest activities and, 223 for residential desegregation, 88, 144 in schools, 51 in Selma, Alabama, 223 substance abuse and, 51, 462 163 voter intimidation, 231 see also Biots The V'sitatzon' 101 Voter Education Project, 190-191 Voter participation civic duty and, 231 determinants of, 230-238 economic conditions and, 238 measures for minimizing, 231-232 in national primaries, 231-232 party allegiance and, 231 political efficacy and, 230 rates of, 3, 13, 15, 35, 39-40, 42, 43, 230 23~235, 237, 238, 258 regional differences in, 231, 233, 235-238 registration, 39, 183, 187, 190-191, 232- 233, 237 sex differences in, 235 socioeconomic status and, 10, 230-231 234-235 voter education activity and, 237-238 Voting rights 607 enforcement of, 225, 233-234 federal support for, 223, 232 grandfather Causes and, 231 legislation ensuring, 65, 184, 188, 208, 223, 225, 231-232 literacy tests and, 65, 231, 232 litigation on, 185, 232-233 multiracial activities supporting, 187-188 opposition to, 231-232 poll taxes, 231 in unions, 87-88

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INDEX Voting Rights Act of 1965, 65, 184, 188, 208, 223, 225, 230, 232, 233, 238 W Wages and salaries hourly rates, 16-17, 28, 295, 297, 323 of men, 28, 275, 279, 296-297, 320-321 migration and urbanization and, 221, 296 sex differences in, 295 trends in, 8, 16-17, 274, 295, 297, 299, 321, 323 weekly, 7, 16-17, 295, 297, 299 of women, 7, 17, 294-295, 297-301, 323, 525, 535-536 Walker, Alice, 101 Walker, George, 100 Walker, Margaret, 101, 166 Wallace, C. Everett, 182 Walton, Hanes, 209, 218 Warfield, William, 100 Warren, Earl, 40, 42 Warwick, Dionne, 102 Washingon, D.C. Howard Theater, 171 march on (1964), 223 threatened march on (1941), 63, 86 Washingon, Harold, 218, 247 Washingon, Kenny, 66, 68 Waters, Muddy, 167 Watts, Andre, 100 Weaver, Robert C., 68 Welfare dependence antipoverty policy and, 253-254 attitudes about, 122, 150, 212-213, 254 255 by blacks in large cities, 3, 62, 247 culture of poverty hypothesis, 10, 25, 540 544 educational attainment and, 290 family structure and, 10, 26, 289, 290 291, 310, 531-533 and fertility rates, 10 job search and workfare programs and, 291 period of, 289-290 of prime-age black men, 307-310 raaal differences in, 254, 289 and work behavior, 10, 290, 309, 310, 312 y work experience and, 290 see also Poverty Wells, James Lesesne, 452 West Virginia State College, 178 Wharton, Clifton R., Jr., 69 Wheatley, Phyllis, 101 608 White backlash issue, 119-120 White Citizens' Councils, 65, 75, 183 White supremacy, 60 White, Bill, 97 White, Walter, 85, 183 Wilberforce University, 176 Wilkins, RDY, 183 Williams, Bert, 99 Williams, Edie, N., 217 Williams, Joe, 167 Williamson, John Lee, 167 Wilson, August, 101 Wilson, Ellis, 34 Withers, Lawrence, 100 Women earnings of, 7, 17, 294-295, 297-301, 323, 525, 535-536 employment of, 7, 17, 272, 299, 302, 303-306, 312-314, 320-321, 535 incomes of, 298 labor force experiences of, 276, 304, 306, 513, 535 life expectancy of, 43, 395-396, 418, 427 marital status of, 519-520, 522-523, 529 530, 535 military service by, 71, 344-345 mortality rates of, 395-396, 397, 418 occupational differences, 312-314 political participation by, 235 in professional/managerial positions, 312 313 sports participation by, 96-97 see also- Pregnancy and childbearing; Single parent (female-headed) families; and specific women Woodruff, Hale, 166, 192 Work experience, and welfare dependence, 290 World War II black migrations to cities dunng, 88-89 and economic growth, 294 effects on black participation, 60, 63 race relations in military services during, 66-67 rates of participation in, 71 Wright, Richard, 101, 167 Yerby, Frank, 102, 166 Young, Andrew, 69 Young, Whitney, Jr., 185, 255 Youth, see Adolescents and young adults; Children